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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242818, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378656

RESUMO

The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bacteroides , Bacteroidetes , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Disbiose , Humanos , Inflamação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Prevotella , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ruminococcus
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 633242, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368009

RESUMO

The number of people who smoke has increased in recent years, and the incidence of smoking-related diseases increases annually. This study was conducted to explore whether smoking affects diseases via changes in the gut microbiota. We enrolled 33 smokers and 121 non-smokers. We collected fecal samples from all participants and performed whole-genome sequencing. Smoking significantly affected the gut microbiota. At the phylum through genus levels, the smokers' microbiotas showed slight changes compared with those of the non-smokers. The α- and ß-diversities differed significantly between the smokers and non-smokers, and the smokers' gut microbiota compositions differed significantly from those of the non-smokers. At the species level, the relative abundances of Ruminococcus gnavus (P=0.00197) and Bacteroides vulgatus (P=0.0468) were significantly greater in the smokers than in the non-smokers, while the relative abundances of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P=0.0000052) and Akkermansia muciniphila (P=0.0057) were significantly lower in the smokers. Smoking increases inflammation in the body by inducing an increased abundance of proinflammatory bacteria. Non-smokers had higher abundances of anti-inflammatory microorganisms than did smokers; these microorganisms can produce short-chain fatty acids, which inhibit inflammation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bacteroides , Clostridiales , Humanos , Fumar , Verrucomicrobia
3.
Georgian Med News ; (315): 56-60, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365426

RESUMO

The study is aimd at detection the pathogenic markers: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomit, Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Prevotella Intermedia, Tannerella Forsythia and Treponema Denticola, identify their types, qualitative content and encounter frequency in periodontal pockets of the patients with generalized periodontitis, stage II (A or B level), before and after treatment with mechanical forms of therapy - Ultrasound, Vector or Laser Therapy . The material has been studied by using Micro-Ident biological method based on DNA-Strip technology. The surveyed 25 patients (women - 75% and men - 25%), 20 to 60 years of age, were divided into the three groups: group I treatment with Ultrasound scaler (n=9), group II treatment with Ultrasound Scaler and Diode laser (n=8), group III treatment with Ultrasound Scaler and Vector Sistem (n=8). All five strain before treatment were detected in 3 (12.5%) cases, none of the strain were detected in 1 patient (4%); among the rest 21 patients (87.5%) the following associations of different microorganisms were detected: P.G., P.I, T.F., T.D. - in 20.8% of patients, P.G., T.F., T.D. - 12.5%; A.A., P.G., P.I., T.F. - 4.16%; P.G., P.I., T.F.-33.28%; P.I., T.F., T.D. - 4.16%; A.A., P.G., T.F., T.D. - 12.5%; P.I., T.F. - 4.16%; P.G., P.I., T.D. - 4.16%. After evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment, based on Ultrasound system, Vector system, Diode laser and the complex picture of clinical and laboratory examinations in patients with generalized periodontitis, stage II, A or B level, a significant improvement in clinical conditions was observed. The microbiological study of Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomit (AA), Porphyromonas Gingivalis (PG), Prevotella Intermidia (PI), Tannerella Forsythia (BF), Treponema Denticola (TD) showed a complete elimination of qualitative and quantitative data after Vector therapy, but no reliable elimination of bacteria was observed after ultrasound and laser therapies. After treatment all five strain were detected in 1 (4%) case, 4 strain A.A., P.G., T.F., T.D. in 1 (4%) case, P.G.,P.I.,T.F.,T.D. - 2 (8%) case, 3 strain P.G., P.I., T.F in 3 (12.5%) case, 2 strain P.G., T.F - 1 strain (4%) and 1 T.F in 2 (8%).


Assuntos
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Bacteroides , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Bolsa Periodontal , Prevotella intermedia , Treponema denticola
4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(15): 10451-10461, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291905

RESUMO

Microbial pollution in rivers poses known ecological and health risks, yet causal and mechanistic linkages to sources remain difficult to establish. Host-associated microbial source tracking (MST) markers help to assess the microbial risks by linking hosts to contamination but do not identify the source locations. Land-use regression (LUR) models have been used to screen the source locations using spatial predictors but could be improved by characterizing transport (i.e., hauling, decay overland, and downstream). We introduce the microbial Find, Inform, and Test (FIT) framework, which expands previous LUR approaches and develops novel spatial predictor models to characterize the transported contributions. We applied FIT to characterize the sources of BoBac, a ruminant Bacteroides MST marker, quantified in riverbed sediment samples from Kewaunee County, Wisconsin. A 1 standard deviation increase in contributions from land-applied manure hauled from animal feeding operations (AFOs) was associated with a 77% (p-value <0.05) increase in the relative abundance of ruminant Bacteroides (BoBac-copies-per-16S-rRNA-copies) in the sediment. This is the first work finding an association between the upstream land-applied manure and the offsite bovine-associated fecal markers. These findings have implications for the sediment as a reservoir for microbial pollution associated with AFOs (e.g., pathogens and antibiotic-resistant bacteria). This framework and application advance statistical analysis in MST and water quality modeling more broadly.


Assuntos
Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água , Animais , Bacteroides , Bovinos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Ruminantes , Poluição da Água/análise
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 636808, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249773

RESUMO

The frequency of azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced carcinogenesis in male mice is higher than that in female mice. Previous studies have reported that 17ß-estradiol inhibits tumorigenesis in males by modulating nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). This study aimed to investigate the changes in mouse gut microbiome composition based on sex, AOM/DSS-induced colorectal cancer (CRC), and Nrf2 genotype. The gut microbiome composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing fecal samples obtained at week 16 post-AOM administration. In terms of sex differences, our results showed that the wild-type (WT) male control mice had higher alpha diversity (i.e. Chao1, Shannon, and Simpson) than the WT female control mice. The linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) results revealed that the abundances of Akkermansia muciniphila and Lactobacillus murinus were higher in WT male control mice than in WT female controls. In terms of colon tumorigenesis, the alpha diversity of the male CRC group was lower than that of the male controls in both WT and Nrf2 KO, but did not show such changes in females. Furthermore, the abundance of A. muciniphila was higher in male CRC groups than in male controls in both WT and Nrf2 KO. The abundance of Bacteroides vulgatus was higher in WT CRC groups than in WT controls in both males and females. However, the abundance of L. murinus was lower in WT female CRC and Nrf2 KO male CRC groups than in its controls. The abundance of A. muciniphila was not altered by Nrf2 KO. In contrast, the abundances of L. murinus and B. vulgatus were changed differently by Nrf2 KO depending on sex and CRC. Interestingly, L. murinus showed negative correlation with tumor numbers in the whole colon. In addition, B. vulgatus showed positive correlation with inflammatory markers (i.e. myeloperoxidase and IL-1ß levels), tumor numbers, and high-grade adenoma, especially, developed mucosal and submucosal invasive adenocarcinoma at the distal part of the colon. In conclusion, Nrf2 differentially alters the gut microbiota composition depending on sex and CRC induction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bacteroides , Colo , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Lactobacillus , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
6.
Nature ; 595(7867): 415-420, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262212

RESUMO

Gut microorganisms modulate host phenotypes and are associated with numerous health effects in humans, ranging from host responses to cancer immunotherapy to metabolic disease and obesity. However, difficulty in accurate and high-throughput functional analysis of human gut microorganisms has hindered efforts to define mechanistic connections between individual microbial strains and host phenotypes. One key way in which the gut microbiome influences host physiology is through the production of small molecules1-3, yet progress in elucidating this chemical interplay has been hindered by limited tools calibrated to detect the products of anaerobic biochemistry in the gut. Here we construct a microbiome-focused, integrated mass-spectrometry pipeline to accelerate the identification of microbiota-dependent metabolites in diverse sample types. We report the metabolic profiles of 178 gut microorganism strains using our library of 833 metabolites. Using this metabolomics resource, we establish deviations in the relationships between phylogeny and metabolism, use machine learning to discover a previously undescribed type of metabolism in Bacteroides, and reveal candidate biochemical pathways using comparative genomics. Microbiota-dependent metabolites can be detected in diverse biological fluids from gnotobiotic and conventionally colonized mice and traced back to the corresponding metabolomic profiles of cultured bacteria. Collectively, our microbiome-focused metabolomics pipeline and interactive metabolomics profile explorer are a powerful tool for characterizing microorganisms and interactions between microorganisms and their host.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bacteroides/genética , Bacteroides/metabolismo , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Genômica , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Filogenia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 625, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacteroides dorei is an anaerobic gram-negative bacterium first described in 2006. Because of the high similarity in mass spectra between B. dorei and Bacteroides vulgatus, discriminating between these species is arduous in clinical practice. In recent decades, 16S rRNA gene sequencing has been a complementary method for distinguishing taxonomically close bacteria, including B. dorei and B. vulgatus, at the genus and species levels. Consequently, B. dorei has been shown to contribute to some diseases, including type 1 autoimmune diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic diseases. However, there are no reports on invasive infectious diseases caused by B. dorei. This report describes the first case of direct invasion and colonisation of human tissue by B. dorei, thus providing a warning regarding the previously proposed application of B. dorei as a live biotherapeutic for atherosclerotic diseases. CASE PRESENTATION: A 78-year-old Japanese man complained of intermittent chest/back pain and was diagnosed with a mycotic thoracic aortic aneurysm by enhanced computed tomography on admission. Despite strict blood pressure control and empirical antibiotic therapy, the patient's condition worsened. To prevent aneurysmal rupture and eliminate infectious foci, the patient underwent surgical treatment. The resected specimen was subjected to tissue culture and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis to identify pathogenic bacteria. A few days after the surgery, culture and sequencing results revealed that the pathogen was B. dorei/B. vulgatus and B. dorei, respectively. The patient was successfully treated with appropriate antibacterial therapy and after improvement, was transferred to another hospital for rehabilitation on postoperative day 34. There was no recurrence of infection or aneurysm after the patient transfer. CONCLUSIONS: This report describes the first case of invasive infectious disease caused by B. dorei, casting a shadow over its utilisation as a probiotic for atherosclerotic diseases.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Infectado/microbiologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/microbiologia , Infecções por Bacteroides/diagnóstico , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Aneurisma Infectado/cirurgia , Aneurisma Aórtico/cirurgia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de RNA
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208885

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that flavonoid metabolites inhibit cancer cell proliferation through both CDK-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The existing evidence suggests that gut microbiota is capable of flavonoid biotransformation to generate bioactive metabolites including 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4,6-THBA), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA), 3,4,5-trihyroxybenzoic acid (3,4,5-THBA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). In this study, we screened 94 human gut bacterial species for their ability to biotransform flavonoid quercetin into different metabolites. We demonstrated that five of these species were able to degrade quercetin including Bacillus glycinifermentans, Flavonifractor plautii, Bacteroides eggerthii, Olsenella scatoligenes and Eubacterium eligens. Additional studies showed that B. glycinifermentans could generate 2,4,6-THBA and 3,4-DHBA from quercetin while F. plautii generates DOPAC. In addition to the differences in the metabolites produced, we also observed that the kinetics of quercetin degradation was different between B. glycinifermentans and F. plautii, suggesting that the pathways of degradation are likely different between these strains. Similar to the antiproliferative effects of 2,4,6-THBA and 3,4-DHBA demonstrated previously, DOPAC also inhibited colony formation ex vivo in the HCT-116 colon cancer cell line. Consistent with this, the bacterial culture supernatant of F. plautii also inhibited colony formation in this cell line. Thus, as F. plautii and B. glycinifermentans generate metabolites possessing antiproliferative activity, we suggest that these strains have the potential to be developed into probiotics to improve human gut health.


Assuntos
Ácido 3,4-Di-Hidroxifenilacético/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bromobenzoatos/farmacologia , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Quercetina/química , Ácido 3,4-Di-Hidroxifenilacético/química , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/química , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias , Bacteroides/genética , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroides/metabolismo , Bromobenzoatos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridiales/genética , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Eubacterium/genética , Eubacterium/isolamento & purificação , Eubacterium/metabolismo , Ácido Gálico/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
9.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 161, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A foodborne pathogen, Vibrio vulnificus, encounters normal microflora inhabiting the gut environments prior to causing fatal septicemia or gastroenteritis and should overcome the barriers derived from the gut commensals for successful infection. Its interactions with gut commensals during the infection process, however, have not yet been understood. In the present study, the effect of V. vulnificus on the community structures of gut microbiota in mice was examined. RESULTS: Analyses of microbiota in the fecal samples of mice that died due to V. vulnificus infection revealed the decreased abundance of bacteria belonged to Bacteroidetes, notably, the species Bacteroides vulgatus. In vitro coculturing of the two bacterial species resulted in the decreased survival of B. vulgatus. The antagonistic effect of V. vulnificus against B. vulgatus was found to be mediated by cyclo-Phe-Pro (cFP), one of the major compounds secreted by V. vulnificus. cFP-treated B. vulgatus showed collapsed cellular morphology with an undulated cell surface, enlarged periplasmic space, and lysed membranes, suggesting the occurrence of membrane disruption. The degree of membrane disruption caused by cFP was dependent upon the cellular levels of ObgE in B. vulgatus. Recombinant ObgE exhibited a high affinity to cFP at a 1:1 ratio. When mice were orally injected with cFP, their feces contained significantly reduced B. vulgatus levels, and their susceptibility to V. vulnificus infection was considerably increased. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that V. vulnificus-derived cFP modulates the abundance of the predominant species among gut commensals, which made V. vulnificus increase its pathogenicity in the hosts. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Vibrio vulnificus , Animais , Bacteroides , Membrana Celular , Camundongos
10.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 66(7): 422-427, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292685

RESUMO

The system of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) is one of the most ancient mechanisms of the macroorganism resistance to infectious pathogens invasion. The aim of the study was to determine the role of the antimicrobial peptides system and periodontal pathogenic markers in the development and progression of inflammatory periodontal diseases. Gingival pocket washes (91 samples in total) for the research were received from patients with inflammatory periodontal diseases (chronic periodontitis and gingivitis) and intact periodontium. Using ELISA, the content of antimicrobial peptides was determined: human alpha-defensin (HNP 1-3), beta-defensin (HBD 1-3) and cathelicidin (LL-37). Periodontal pathogenic markers were isolated during RT-PCR. The study revealed differences in AMP concentrations by groups: level of HBD 2 in patients with chronic periodontitis was 1,36 times higher than those in the group of patients with chronic gingivitis (p=0,023) and 2,39 times higher than those in the control group (p<0,001), the content of HNP 1-3 in the group of patients with chronic periodontitis was reduced by 1,23 times compared with the indicators of the group of patients with gingivitis (p=0,045) and by 1,97 times compared with the indicators of the control group (p<0,001). The frequency of detection of periodontal pathogenic bacteria genes was 88,0% in patients with periodontitis, 76,92% in patients with gingivitis and 33,3% in the group with intact periodontium. HBD 2 content moderately correlated with the definition of P. gingivalis (r=0,612; p=0,022), T. forsythensis (r= 0,434; p=0,015), A. actinomycetemcomitans (r=0,483; p=0,006), a moderate negative correlation was detected between the content of HNP 1-3 and the release of periodontal pathogens in associations (P. gingivalis with T. forsythensis and T. denticola) (r=-0,388; p=0,031) in the group of patients with chronic periodontitis. Thus, the revealed relationships and correlations indicate shifts in the processes of reparative regeneration of the oral cavity and the regulation of local immunity in response to microbial invasion.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Gengivite , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Bacteroides , Humanos , Bolsa Periodontal , Periodonto , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros , Porphyromonas gingivalis
11.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3446, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze scientific evidence regarding the relationship between the type of birth and the microbiota acquired by newborns. METHOD: this integrative review addresses the role of the type of delivery on newborns' microbial colonization. A search was conducted in the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online/PubMed and Virtual Health Library databases using the descriptors provided by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Health Science Descriptors (DeCS). RESULTS: infants born vaginally presented a greater concentration of Bacteroides, Bifidobacteria, and Lactobacillus in the first days of life and more significant microbial variability in the following weeks. The microbiome of infants born via C-section is similar to the maternal skin and the hospital setting and less diverse, mainly composed of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Clostridium. CONCLUSION: the maternal vaginal microbiota provides newborns with a greater variety of colonizing microorganisms responsible for boosting and preparing the immune system. Vaginal birth is the ideal birth route, and C-sections should only be performed when there are medical indications.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Bacteroides , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Parto , Gravidez
12.
Microb Pathog ; 158: 105048, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139279

RESUMO

The microbial community's structure and functions determine the health, quality, and anthropogenic conditions of the river ecosystems. The presence of Bacteria such as Arcobacter spp, Escherichia spp, and Campylobacters spp, have been shown to reflect the poor water quality of rivers. Apprehension of the microbial community in polluted water bodies is significant because it affects human health and the environment. Culture-independent metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches employed in the current study of the Cooum river unraveled the taxonomic classification of diverse microbes, including archaea, bacteria, viruses, and phages. The presence of abundant Macellibacteroides fermentans, Arcobacter bivolvorium, Arcobacter butzleri, Methanothrix soenhngeii, and Bacteroides graminisolvens were noted. Viruses and phages like Caudovirales, Human mastadenovirus C, Siphoviridae, Escherichia phage, Erwinia phage, Synechoccus phage, and Vibrio phage were relatively predominant. Various metabolic pathways like methane, sulfur, and nitrogen metabolism adopted by the microbiome confer dangerous gases. Mechanisms such as secretory systems, signal transduction, Chemotaxis, quorum sensing, transportation of chemicals and ions were significantly enriched. The microbes expressed antimicrobial resistance mechanisms as identified from the genes encoding beta-lactamase enzymes and aminoglycoside phosphotransferase enzymes. Metal resistance mechanisms against copper, tellurium, chromium, and cadmium were plentiful. Presence of human pathogens interactions with Yersinia pestis, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori, and Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis suggested the possibilities of transmission of pathogenesis to humans. The current study is the first to apprehend the detailed microbiome composition of one of the highly polluted rivers in South India. The study elaborated the microbiome's structure, functions, and metabolic potential at a specific site of the polluted river.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rios , Bacteroides , Bacteroidetes , Francisella , Humanos , Virulência
14.
Nature ; 595(7865): 91-95, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163075

RESUMO

Changing food preferences brought about by westernization that have deleterious health effects1,2-combined with myriad forces that are contributing to increased food insecurity-are catalysing efforts to identify more nutritious and affordable foods3. Consumption of dietary fibre can help to prevent cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity4-6. A substantial number of reports have explored the effects of dietary fibre on the gut microbial community7-9. However, the microbiome is complex, dynamic and exhibits considerable intra- and interpersonal variation in its composition and functions. The large number of potential interactions between the components of the microbiome makes it challenging to define the mechanisms by which food ingredients affect community properties. Here we address the question of how foods containing different fibre preparations can be designed to alter functions associated with specific components of the microbiome. Because a marked increase in snack consumption is associated with westernization, we formulated snack prototypes using plant fibres from different sustainable sources that targeted distinct features of the gut microbiomes of individuals with obesity when transplanted into gnotobiotic mice. We used these snacks to supplement controlled diets that were consumed by adult individuals with obesity or who were overweight. Fibre-specific changes in their microbiomes were linked to changes in their plasma proteomes indicative of an altered physiological state.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Vida Livre de Germes , Lanches , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Bacteroides/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/microbiologia , Sobrepeso/microbiologia , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
15.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 97(8)2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190973

RESUMO

Bacterial species in the human gut predominantly exist in the form of mixed-species biofilms on mucosal surfaces. In this study, the biofilm-forming ability of many human gut bacterial strains (133 strains recovered from human faeces) on mucin-coated and non-coated polystyrene surfaces was determined. A significant variation (P < 0.05) in the biofilm-forming ability of many bacterial species on both surfaces was noticed. Based on some preliminary trials, four bacterial species were selected (Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, Parabacteroides distasonis and Bacteroides ovatus), which could not form any abundant biofilm individually under the in vitro conditions investigated, but produced abundant biofilms when co-cultured in different combinations of two, three and four species, giving an evidence of synergistic interactions in multispecies biofilm formation. There was a 4.74-fold increase in the biofilm mass when all strains developed a biofilm together. Strain-specific qPCR analysis showed that B. bifidum was the most dominant species (56%) in the four-species biofilm after 24 h, followed by B. longum subsp. infantis (36.2%). Study involving cell free supernatant of the cooperating strains showed that cell viability as well as physical presence of cooperating cells were prerequisites for the observed synergy in biofilms. The molecular mechanism behind these interactions and subsequent effects on the functionality of the strains involved were not determined in our study but merit further work.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mucinas , Bacteroides , Bacteroidetes , Bifidobacterium bifidum , Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis , Humanos
16.
EBioMedicine ; 69: 103443, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth by caesarean section (CS) is associated with aberrant gut microbiome development and greater disease susceptibility later in life. We investigated whether oral administration of maternal vaginal microbiota to infants born by CS could restore their gut microbiome development in a pilot single-blinded, randomised placebo-controlled trial (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12618000339257). METHODS: Pregnant women scheduled for a CS underwent comprehensive antenatal pathogen screening. At birth, healthy neonates were randomised to receive a 3 ml solution of either maternal vaginal microbes (CS-seeded, n = 12) or sterile water (CS-placebo, n = 13). Vaginally-born neonates were used as the reference control (VB, n = 22). Clinical assessments occurred within the first 2 h of birth, and at 1 month and 3 months of age. Infant stool samples and maternal vaginal extracts from CS women underwent shotgun metagenomic sequencing. The primary outcome was gut microbiome composition at 1 month of age. Secondary outcomes included maternal strain engraftment, functional potential of the gut microbiome, anthropometry, body composition, and adverse events. FINDINGS: Despite the presence of viable microbial cells within transplant solutions, there were no observed differences in gut microbiome composition or functional potential between CS-seeded and CS-placebo infants at 1 month or 3 months of age. Both CS groups displayed the characteristic signature of low Bacteroides abundance, which contributed to a number of biosynthesis pathways being underrepresented when compared with VB microbiomes. Maternal vaginal strain engraftment was rare. Vaginal seeding had no observed effects on anthropometry or body composition. There were no serious adverse events associated with treatment. INTERPRETATION: Our pilot findings question the value of vaginal seeding given that oral administration of maternal vaginal microbiota did not alter early gut microbiome development in CS-born infants. The limited colonisation of maternal vaginal strains suggest that other maternal sources, such as the perianal area, may play a larger role in seeding the neonatal gut microbiome. FUNDING: Health Research Council of New Zealand, A Better Start - National Science Challenge.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Bacteroides/patogenicidade , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Masculino
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3294, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078892

RESUMO

Experimental manipulation of gut microbes in animal models alters fear behavior and relevant neurocircuitry. In humans, the first year of life is a key period for brain development, the emergence of fearfulness, and the establishment of the gut microbiome. Variation in the infant gut microbiome has previously been linked to cognitive development, but its relationship with fear behavior and neurocircuitry is unknown. In this pilot study of 34 infants, we find that 1-year gut microbiome composition (Weighted Unifrac; lower abundance of Bacteroides, increased abundance of Veillonella, Dialister, and Clostridiales) is significantly associated with increased fear behavior during a non-social fear paradigm. Infants with increased richness and reduced evenness of the 1-month microbiome also display increased non-social fear. This study indicates associations of the human infant gut microbiome with fear behavior and possible relationships with fear-related brain structures on the basis of a small cohort. As such, it represents an important step in understanding the role of the gut microbiome in the development of human fear behaviors, but requires further validation with a larger number of participants.


Assuntos
Bacteroides/genética , Clostridiales/genética , Medo/psicologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Veillonella/genética , Veillonellaceae/genética , Adulto , Bacteroides/classificação , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Aleitamento Materno , Clostridiales/classificação , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Veillonella/classificação , Veillonella/isolamento & purificação , Veillonellaceae/classificação , Veillonellaceae/isolamento & purificação
18.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(19): 2394-2414, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34040330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota dysbiosis is reportedly actively involved in autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, the alterations in the gut microbiota and their correlation with fasting blood glucose (FBG) in Chinese children with T1DM remain unclear. AIM: To investigate alterations in the gut microbiota in Chinese children with T1DM and their associations with clinical indicators. METHODS: Samples from 51 children with T1DM and 47 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls were obtained, to explore the structural and functional alterations in the fecal microbiota. The V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced on a MiSeq instrument, and the association with FBG were analyzed. RESULTS: We found that the bacterial diversity was significantly increased in the T1DM-associated fecal microbiota, and changes in the microbial composition were observed at different taxonomic levels. The T1DM-reduced differential taxa, such as Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC8482, Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides xylanisolvens, and Flavonifractor plautii, were negatively correlated with FBG, while the T1DM-enriched taxa, such as Blautia, Eubacterium hallii group, Anaerostipes hadrus, and Dorea longicatena, were positively correlated with FBG. Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC8482, Bacteroides ovatus, the Eubacterium hallii group, and Anaerostipes hadrus, either alone or in combination, could be used as noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers to discriminate children with T1DM from healthy controls. In addition, the functional changes in the T1DM-associated fecal microbiota also suggest that these fecal microbes were associated with altered functions and metabolic activities, such as glycan biosynthesis and metabolism and lipid metabolism, which might play vital roles in the pathogenesis and development of T1DM. CONCLUSION: Our present comprehensive investigation of the T1DM-associated fecal microbiota provides novel insights into the pathogenesis of the disease and sheds light on the diagnosis and treatment of T1DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bacteroides , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Clostridiales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Disbiose , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
19.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 115, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The endoglycosidase heparanase which degrades heparan sulfate proteoglycans, exerts a pro-inflammatory mediator in various inflammatory disorders. However, the function and underlying mechanism of heparanase in acute pancreatitis remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the interplay between heparanase and the gut microbiota in the development of acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Acute pancreatitis was induced in wild-type and heparanase-transgenic mice by administration of caerulein. The differences in gut microbiota were analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Antibiotic cocktail experiment, fecal microbiota transplantation, and cohousing experiments were used to assess the role of gut microbiota. RESULTS: As compared with wild-type mice, acute pancreatitis was exacerbated in heparanase-transgenic mice. Moreover, the gut microbiota differed between heparanase-transgenic and wild-type mice. Heparanase exacerbated acute pancreatitis in a gut microbiota-dependent manner. Specially, the commensal Parabacteroides contributed most to distinguish the differences between wild-type and heparanase-transgenic mice. Administration of Parabacteroides alleviated acute pancreatitis in wild-type and heparanase-transgenic mice. In addition, Parabacteroides produced acetate to alleviate heparanase-exacerbated acute pancreatitis through reducing neutrophil infiltration. CONCLUSIONS: The gut-pancreas axis played an important role in the development of acute pancreatitis and the acetate produced by Parabacteroides may be beneficial for acute pancreatitis treatment. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Bacteroides , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Pancreatite/microbiologia , Doença Aguda , Animais , Glucuronidase , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos
20.
Poult Sci ; 100(6): 101124, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951593

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to characterize the bacterial diversity of cecal microbiota in broilers related to breast phenotype, diet, and genetic strain. Broilers from 2 genetic strains (120 birds/strain) were fed a control diet (15 birds/pen) and an amino acid reduced diet (15 birds/pen, digestible lysine, total sulfur amino acids, and threonine reduced by 20% compared to the control diet). At 8 wk of age, 4 male broilers with normal breast (NB, 1 chick per pen) and 4 male broilers with woody breast (WB, 1 chick per pen) were selected for each treatment (strain × diet). The DNA of cecal samples was extracted and the 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and analyzed. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the alpha diversity of gut microbiota between 2 phenotypes (NB vs. WB), 2 strains, or 2 diets (control vs. reduced). However, principal coordinate analysis plots (beta diversity) revealed that there were composition differences in samples between the 2 phenotypes (P = 0.001) and the 2 diets (P = 0.024). The most abundant phyla in all samples were Firmicutes, followed by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. There were differences (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.05) in bacterial relative abundance between phenotypes and between diet treatments, but not (FDR > 0.05) between the 2 genetic strains. Selenomonas bovis (12.6%) and Bacteroides plebeius (12.3%) were the top 2 predominant bacteria in the ceca of WB birds; however, the relative abundances of these 2 bacteria were only 5.1% and 1.2% in NB birds, respectively. Function analysis predicted that the metabolic activities differed (q < 0.05) only between phenotypes. The microbiota of WB birds was characterized as reduced glycolysis and urea cycle but increased tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycles, sugar degradation, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides biosynthesis. Further studies are needed to investigate if WB incidence could be reduced by regulating gut microbiota and the potential mechanism that leads to decreased WB incidence.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Doenças Musculares , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bacteroides , Ceco , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Masculino , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Selenomonas
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