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1.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44, sept. 2020
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52282

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. El objetivo es presentar los resultados del Programa Latinoamericano de Aseguramiento de la Calidad en Bacteriología y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (LA-EQAS) entre 2000 y 2018 y la evolución en la detección de mecanismos de resistencia de impacto clínico. Métodos. Los Laboratorios Nacionales de Referencia (LNR) participantes recibieron 25 encuestas con 10 cepas cada una, representando un total de 86 especies bacterianas y 40 mecanismos de resistencia. Para evaluar el desempeño de los LNR, se analizaron cinco indicadores: identificación bacteriana, interpretación de las pruebas de sensibilidad, rangos de las zonas de inhibición aceptables, mecanismo de resistencia inferido, y tiempo de demora en la respuesta. Resultados. La concordancia media fue 82,6% (rango: 74-95%) en la identificación bacteriana, 93,3% (85-98%) en la interpretación de las pruebas de sensibilidad, 84,6% (70-94%) en las zonas de inhibición, 82,5% (73-96%) en el mecanismo de resistencia inferido, y la demora en la respuesta, 34 días. Se observó una mejora en la detección de mecanismos de relevancia clínica como resistencia a meticilina, macrólidos y glucopéptidos en cocos gram positivos, y betalactamasas de espectro extendido, AmpC plasmídico y carbapenemasas en bacilos gram negativos. Conclusiones. El LA-EQAS es una excelente herramienta para la mejora continua de la calidad en el diagnóstico de las infecciones por microorganismos multirresistentes en los LNR de América Latina.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. El objetivo es presentar los resultados del Programa Latinoamericano de Aseguramiento de la Calidad en Bacteriología y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (LA-EQAS) entre 2000 y 2018 y la evolución en la detección de mecanismos de resistencia de impacto clínico. Métodos. Los Laboratorios Nacionales de Referencia (LNR) participantes recibieron 25 encuestas con 10 cepas cada una, representando un total de 86 especies bacterianas y 40 mecanismos de resistencia. Para evaluar el desempeño de los LNR, se analizaron cinco indicadores: identificación bacteriana, interpretación de las pruebas de sensibilidad, rangos de las zonas de inhibición aceptables, mecanismo de resistencia inferido, y tiempo de demora en la respuesta. Resultados. La concordancia media fue 82,6% (rango: 74-95%) en la identificación bacteriana, 93,3% (85-98%) en la interpretación de las pruebas de sensibilidad, 84,6% (70-94%) en las zonas de inhibición, 82,5% (73-96%) en el mecanismo de resistencia inferido, y la demora en la respuesta, 34 días. Se observó una mejora en la detección de mecanismos de relevancia clínica como resistencia a meticilina, macrólidos y glucopéptidos en cocos gram positivos, y betalactamasas de espectro extendido, AmpC plasmídico y carbapenemasas en bacilos gram negativos. Conclusiones. El LA-EQAS es una excelente herramienta para la mejora continua de la calidad en el diagnóstico de las infecciones por microorganismos multirresistentes en los LNR de América Latina.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar os resultados do Programa Latino-Americano de Garantia da Qualidade em Bacteriologia e Resistência Antimicrobiana (LA-EQAS, na sigla em inglês) entre 2000 e 2018 e a evolução na detecção de mecanismos de resistência com impacto clínico. Métodos. Os Laboratórios Nacionais de Referência (LNRs) participantes receberam 25 inquéritos com 10 cepas bacterianas cada, representando um total de 86 espécies bacterianas e 40 mecanismos de resistência. Para avaliar o desempenho dos LNRs, foram analisados cinco indicadores: identificação bacteriana, interpretação dos testes de sensibilidade, faixas das zonas de inibição aceitáveis, mecanismo de resistência inferido e tempo de demora na resposta. Resultados. A concordância média foi de 82,6% (intervalo: 74-95%) na identificação bacteriana, 93,3% (85-98%) na interpretação dos testes de sensibilidade, 84,6% (70-94%) nas zonas de inibição, 82,5% (73-96%) no mecanismo de resistência inferido e 34 dias na demora na resposta. Observou-se uma melhoria na detecção de mecanismos clinicamente relevantes, como a resistência a meticilina, macrolídeos e glicopeptídeos em cocos Gram-positivos, beta-lactamases de espectro ampliado, AmpC plasmídica e carbapenemases em bacilos Gram-negativos. Conclusões. O LA-EQAS é uma excelente ferramenta para a melhoria contínua da qualidade no diagnóstico de infecções por microrganismos multirresistentes nos LNRs da América Latina.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Vigilância , Controle de Qualidade , Bacteriologia , América Latina , Anti-Infecciosos , Vigilância , Controle de Qualidade , Bacteriologia , América Latina , Anti-Infecciosos , Vigilância , Controle de Qualidade
2.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(3): 545-552, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844792

RESUMO

Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a notorious infection in developing countries causing serious local damage and threatening complications. It was a cross sectional observational study to isolate and identify aerobic bacteria and to analyze the susceptibility pattern of the aerobic bacterial isolates. It was carried out from March 2017 to July 2018 in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Samples were collected from Outpatient of ENT department, MMCH. Out of a total 300 patients with CSOM were enrolled in this study and 209 were culture positive. Among them gram negative organisms were 129(61.72%) and gram positive organisms were 70(33.49%). The most frequently isolated organism in this study was Pseudomonas aeruginosa 72(34.44%), gram positive organisms S. aureus 63(30.14%), E. coli 21(10.04%), other Pseudomonas spp (other than P. aeruginosa) 15(7.17%), mixed bacterial infectios 10(4.78%), Proteus spp 9(4.30%), CoNS 7(3.34%), Klebsiela lspp 7(3.34%), Acinetobactor spp 5(2.39%). P. aeruginosa isolates had least resistant to imipenem and colistin, S. aureus were showed high sensitivity to Vancomycin and Linezolid and E. coli were sensitive to imipenem and amikacin, ciprofloxacin and amikacin respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common bacteria isolated from chronic discharging ears followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Piperacillin-Tazobactum, Ciprofioxacin, Gentamicin and Amikacin were found to be the most suitable drug for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli. The resistance against ceftriaxone and aztreonam was found to be very high.


Assuntos
Bacteriologia , Otite Média , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus , Centros de Atenção Terciária
3.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(2): 17, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346811

RESUMO

A longstanding philosophical premise perceives simplicity as a desirable attribute of scientific theories. One of several raised justifications for this notion is that simple theories are more likely to indicate the true makeup of natural systems. Qualitatively parsimonious hypotheses and theories keep to a minimum the number of different postulated entities within a system. Formulation of such ontologically simple working hypotheses proved to be useful in the experimental probing of narrowly defined bio systems. It is less certain, however, whether qualitatively parsimonious theories are effective indicators of the true nature of complex biological systems. This paper assesses the success of ontologically simple theories in envisaging the makeup of three complex systems in bacteriology, immunology, and molecular biology. Evidence shows that parsimonious theories completely misconstrued the actual ontologically complex constitutions of the three examined systems. Since evolution and selective pressures typically produce ontologically intricate rather than simple bio systems, qualitatively parsimonious theories are mostly inapt indicators of the true nature of complex biological systems.


Assuntos
Alergia e Imunologia , Bacteriologia , Ontologias Biológicas , Biologia Molecular , Análise de Sistemas
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1789, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286264

RESUMO

The mechanical properties of the cell envelope in Gram-negative bacteria are controlled by the peptidoglycan, the outer membrane, and the proteins interacting with both layers. In Escherichia coli, the lipoprotein Lpp provides the only covalent crosslink between the outer membrane and the peptidoglycan. Here, we use single-cell atomic force microscopy and genetically engineered strains to study the contribution of Lpp to cell envelope mechanics. We show that Lpp contributes to cell envelope stiffness in two ways: by covalently connecting the outer membrane to the peptidoglycan, and by controlling the width of the periplasmic space. Furthermore, mutations affecting Lpp function substantially increase bacterial susceptibility to the antibiotic vancomycin, indicating that Lpp-dependent effects can affect antibacterial drug efficacy.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Vancomicina/farmacologia
5.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 131: 107401, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707278

RESUMO

Although the term bioelectrochemistry tends to be associated with animal and human tissues, bioelectric currents exist also in plants and bacteria. Especially the latter, when agglomerated in the form of biofilms, can exhibit electroactivity and susceptibility to electrical stimulation. Therefore, electrochemical methods appear to become powerful techniques to expand the conventional strategies of biofilm characterization and modification. In this review, we aim to provide the insight into the electrochemical behaviour of bacteria and present the variety of electrochemical techniques that can be used either for the non-destructive monitoring of bacterial communities or modulation of their growth. The most common applications of electrical stimulation on biofilms are presented, including the prevention of bacterial growth by charging the surface of the materials, changing the direction of bacterial movement under the influence of the electric field and increasing of the potency of antibiotics when bactericides are coupled with the electric field. Also, the industrial applications of microbial electro-technologies are described, such as bioremediation, wastewater treatment, and microbial fuel cells. Consequently, we are showing the complexity of interactions that exist between electrochemistry and bacteriology that can be used for the benefit of these two disciplines.


Assuntos
Bacteriologia , Biofilmes , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletroquímica/métodos , Estimulação Elétrica
7.
Annu Rev Microbiol ; 73: 1-15, 2019 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500534

RESUMO

Mary Osborn was a native Californian. She was an undergraduate at the University of California, Berkeley, where she worked in the laboratory of I.L. Chaikoff. She received her PhD at the University of Washington, where her work on the role of folic acid coenzymes in one-carbon metabolism revealed the mechanism of action of methotrexate. After postdoctoral training with Bernard Horecker in the Department of Microbiology at New York University (NYU), she embarked on her research career as a faculty member in the NYU Department of Microbiology and in the Department of Molecular Biology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. In 1968 she moved as one of the founding faculty of the new medical school of the University of Connecticut, where she remained until her retirement in 2014. Her research was focused on the biosynthesis of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria and on the assembly of the bacterial cell envelope. She made seminal contributions in these areas. She was the recipient of numerous honors and served as president of several important scientific organizations. Later in her career she served as chair of the National Research Council Committee on Space Biology and Medicine, advisory to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which produced an influential report that plotted the path for NASA's space biology research program in the first decade of the twenty-first century. Dr. Osborn died on Jan. 17, 2019.


Assuntos
Bacteriologia/história , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/biossíntese , Bacteriologia/tendências , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Estados Unidos
8.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 26(3): 841-862, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531579

RESUMO

Starting from the hypothesis that laboratories played an important role in pediatrics becoming an autonomous discipline, this article studies the influence of scientific travel on the appropriation of new methodologies by Spanish pediatricians and child-care experts in the first third of the twentieth century. To do so, it analyzes the travel awards granted by the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas. It describes the scientific geography created by the program and takes an in-depth look at the role of mentors - especially Gustavo Pittaluga (1876-1956) - in this process. In addition to a prosopographical study of the group, it presents three cases that demonstrate the importance of the program in bringing pediatrics into contact with bacteriology, pathological anatomy and biochemistry.


Assuntos
Pediatria/história , Viagem/história , Distinções e Prêmios , Bacteriologia/história , Bioquímica/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Laboratórios/história , Mentores/história , Patologia/história , Espanha
9.
Lit Med ; 37(1): 219-240, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402349

RESUMO

While New Materialism and Object Oriented Ontology have provided frameworks to consider human relationships to nonhuman beings and objects in the twenty-first century, scientists and authors explored similar ethical dilemmas brought about by the newly identified presence of microorganisms in what had previously been imagined as a human world at the turn of the twentieth century. This essay considers Mark Twain's later fiction alongside the work of American bacteriologist Herbert W. Conn. Already invested in undermining human exceptionalism through scalar differences in his Mysterious Stranger manuscripts (1897-1908), Twain adapts Conn's bacteriology to experiment with microbial ethics in Three Thousand Years Among the Microbes (1905). While Conn uses microbes to assert scientific mastery and professional authority, Twain uses them to experiment with ethical structures on nonhuman scales. I argue that the failures of Twain's imaginative experiment dramatize the practical challenges to radically inclusive ethical structures proposed by New Materialists and others.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Bacteriologia , Ética , Medicina na Literatura
10.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(4): 1082-1088, jul.-ago. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1102763

RESUMO

El papel desempeñado por destacados científicos cubanos y matanceros como Juan Nicolás Dávalos Betancourt y Federico Grande Rossi fue fundamental en el desarrollo de la bacteriología en el país. Con este trabajo se pretende acercar a estos dos hombres unidos en la vida como grandes amigos y en la profesión. Juan Nicolás Dávalos Betancourt conocido como "el sabio que soñaba con las bacterias" trasciende su campo de trabajo particular y se proyecta en el desarrollo de nuestra nación. Federico Grande Rossi fue médico bacteriólogo y fecundo escritor (AU).


The role played by eminent Cuban and Matanzasan scientist like Juan Nicolas Davalos Betancourt and Federico Grandi Rossi was essential for the development of the bacteriology in the country. With this work the authors pretend to bring near these two men who were very close in life as friends and colleagues in their profession. Juan Nicolas Davalos Betancourt, known as "the scholar who dreamed with bacteria" went beyond his particular work field and entered the process of development of Cuban nation. Federico Grandi Rossi was a doctor-bacteriologist and a prolific writer (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Médicos/história , Pesquisa/história , Bacteriologia , Ciência de Laboratório Médico , Biografia , Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Técnicas de Pesquisa
11.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(12): 3980-3983, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219419

RESUMO

Rule 24b of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes regulates the priority of names that are considered to be heterotypic synonyms. However, the rule is imperfect because it caters only for names that compete for priority that were only included on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names or for names that were only validly published in the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology or the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, either in an original article or via the Validation Lists. Although this should be self-explanatory, Rule 24b does not cater for what happens when one or more names considered to be heterotypic synonyms have appeared on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names while other names also considered to be heterotypic synonyms were validly published in the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology or the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, either in an original article or via the Validation Lists. Formal changes to the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes are required.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bacteriologia , Filogenia , Terminologia como Assunto
12.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 37(supl.1): 1-18, mayo 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189723

RESUMO

Se presenta el análisis anual de los resultados remitidos durante el año 2016 por los participantes inscritos en el Programa de Control de Calidad de la Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica (SEIMC), que incluye las áreas de bacteriología, serología, micología, parasitología, micobacterias, virología, microbiología molecular y genotipos de resistencia bacteriana. Los resultados obtenidos por los centros participantes destacan, de nuevo, la adecuada capacitación de la inmensa mayoría de los laboratorios españoles de microbiología clínica, como ya iba sucediendo en los últimos años. Sin embargo, el programa muestra que es posible obtener un resultado erróneo, incluso en determinaciones de la mayor trascendencia y en cualquier laboratorio. Una vez más, se resalta la importancia de complementar el control interno que lleva a cabo cada laboratorio con estudios de intercomparación externos, como los que ofrece el Programa de Control de Calidad SEIMC. Información sobre el suplemento: este artículo forma parte del suplemento titulado "Programa de Control de Calidad Externo SEIMC. Año 2016", que ha sido patrocinado por Roche, Vircell Microbiologists, Abbott Molecular y Francisco Soria Melguizo, S.A


The External Quality Control Programme of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, molecular microbiology, and genotypic bacterial resistance. As in previous years, the results obtained in 2016 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards in the vast majority of clinical microbiology laboratories in Spain. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of this programme highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls. Supplement information: This article is part of a supplement entitled "SEIMC External Quality Control Programme. Year 2016", which is sponsored by Roche, Vircell Microbiologists, Abbott Molecular and Francisco Soria Melguizo, S.A


Assuntos
Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Análise de Dados , Sorologia/normas , Biologia Molecular , Bacteriologia/normas , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/normas , Virologia/normas
13.
Endeavour ; 43(1-2): 11-16, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030894

RESUMO

Richard Julius Petri's status as inventor of the culture dish that bears his name has been subject to a number of challenges over the years. Both those bacteriologists who claimed self-recognition for the invention, and those to whom it was attributed by their various advocates were all contemporaries of Petri. The evidence assembled here indicates that no single individual-including Petri-ought to be accorded credit for the inception of that shallow, circular, covered culture dish which, it transpires, is a simultaneous invention made by half a dozen bacteriologists active in the mid-1880s and ultimately owes its emergence to the prevailing bacteriological zeitgeist.


Assuntos
Bacteriologia/história , Meios de Cultura , Invenções/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos
15.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 69(1): 59-67, mar. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1022752

RESUMO

Dentro de los patotipos de Escherichia coli, el grupo STEC puede producir en el ser humano desde diarrea hemorrágica hasta insuficiencia renal aguda e incluso la muerte; el ganado bovino es el principal reservorio de este agente patógeno y por ende la ingestión de alimentos derivados de estos animales de abasto son una fuente muy importante de infección para el hombre. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de STEC en muestras de carne cruda comercializada en Pamplona-Colombia y en cepas obtenidas a partir de las muestras. Se analizaron cien muestras de carne cruda aplicando la técnica de Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa para la detección de los siguientes genes en muestras y en cepas STEC: stx1, stx2, eae y hlyA. Adicionalmente, se estableció el patrón de resistencia-susceptibilidad antibiótica de cepas STEC aisladas empleando métodos regulados. En el 39% de las muestras fue posible detectar el gen stx2; en el 38%, de ellas, se detectaron los genes stx1 y stx2. Además, se aislaron cepas STEC en el 13% de las muestras analizadas, 85% de ellas portaban el gen hlyA. No se detectó la presencia del gen eae o del serogrupo O157. Las cepas aisladas demostraron resistencia frente a algunos antibióticos de primera y segunda generación. En conclusión, se detectó la presencia de genes que codifican factores de virulencia en las muestras de carne analizadas que representan un riesgo potencial para la salud de los consumidores. Este es el primer reporte de STEC no O157 que codifica el gen de la enterohemolisina en alimentos en Colombia(AU)


Within the Escherichia coli patotypes, the STEC group can produce in humans from hemorrhagic diarrhea to acute renal failure and even death; cattle are the main reservoir of this pathogen and therefore the ingestion of food derived from these stock animals are a very important source of infection for man. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of STEC in raw meat samples marketed in Pamplona-Colombia and in strains obtained from those samples. One hundred raw meat samples were analyzed using the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique for the detection of the following genes in samples and in STEC strains: stx1, stx2, eae and hlyA. In addition, STEC strains were isolated in 13% of the analyzed samples, 85% of them carried the hlyA gene. The presence of the eae gene or serogroup O157 was not detected. The isolated strains demonstrated resistance against some first and second generation antibiotics. In conclusion, the presence of genes encoding virulence factors in the meat samples analyzed, that represent a potential health risk factor to consumers, was confirmed. This is the first report of STEC non-O157 that encodes the enterohemolysin gene in foods in Colombia(AU)


Assuntos
Bovinos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Apoptose , Escherichia coli O157 , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Carne , Bacteriologia , Gastroenteropatias
16.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(5): 1519-1520, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777819

RESUMO

The wording of Rule 40d was discussed at the XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology, Istanbul in 2008 and some changes were made to clarify how the authorship of names covered by this rule were to be cited. However, a key topic that was raised and discussed was the issue of wording that either automatically creates a subspecies name or whether an automatic consequence of the rule was that a subspecies name based on the nomenclatural type of the corresponding species was required, but must be validly published in accordance with the Rules of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes. The differences are subtle, but important.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bacteriologia/normas , Terminologia como Assunto
17.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(5): 1515-1518, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714892

RESUMO

There are various ways in which the names of prokaryotes can be duplicated in the literature. An examination of the various ways that this may happen under the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes indicates that a concept is missing, namely the one that refers to the same name based on the same nomenclatural type published in the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology/International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, by the same or different authors in different manuscripts or in the Validation Lists. To cater for such instances it would be appropriate to introduce the concept of the isonym and to regulate how they are to be dealt with.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bacteriologia/normas , Terminologia como Assunto
18.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(1A): S1-S111, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26596770

RESUMO

This volume contains the edition of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes that was presented in draft form and available for comment at the Plenary Session of the Fourteenth International Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology (BAM), Montréal, 2014, together with updated lists of conserved and rejected bacterial names and of Opinions issued by the Judicial Commission. As in the past it brings together those changes accepted, published and documented by the ICSP and the Judicial Commission since the last revision was published. Several new appendices have been added to this edition. Appendix 11 addresses the appropriate application of the Candidatus concept, Appendix 12 contains the history of the van Niel Prize, and Appendix 13 contains the summaries of Congresses. The full-text version of this article contains chapters 1-4 of the Code, and their associated references. All other material, including foreword, prefaces, and appendices, can be found in the PDF version.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Bacteriologia
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