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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 337: 108966, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202297

RESUMO

Meat and meat products are perishable products that require the use additives to prevent the spoilage by foodborne microorganisms and pathogenic bacteria. Current trends for products without synthetic preservatives have led to the search for new sources of antimicrobial compounds. Essential oils (EOs), which has been used since ancient times, meet these goals since their effectiveness as antimicrobial agents in meat and meat products have been demonstrated. Cinnamon, clove, coriander, oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme, among others, have shown a greater potential to control and inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Although EOs are natural products, their quality must be evaluated before being used, allowing to grant the Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) classification. The bioactive compounds (BAC) present in their composition are linked to their activity, being the concentration and the quality of these compounds very important characteristics. Therefore, a single mechanism of action cannot be attributed to them. Extraction technique plays an important role, which has led to improve conventional techniques in favour of green emerging technologies that allow to preserve better target bioactive components, operating at lower temperatures and avoiding as much as possible the use of solvents, with more sustainable processing and reduced energy use and environmental pollution. Once extracted, these compounds display greater inhibition of gram-positive than gram-negative bacteria. Membrane disruption is the main mechanism of action involved. Their intense characteristics and the possible interaction with meat components make that their application combined with other EOs, encapsulated and being part of active film, increase their bioactivity without modifying the quality of the final product.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Filmes Comestíveis , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Carne/microbiologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6106, 2020 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257684

RESUMO

Pathogens able to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) induce long-term neurological sequelae and death. Understanding how neurotropic pathogens bypass this strong physiological barrier is a prerequisite to devise therapeutic strategies. Here we propose an innovative model of infection in the developing Drosophila brain, combining whole brain explants with in vivo systemic infection. We find that several mammalian pathogens are able to cross the Drosophila BBB, including Group B Streptococcus (GBS). Amongst GBS surface components, lipoproteins, and in particular the B leucine-rich Blr, are important for BBB crossing and virulence in Drosophila. Further, we identify (V)LDL receptor LpR2, expressed in the BBB, as a host receptor for Blr, allowing GBS translocation through endocytosis. Finally, we show that Blr is required for BBB crossing and pathogenicity in a murine model of infection. Our results demonstrate the potential of Drosophila for studying BBB crossing by pathogens and identify a new mechanism by which pathogens exploit the machinery of host barriers to generate brain infection.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/microbiologia , Infecções/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Encéfalo , Drosophila , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Endocitose/fisiologia , Larva , Masculino , Camundongos , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares , Streptococcus agalactiae/patogenicidade , Virulência
4.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(4): 2322, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138475

RESUMO

Respiratory droplets emitted during speech can transmit oral bacteria and infectious viruses to others, including COVID-19. Loud speech can generate significantly higher numbers of potentially infectious respiratory droplets. This study assessed the effect of speech volume on respiratory emission of oral bacteria as an indicator of potential pathogen transmission risk. Loud speech (average 83 dBA, peak 94 dBA) caused significantly higher emission of oral bacteria (p = 0.004 compared to no speech) within 1 ft from the speaker. N99 respirators and simple cloth masks both significantly reduced emission of oral bacteria. This study demonstrates that loud speech without face coverings increases emission of respiratory droplets that carry oral bacteria and may also carry other pathogens such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Exposição por Inalação , Boca/microbiologia , Respiração , Acústica da Fala , Aerossóis , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória
5.
Curr Biol ; 30(19): R1124-R1130, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022254

RESUMO

Since the first recognition that infectious microbes serve as the causes of many human diseases, physicians and scientists have sought to understand and control their spread. For the past 150+ years, these 'microbe hunters' have learned to combine epidemiological information with knowledge of the infectious agent(s). In this essay, I reflect on the evolution of microbe hunting, beginning with the history of pre-germ theory epidemiological studies, through the microbiological and molecular eras. Now in the genomic age, modern-day microbe hunters are combining pathogen whole-genome sequencing with epidemiological data to enhance epidemiological investigations, advance our understanding of the natural history of pathogens and drivers of disease, and ultimately reshape our plans and priorities for global disease control and eradication. Indeed, as we have seen during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, the role of microbe hunters is now more important than ever. Despite the advances already made by microbial genomic epidemiology, the field is still maturing, with many more exciting developments on the horizon.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
6.
Life Sci ; 263: 118579, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058913

RESUMO

Bacteria can induce significant alteration in the cell transcriptome and develop many strategies to modify immune signaling for its survival. In recent years, a new class of regulatory RNAs, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), has been demonstrated to play an essential role in host gene expression. Growing literature indicate that lncRNAs function as positive or negative effectors on antibacterial immunity. On the one hand, the host regulates immune-related genes at epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional levels by lncRNAs, thereby protecting itself from pathogen invasion. On the other hand, bacteria can manipulate the host signaling pathways by regulating the host lncRNAs to escape immune clearance. In addition, some bacteria even produce lncRNAs, which are involved in the pathogenic process of pathogens. Some dysregulated lncRNAs during bacterial infections can be used as a potential diagnostic marker for infection. Understanding of gene expression regulation through lncRNAs helps illustrate bacterial pathogenesis. Here, we summarize the functions of lncRNAs and current advances of lncRNAs in different bacterial infections and look forward to the future research orientation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/patogenicidade , Infecções Bacterianas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(4): L675-L682, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877221

RESUMO

Mucosal surfaces are constantly exposed to a microbiome consisting of microorganisms that heavily influence human immunity and health. In the lung these microorganisms consist of bacteria, viruses, and fungi and exist in a relatively low biomass state. Bacterial communities of the lung modulate local inflammation and correlate with changes in pulmonary physiology and clinical outcomes in patients with lung disease. Instrumental to this progress has been the study of these bacterial communities in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, a fatal and progressive disease culminating in respiratory failure. Key pathophysiological mechanisms in pulmonary fibrosis include recurrent idiopathic alveolar epithelial injury, unchecked collagen deposition, mucociliary dysfunction due to muc5b overexpression, hypoxia, and altered host defense. These key mechanisms and their related consequences promote severe progressive architectural lung destruction and loss of local homeostasis. As such, pulmonary fibrosis is an appropriate target disease for the study of the lung microbiome. Herein, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the role of the lung microbiome in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. We highlight fundamental clinical observations and mechanistic insights and identify crucial areas for further discovery science. An improved understanding of how the lung microbiome acts to influence outcomes in patients with pulmonary fibrosis will lead to enhanced therapies for this devastating lung disease.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia
8.
ACS Nano ; 14(10): 13161-13171, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975412

RESUMO

The regeneration of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) is of critical importance because of the severe shortage of FFRs during large-scale outbreaks of respiratory epidemics, such as COVID-19. Comprehensive experiments regarding FFR regeneration were performed in this study with model bacteria to illustrate the decontamination performance of the regeneration processes. The results showed that it is dangerous to use a contaminated FFR without any microbe inactivation treatment because the bacteria can live for more than 8 h. The filtration efficiency and surface electrostatic potential of 75% ethanol-treated FFRs were significantly reduced, and a most penetrating particle size of 200 nm was observed. Steam and microwave irradiation (MWI) showed promising decontamination performances, achieving 100% inactivation in 90 and 30 min, respectively. The filtration efficiencies of steam-treated FFRs for 50 and 100 nm particles decreased from 98.86% and 99.51% to 97.58% and 98.79%, respectively. Ultraviolet irradiation (UVI) effectively inactivated the surface bacteria with a short treatment of 5 min and did not affect the filtration performance. However, the UV dose reaching different layers of the FFP2 mask sample gradually decreased from the outermost layer to the innermost layer, while the model bacteria on the second and third layers could not be killed completely. UVI+MWI and steam were recommended to effectively decontaminate the used respirators and still maintain the respirators' filtration efficiency. The present work provides a comprehensive evaluation for FFR regeneration in terms of the filtration efficiencies for 50-500 nm particles, the electrostatic properties, mechanical properties, and decontamination effects.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos da radiação , Desinfecção/métodos , Máscaras/microbiologia , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/microbiologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Desinfecção/normas , Etanol/toxicidade , Filtração , Humanos , Máscaras/normas , Micro-Ondas , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/normas , Vapor , Têxteis/microbiologia , Têxteis/normas , Raios Ultravioleta
9.
Nat Chem Biol ; 16(10): 1043-1051, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943788

RESUMO

Many bacterial pathogens secrete virulence factors, also known as effector proteins, directly into host cells. These effectors suppress pro-inflammatory host signaling while promoting bacterial infection. A particularly interesting subset of effectors post-translationally modify host proteins using novel chemistry that is not otherwise found in the mammalian proteome, which we refer to as 'orthogonal post-translational modification' (oPTM). In this Review, we profile oPTM chemistry for effectors that catalyze serine/threonine acetylation, phosphate ß-elimination, phosphoribosyl-linked ubiquitination, glutamine deamidation, phosphocholination, cysteine methylation, arginine N-acetylglucosaminylation, and glutamine ADP-ribosylation on host proteins. AMPylation, a PTM that could be considered orthogonal until only recently, is also discussed. We further highlight known cellular targets of oPTMs and their resulting biological consequences. Developing a complete understanding of oPTMs and the host cell processes they hijack will illuminate critical steps in the infection process, which can be harnessed for a variety of therapeutic, diagnostic, and synthetic applications.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Virulência
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1267: 101-115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894479

RESUMO

Pathogenic bacteria colonize or disseminate into cells and tissues by inducing large-scale remodeling of host membranes. The physical phenomena underpinning these massive membrane extension and deformation are poorly understood. Invasive strategies of pathogens have been recently enriched by the description of a spectacular mode of opening of large transendothelial cell macroaperture (TEM) tunnels correlated to the dissemination of EDIN-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus via a hematogenous route or to the induction of gelatinous edema triggered by the edema toxin from Bacillus anthracis. Remarkably, these highly dynamic tunnels close rapidly after they reach a maximal size. Opening and closure of TEMs in cells lasts for hours without inducing endothelial cell death. Multidisciplinary studies have started to provide a broader perspective of both the molecular determinants controlling cytoskeleton organization at newly curved membranes generated by the opening of TEMs and the physical processes controlling the dynamics of these tunnels. Here we discuss the analogy between the opening of TEM tunnels and the physical principles of dewetting, stemming from a parallel between membrane tension and surface tension. This analogy provides a broad framework to investigate biophysical constraints in cell membrane dynamics and their diversion by certain invasive microbial agents.


Assuntos
Bactérias/patogenicidade , Membrana Celular/microbiologia , Membrana Celular/patologia , Células Endoteliais/microbiologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Molhabilidade , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Edema/metabolismo , Edema/microbiologia , Edema/patologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Tensão Superficial
11.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 166: 112471, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777726

RESUMO

The infection and spread of pathogens (e.g., COVID-19) pose an enormous threat to the safety of human beings and animals all over the world. The rapid and accurate monitoring and determination of pathogens are of great significance to clinical diagnosis, food safety and environmental evaluation. In recent years, with the evolution of nanotechnology, nano-sized graphene and graphene derivatives have been frequently introduced into the construction of biosensors due to their unique physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. The combination of biomolecules with specific recognition capabilities and graphene materials provides a promising strategy to construct more stable and sensitive biosensors for the detection of pathogens. This review tracks the development of graphene biosensors for the detection of bacterial and viral pathogens, mainly including the preparation of graphene biosensors and their working mechanism. The challenges involved in this field have been discussed, and the perspective for further development has been put forward, aiming to promote the development of pathogens sensing and the contribution to epidemic prevention.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Grafite , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Grafite/química , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Nanotecnologia , Vírus/genética , Vírus/patogenicidade
12.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008935, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841233

RESUMO

Bacterial symbionts bring a wealth of functions to the associations they participate in, but by doing so, they endanger the genes and genomes underlying these abilities. When bacterial symbionts become obligately associated with their hosts, their genomes are thought to decay towards an organelle-like fate due to decreased homologous recombination and inefficient selection. However, numerous associations exist that counter these expectations, especially in marine environments, possibly due to ongoing horizontal gene flow. Despite extensive theoretical treatment, no empirical study thus far has connected these underlying population genetic processes with long-term evolutionary outcomes. By sampling marine chemosynthetic bacterial-bivalve endosymbioses that range from primarily vertical to strictly horizontal transmission, we tested this canonical theory. We found that transmission mode strongly predicts homologous recombination rates, and that exceedingly low recombination rates are associated with moderate genome degradation in the marine symbionts with nearly strict vertical transmission. Nonetheless, even the most degraded marine endosymbiont genomes are occasionally horizontally transmitted and are much larger than their terrestrial insect symbiont counterparts. Therefore, horizontal transmission and recombination enable efficient natural selection to maintain intermediate symbiont genome sizes and substantial functional genetic variation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/patogenicidade , Bivalves/microbiologia , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genoma Bacteriano , Recombinação Genética , Simbiose/genética , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bivalves/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237780, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845922

RESUMO

Modeling the behavior of zoonotic pandemic threats is a key component of their control. Many emerging zoonoses, such as SARS, Nipah, and Hendra, mutated from their wild type while circulating in an intermediate host population, usually a domestic species, to become more transmissible among humans, and this transmission route will only become more likely as agriculture and trade intensifies around the world. Passage through an intermediate host enables many otherwise rare diseases to become better adapted to humans, and so understanding this process with accurate mathematical models is necessary to prevent epidemics of emerging zoonoses, guide policy interventions in public health, and predict the behavior of an epidemic. In this paper, we account for a zoonotic disease mutating in an intermediate host by introducing a new mathematical model for disease transmission among three species. We present a model of these disease dynamics, including the equilibria of the system and the basic reproductive number of the pathogen, finding that in the presence of biologically realistic interspecies transmission parameters, a zoonotic disease with the capacity to mutate in an intermediate host population can establish itself in humans even if its R0 in humans is less than 1. This result and model can be used to predict the behavior of any zoonosis with an intermediate host and assist efforts to protect public health.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vetores de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Humanos , Taxa de Mutação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/patogenicidade , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236600, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756610

RESUMO

Cell therapy is a promising treatment. One of the key aspects of cell processing products is ensuring sterility of cell-processing facilities (CPFs). The objective of this study was to assess the environmental risk factors inside and outside CPFs. We monitored the temperature, humidity, particle number, colony number of microorganisms, bacteria, fungi, and harmful insects in and around our CPF monthly over one year. The temperature in the CPF was constant but the humidity fluctuated depending on the humidity outside. The particle number correlated with the number of entries to the room. Except for winter, colonies of microorganisms and harmful insects were detected depending on the cleanliness of the room. Seven bacterial and two fungal species were identified by PCR analyses. Psocoptera and Acari each accounted for 41% of the total trapped insects. These results provide useful data for taking the appropriate steps to keep entire CPFs clean.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/normas , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microbiologia do Ar/normas , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco
15.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(12): 1622-1629, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial co-pathogens are commonly identified in viral respiratory infections and are important causes of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of bacterial infection in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 is not well understood. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of bacterial co-infection (at presentation) and secondary infection (after presentation) in patients with COVID-19. SOURCES: We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, OVID Epub and EMBASE databases for English language literature from 2019 to April 16, 2020. Studies were included if they (a) evaluated patients with confirmed COVID-19 and (b) reported the prevalence of acute bacterial infection. CONTENT: Data were extracted by a single reviewer and cross-checked by a second reviewer. The main outcome was the proportion of COVID-19 patients with an acute bacterial infection. Any bacteria detected from non-respiratory-tract or non-bloodstream sources were excluded. Of 1308 studies screened, 24 were eligible and included in the rapid review representing 3338 patients with COVID-19 evaluated for acute bacterial infection. In the meta-analysis, bacterial co-infection (estimated on presentation) was identified in 3.5% of patients (95%CI 0.4-6.7%) and secondary bacterial infection in 14.3% of patients (95%CI 9.6-18.9%). The overall proportion of COVID-19 patients with bacterial infection was 6.9% (95%CI 4.3-9.5%). Bacterial infection was more common in critically ill patients (8.1%, 95%CI 2.3-13.8%). The majority of patients with COVID-19 received antibiotics (71.9%, 95%CI 56.1 to 87.7%). IMPLICATIONS: Bacterial co-infection is relatively infrequent in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The majority of these patients may not require empirical antibacterial treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , /microbiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Prevalência , Infecções Respiratórias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11980, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686764

RESUMO

Bacterial diseases cause production failures in shrimp aquacultures. To understand environmental conditions and bacterial community dynamics contributing to white faeces disease (WFD) events, we analysed water quality and compared bacterial communities in water as well as in intestines and faeces of healthy and diseased shrimps, respectively, via 16S rRNA gene sequencing and qPCR of transmembrane regulatory protein (toxR), thermolabile haemolysin (tlh), and thermostable direct haemolysin genes of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus as a proxy for virulence. WFD occurred when pH decreased to 7.71-7.84, and Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio dominated the aquatic bacterial communities. The disease severity further correlated with increased proportions of Alteromonas, Photobacterium, Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio in shrimp faeces. These opportunistic pathogenic bacteria constituted up to 60% and 80% of the sequences in samples from the early and advances stages of the disease outbreak, respectively, and exhibited a high degree of co-occurrence. Furthermore, toxR and tlh were detected in water at the disease event only. Notably, bacterial community resilience in water occurred when pH was adjusted to 8. Then WFD ceased without a mortality event. In conclusion, pH was a reliable indicator of the WFD outbreak risk. Dissolved oxygen and compositions of water and intestinal bacteria may also serve as indicators for better prevention of WFD events.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Surtos de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Genes Bacterianos , Filogenia , Tanques/microbiologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Virulência/genética , Microbiologia da Água
17.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(11): 1370-1374, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile phones are known to carry pathogenic bacteria and viruses on their surfaces, posing a risk to healthcare providers (HCPs) and hospital infection prevention efforts. We utilize an Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) device to provide an effective method for mobile phone disinfection and survey HCPs about infection risk. METHODS: Environmental swabs were used to culture HCPs' personal mobile phone surfaces. Four cultures were obtained per phone: before and after the UV-C device's 30-second disinfecting cycle, at the beginning and end of a 12-hour shift. Surveys were administered to participants pre- and poststudy. RESULTS: Total bacterial colony forming units were reduced by 90.5% (P = .006) after one UV-C disinfection cycle, and by 99.9% (P = .004) after 2 cycles. Total pathogenic bacterial colony forming units were decreased by 98.2% (P = .038) after one and >99.99% (P = .037) after 2 disinfection cycles. All survey respondents were willing to use the UV-C device daily to weekly, finding it convenient and beneficial. DISCUSSION: This novel UV-C disinfecting device is effective in reducing pathogenic bacteria on mobile phones. HCPs would frequently use a phone disinfecting device to reduce infection risk. CONCLUSIONS: In light of the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, a standardized approach to phone disinfection may be valuable in preventing healthcare-associated infections.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos da radiação , Betacoronavirus/efeitos da radiação , Telefone Celular , Desinfecção/instrumentação , Raios Ultravioleta , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/métodos , Hospitais , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Virulência
18.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1874(1): 188388, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589907

RESUMO

Bacteria have long been known as one of the primary causative agents of cancer, however, recent studies suggest that they can be used as a promising agent in cancer therapy. Because of the limitations that conventional treatment faces due to the specific pathophysiology and the tumor environment, there is a great need for the new anticancer therapeutic agents. Bacteriotherapy utilizes live, attenuated strains or toxins, peptides, bacteriocins of the bacteria in the treatment of cancer. Moreover, they are widely used as a vector for delivering genes, peptides, or drugs to the tumor target. Interestingly, it was found that their combination with the conventional therapeutic approaches may enhance the treatment outcome. In the genome editing era, it is feasible to develop a novel generation of therapeutic bacteria with fewer side effects and more efficacy for cancer therapy. Here we review the current knowledge on the dual role of bacteria in the development of cancer as well as cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/microbiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Terapia Biológica , Carcinogênese , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Engenharia Genética , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/etiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0229701, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401786

RESUMO

Recreational water monitoring can be challenging due to the highly variable nature of pathogens and indicator concentrations, the myriad of potential biological hazards to measure for, and numerous access points, both official and unofficial, that are used for recreation. The aim of this study was to develop, deploy, and assess the effectiveness of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) community-based monitoring (CBM) program for the assessment of bacterial and parasitic hazards in recreational water. This study developed methodologies for performing qPCR 'in the field,' then engaged with water management and monitoring groups and tested the method in a real-world implementation study to evaluate the accuracy of CBM using qPCR both quantitatively and qualitatively. This study found high reproducibility between qPCR results performed by non-expert field users and expert laboratory results, suggesting that qPCR as a methodology could be amenable to a CBM program.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microbiologia da Água , Água/parasitologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Humanos , Recreação , Qualidade da Água/normas
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