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1.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 271-282, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192064

RESUMO

Un número considerable de estudiantes presenta dificultades de aprendizaje y bajo rendimiento académico, sin embargo su evaluación no siempre deriva en un diagnóstico concreto. Son categorizados como inmaduros, pero no se determinan ni la naturaleza ni las características de sus dificultades. El objetivo fue identificar los dominios evolutivos afectados en niños con retraso del desarrollo (RD) y valorar el concepto de dificultades neuroevolutivas como constructo comprensivo de las dificultades generalizadas de aprendizaje. Para ello, se realizó una revisión sistemática en las bases electrónicas Medline, PsycINFO, WOS, Eric, Dialnet y CSIC y, tras aplicar los criterios de inclusión, se seleccionaron 18 artículos. Los resultados confirman que RD se utiliza como etiqueta diagnóstica para caracterizar a niños con retrasos significativos en uno o varios ámbitos del desarrollo, pero no existe una definición de consenso ni criterios específicos para su diagnóstico, y solo sería de aplicación a niños de corta edad. Los dominios afectados coinciden con funciones neuroevolutivas y, en su etiología, destacan factores de riesgo biológico y ambiental. Se constata la persistencia en la niñez de las dificultades neuroevolutivas y su asociación con las dificultades generalizas en el aprendizaje de años escolares, apuntando a las primeras como constructo explicativo de las segundas


A considerable number of students have learning difficulties and low academic performance, yet their evaluation does not always lead to a concrete diagnosis. They are categorized as immature, but neither the nature nor the characteristics of their difficulties are determined. The aim of this study was to identify the developmental domains which are affected in children with developmental delay (DD) in order to assess the concept of neurodevelopmental difficulties as a comprehensive category and profile of generalized learning difficulties. To this end, a systematic review was carried out on the electronic databases Medline, PsycINFO, WOS, Eric, Dialnet and CSIC and, after applying the inclusion criteria, 18 articles were selected. The results confirm that DD is used as a diagnostic label to characterize children with significant delays in one or more developmental domains, but there is no definition of consensus nor specific criteria for its diagnosis, and it would only be applicable to young children. The affected domains coincide with neurodevelopmental functions, and biological and environmental risk factors stand out in their aetiology. Neurodevelopmental difficulties would encompass a wide spectrum of deficits with different levels of severity that, on interacting with each other, give rise to a variety of profiles


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/psicologia , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia
2.
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 22(85): e27-e30, ene.-mar. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193442

RESUMO

La primera causa de mortalidad en los niños después del primer año de vida son los tumores malignos. La supervivencia global es del 80% a los cinco años. La calidad de vida de los niños que sobreviven a un proceso oncológico puede verse alterada por la toxicidad del sistema nervioso central, causada por el mismo cáncer y por el tratamiento realizado. Presentamos un caso clínico de la afectación neuropsicológica en un niño con cáncer y su abordaje


Malignant tumors are the first cause of mortality in children after the first year of life. Global survival is 80% at 5 years. Quality of life of the children that survives an oncology process can be impaired by neurotoxicity of the nervous central system, caused by the treatment of cancer. We report a clinic case of the neuropsychological deficit in a child with cancer and its clinical approach


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/complicações , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/etiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 43(1,supl): 304-310, ene. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-193323

RESUMO

Introduction and Objectives: Learning performance is related to the individual, pedagogical, institutional and external factors. This study aims to test the factor structure of the Learning Performance Scale and how it relates to school dropout. Methodology: A quantitative, transversal, descriptive and correlational study. A sociodemographic and academic characterization questionnaire of the students of Higher Education and the Learning Performance Scale of Young, Klemz & Murphy (2003), adapted by Costa (2013), was used as a data collection instrument. The sample consisted of 891 students from Polytechnic Higher Education, with a mean age of 19.68 years (+/- 2.34 years). The female gender is more representative, with 68.2%, being the minimum age 17 years and maximum 40 years. Results and Discussion: The Learning Performance Scale is unifactorial and consists of 6 items. It has been found that the model is well adjusted. The internal consistency obtained by the composite reliability is very good, but there is no convergent validity. Female students had a higher rate of learning performance (Mean=70.87+/-11.71). The majority of students with older age (41.4%) present a low learning performance. Conclusions: The results show that the learning performance is predictive of the intention to drop out of school, which implies considering this variable in the programs that promote the continuation of studies in higher education


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fracasso Acadêmico/tendências , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Psicometria/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/epidemiologia , Curva de Aprendizado , Educação Superior , Intenção
4.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 23(264): 4036-4041, maio.2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1103245

RESUMO

O objetivo geral do trabalho é compreender a importância em se conhecer o TDAH e saber como o professor pode agir ao perceber que a criança foi diagnosticada com o TDAH. Como objetivos específicos, descrever a história do TDAH, conceituar, diagnosticar e abordar o TDAH na escola e descrever a educação física como intervenção ao TDAH em crianças de 9 a 11 anos. Trata-se de um estudo reflexivo com base em estudos publicados e o parecer de cada autor em ralação ao tema. A abordagem geral do texto conclui que são necessários mais estudos sobre o transtorno e déficit de atenção e hiperatividade na escola e, especificamente, suas relações com os modos de aprender e vivenciar práticas corporais nas aulas de Educação Física, pois se trata de uma realidade muito presente nas escolas. Somente assim teremos uma qualidade de ensino melhor aos nossos alunos TDAH.(AU)


The main aim of the paper is to understand the importance of knowing ADHD and knowing how the teacher can act when realizing that the child has been diagnosed with ADHD. As specific objectives, describe the history of ADHD, conceptualize, diagnose, and address ADHD at school and describe physical education as an intervention for ADHD in children aged 9 to 11 years. It is a reflective study based on published studies and the opinion of each author regarding the topic. The general approach of the text concludes that more studies are needed on the attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder at school and, specifically, its relationship with the ways of learning and experiencing body practices in Physical Education classes, as it is a very reality present in schools. Only then will we have a better teaching quality for our ADHD students.(AU)


El objetivo general del trabajo es comprender la importancia de conocer el TDAH y saber cómo puede actuar el maestro cuando se da cuenta de que el niño ha sido diagnosticado con TDAH. Como objetivos específicos, describa la historia del TDAH, conceptualice, diagnostique y aborde el TDAH en la escuela y describa la educación física como una intervención para el TDAH en niños de 9 a 11 años. Es un estudio reflexivo basado en estudios publicados y la opinión de cada autor con respecto al tema. El enfoque general del texto concluye que se necesitan más estudios sobre el trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad en la escuela y, específicamente, su relación con las formas de aprender y experimentar las prácticas corporales en las clases de Educación Física, ya que es una realidad muy real. presente en las escuelas. Solo entonces tendremos una mejor calidad de enseñanza para nuestros estudiantes con TDAH.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Saúde da Criança , Educação , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária , Educação Especial
5.
Gac. méd. espirit ; 21(3): 21-29, sept.-dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090440

RESUMO

RESUMEN Fundamento: La mirada inclusiva sobre las escuelas debe ser de cambios y amplitud para establecer en el sistema educacional la comprensión del ser humano, considerando sus historias, concepciones, percepciones, creencias, experiencias y trayectorias personales de forma interdisciplinar, especialmente de los niños con deficiencia. Objetivo: Analizar las experiencias de los niños con deficiencias, vivenciadas en una escuela de un municipio brasileño, a partir de los relatos maternos. Metodología: Estudio transversal, exploratorio con abordaje cualitativo. Se aplicó una encuesta a 20 madres de niños con deficiencias que estaban en seguimiento en un Centro de Salud, ubicado en una ciudad del estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Fue adoptado el referencial teórico-metodológico de la perspectiva hermenéutica dialéctica, buscando comprender la realidad situada en su contexto, atada a la confrontación y análisis crítico de las categorías empíricas. Resultados: Emergieron puntos problemáticos relativos a la inclusión escolar, inequidades de los derechos, escasez de profesionales de educación y de salud capacitados para el cuidado de los niños con deficiencias, así como las inadecuaciones arquitectónicas, selección y adaptación de mobiliarios para los niños. Conclusiones: La inclusión escolar se presenta como un reto multidimensional, una vez que aún son necesarias condiciones estructurales y contextuales adecuadas en correspondencia con un enfoque de desarrollo sostenible, de modo que la educación inclusiva en las escuelas se efectúe de manera concreta y real, ultrapasando el idealismo referido en las propuestas de políticas públicas.


ABSTRACT: The inclusive view on schools must be of changes and breadth to establish in the educational system the understanding of the human being, considering their histories, conceptions, perceptions, beliefs, experiences and personal trajectories in an interdisciplinary way, especially from disabled children. Objective: To analyze the experiences of disabled children, experienced in a school from a Brazilian municipality, based on the maternal stories. Methodology: Cross-sectional, exploratory study with qualitative approach. A survey was applied to 20 mothers of disabled children being followed up in a health center, located in a city in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The theoretical-methodological reference of the dialectical hermeneutical perspective was adopted, seeking to understand the reality located in its context, tied to the confrontation and critical analysis of the empirical categories. Results: Problematic points emerged regarding school inclusion, rights inequities, scarcity of education and health professionals trained for the care of disabled children, as well as architectural inadequacies, selection and adaptation of furniture for children. Conclusions: School inclusion is presented as a multidimensional challenge, since adequate structural and contextual conditions are still necessary in correspondence with a sustainable development approach, so that inclusive education in schools is carried out in a concrete and real way, exceeding the idealism referred to in public policy proposals.


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência/educação , Educação Especial , Estudos Interdisciplinares , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Programas de Estudo
6.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(4): 363-375, nov. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Students' academic achievement depends on their personal, family and sociocultural characteristics. This study aims to identify the personal and family factors of European students who do not perform as expected, whether by surpassing expectations (resilient) or by failing to meet them (low performers). METHOD: The sample was composed of 117,539 fourth grade students who completed the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) test, from 23 European Union countries. Academic performance was evaluated via a reading comprehension test. For each country, two binary logistic regression models were used, one for resilient students and the other for low performers. Variables related to the students and their families were used as predictor variables. RESULTS: Significant differences were found between European countries in terms of the proportion of resilient and low performing students. The two variables with the most predictive power were student confidence with reading, and having done early literacy activities. CONCLUSIONS: Students' personal characteristics and family conditions are instrumental in students being considered resilient or low performers


ANTECEDENTES: el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes depende de sus características personales, familiares y socioculturales. El presente trabajo trata de identificar los factores personales y familiares de los estudiantes europeos que no obtienen el rendimiento esperado, bien sea porque superan las expectativas previas (resilientes), o porque rinden por debajo de lo esperado (low performers). MÉTODO: la muestra está formada por 117.539 estudiantes de cuarto grado que realizaron la prueba de Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), pertenecientes a 23 países de la Unión Europea. El rendimiento académico se evaluó mediante una prueba de compresión lectora. Para cada país se utilizaron dos modelos de regresion logística binaria, uno para los alumnos resilientes y otro para los low performers. Como variables predictoras se utilizaron variables asociadas al alumno y a su familia. RESULTADOS: se han obtenido diferencias importantes entre los países europeos en relación a la proporción de alumnos resilientes y low performers. La confianza de los estudiantes en la lectura y el haber realizado actividades de alfabetización temprana son las dos variables con mayor poder predictivo. CONCLUSIONES: las características personales del alumnado y sus condiciones familiares son determinantes para que los estudiantes sean considerados resilientes y low performers


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Sucesso Acadêmico , Família , Leitura , Resiliência Psicológica , Estudantes/psicologia , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Atitude , Compreensão , União Europeia/estatística & dados numéricos , Alfabetização/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Pais , Análise de Componente Principal , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(4): 422-428, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on a person-centered approach, the aim ofthis study is to identify different profiles of students based on the time they spend on homew he differences between them in the amount of homework done and academic achievement. METHOD: With a sample of 968 students of Primary Education analysis of latent profiles (LPA) and ANOVA were carried out. Once the student profiles were identified, a MANOVA was conducted to analyze the differences between the motivational profiles in the amount of homework assignments done and in academic achievement. RESULTS: We differentiated four profiles of students that differentially combine the time they dedicate to their homework and the use they make of that time. CONCLUSIONS: Of the profiles identified, two can be considered more effective (those that manage time better), and two can be classified as less effective (those that manage time worse). The two profiles that best manage the time spent on homework are also those that do the most homework, and have higher academic achievement. Likewise, the two profiles of students who manage time worst are those who do the least homework, and who have lower academic achievement


ANTECEDENTES: partiendo de un enfoque centrado en la persona, el propósito de este trabajo es identificar diferentes perfiles de estudiantes en función del tiempo que dedican a los deberes escolares y de la gestión que hacen de ese tiempo; así como también analizar las diferencias entre ellos en la cantidad de deberes realizados y en el rendimiento académico. MÉTODO: con una muestra de 968 estudiantes de Educación Primaria, se llevaron a cabo análisis de perfiles latentes (LPA) y ANOVA. Una vez identificados los perfiles de estudiantes se realizó un MANOVA para analizar las diferencias entre los perfiles motivacionales en la cantidad de deberes realizados y en el rendimiento. RESULTADOS: se han podido diferenciar cuatro perfiles de estudiantes que combinan de manera distinta el tiempo que dedican a los deberes y la gestión que hacen de ese tiempo. CONCLUSIONES: de los perfiles identificados, dos pueden considerarse más eficaces (los que gestionan mejor el tiempo) y otros dos pueden catalogarse como menos eficaces (los que gestionan peor el tiempo). Los dos perfiles que gestionan mejor el tiempo son también los que realizan más cantidad de deberes y tienen un rendimiento académico más alto; y los dos que gestionan peor el tiempo son los que realizan menos cantidad de deberes y tienen un rendimiento académico más bajo


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Sucesso Acadêmico , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Gerenciamento do Tempo , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Análise de Variância , Espanha , Estudantes/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Psicothema ; 31(4): 363-375, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Students' academic achievement depends on their personal, family and sociocultural characteristics. This study aims to identify the personal and family factors of European students who do not perform as expected, whether by surpassing expectations (resilient) or by failing to meet them (low performers). METHOD: The sample was composed of 117,539 fourth grade students who completed the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) test, from 23 European Union countries. Academic performance was evaluated via a reading comprehension test. For each country, two binary logistic regression models were used, one for resilient students and the other for low performers. Variables related to the students and their families were used as predictor variables. RESULTS: Significant differences were found between European countries in terms of the proportion of resilient and low performing students. The two variables with the most predictive power were student confidence with reading, and having done early literacy activities. CONCLUSIONS: Students' personal characteristics and family conditions are instrumental in students being considered resilient or low performers.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Família , Leitura , Resiliência Psicológica , Estudantes/psicologia , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Atitude , Criança , Compreensão , União Europeia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Alfabetização/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pais , Análise de Componente Principal , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Psicothema ; 31(4): 422-428, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on a person-centered approach, the aim ofthis study is to identify different profiles of students based on the time they spend on homew he differences between them in the amount of homework done and academic achievement. METHOD: With a sample of 968 students of Primary Education analysis of latent profiles (LPA) and ANOVA were carried out. Once the student profiles were identified, a MANOVA was conducted to analyze the differences between the motivational profiles in the amount of homework assignments done and in academic achievement. RESULTS: We differentiated four profiles of students that differentially combine the time they dedicate to their homework and the use they make of that time. CONCLUSIONS: Of the profiles identified, two can be considered more effective (those that manage time better), and two can be classified as less effective (those that manage time worse). The two profiles that best manage the time spent on homework are also those that do the most homework, and have higher academic achievement. Likewise, the two profiles of students who manage time worst are those who do the least homework, and who have lower academic achievement.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Gerenciamento do Tempo , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Análise de Variância , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Estudantes/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Metas enferm ; 22(8): 59-67, oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184998

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar los conocimientos, percepciones y riesgos asociados al consumo de las bebidas energéticas (BE) en adolescentes. Método: para esta revisión narrativa se consultaron las bases de datos: Pubmed, Cinahl, Cuiden Plus y Scopus. Se utilizó lenguaje libre y controlado (MeSH). Se aplicaron límites de idioma (inglés y español), los últimos cinco años de publicación (2014-2019), y adolescentes (10-19 años). Resultados: se seleccionaron 26 artículos de un total de 702. Un 82,6% tenía un enfoque cuantitativo, mayoritariamente estudios descriptivos transversales (57,6%). Los hallazgos se categorizaron en: conocimientos y percepciones de los consumidores, influencia en el descanso y estado anímico, y abuso de sustancias. El consumo de BE se percibía como un hábito propio de hombres, poco saludable y de prácticas deportivas en general; además se asociaba a la actividad física, adopción de conductas violentas, un peor rendimiento y fracaso escolar, problemas afectivos, problemas en el patrón del sueño, hiperactividad, conducción temeraria, abuso de sustancias y dependencia alcohólica. Conclusiones: la desinformación y agresivas campañas de marketing favorecen el abuso de BE, lo que conduce a un mayor riesgo de abuso de sustancias. La elaboración de programas preventivos, la actualización de los vigentes, el consejo nutricional y la educación para la salud podrían ser cruciales para resolver el problema


Objective: to identify the knowledge, perceptions and risks associated with the use of energy drinks (EDs) in adolescents. Method: the following databases were consulted for this narrative review: Pubmed, Cinahl, Cuiden Plus and Scopus. Free and controlled language was used (MeSH). There were limitations in terms of language (English and Spanish), the last five years of publication (2014-2019), and adolescents (10-to-19-year old). Results: twenty-six (26) articles were selected out of 702; 82.6% of these had a quantitative approach, the majority were descriptive cross-sectional studies (57.6%). Findings were classified into: knowledge and perceptions by users, influence in rest and mood, and substance abuse. The use of EDs was perceived as a typically male behaviour, not healthy, and for sports activities in general; besides, it was associated with physical activity, violent behaviours, worse performance and academic failure, emotional problems, sleep pattern problems, hyperactivity, reckless driving, substance abuse, and alcohol dependency. Conclusions: lack of information and aggressive marketing campaigns encourage the abuse of energy drinks, which leads to a higher risk of substance abuse. Preparing preventive programs and updating the current ones, as well as nutritional advice and education for health, could be essential in order to solve this problem


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento do Adolescente , Exercício Físico , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Humor , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Desempenho Atlético , Desempenho Acadêmico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
11.
An. psicol ; 35(3): 405-416, oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190028

RESUMO

The present case-control, double-blind, and prospective study investigated the effects of Numeracy Music Training (NMT) on cognitive skills of primary school children. Participating in the study were 42 children aged 8 to 10 years divided into two groups: Low Achievement in Math (n = 21), and Average Achievement in Math (n = 21). The children underwent two evaluations before and after NMT, where cognitive tests and behavior scales were applied that assessed variables such as school performance, IQ, working memory, numerical cognition, anxiety and stress. NMT was developed in eight group sessions and aimed to stimulate the systems of numerical cognition and integrate basic musical knowledge, and symbolic representations. After the intervention, through musical training, the children in both groups showed significant improvements in school performance, systems of numerical cognition and working memory, as well as the reduction of manifestation of mathematics anxiety


El presente estudio caso-control, doble ciego, y prospectivo investigó los efectos del entrenamiento musical numérico (NMT; Numeracy Musical Training), sobre habilidades cognitivas en niños de enseñanza primaria. Participaron 42 niños de 8 a 10 años divididos en dos grupos: con Bajo Rendimiento Aritmético (N= 21), y con Rendimiento Aritmético Medio (N = 21). Los niños pasaron por dos evaluaciones, antes y después de la realización del NMT, en las cuales se aplicaron pruebas cognitivas y escalas de comportamiento, que evaluaban variables como: rendimiento escolar, CI, memoria operativa, cognición numérica, ansiedad y estrés. El NMT fue desarrollado en ocho sesiones colectivas y tuvo como objetivo estimular los sistemas de la cognición numérica e integrar conocimientos musicales básicos y representaciones simbólicas. Después de la intervención por medio del entrenamiento musical los niños de ambos grupos obtuvieron mejoras significativas en el rendimiento académico, en los sistemas de la cognición numérica y en la memoria operativa, así como una disminución de la manifestación de ansiedad a las matemáticas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Matemática/educação , Método Duplo-Cego , Cognição/fisiologia , Musicoterapia/métodos , Discalculia/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Prospectivos , Música/psicologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia
12.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 77(3): 147-154, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970126

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the quality of life of children with poor school performance and its association with behavioral aspects and hearing abilities. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study, developed in a town in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, investigated a random sample of public school children, aged 7-12 years old, who performed poorly in school and received specialized educational assistance. The study comprised two stages: 1) collection of data from parents on their children's health, educational, and socioeconomic profile, and from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; 2) administration of a quality of life evaluation scale to the schoolchildren. For the assessment of auditory function, transient otoacoustic emissions were used and auditory processing was tested. The following tests were used: verbal sequential memory, nonverbal sequential memory, sound localization, dichotic digits, duration pattern test (flute) and random gap detection. The collected data were analyzed using Excel and STATA 11.0 software. Quality of life was considered the response variable. The explanatory variables were grouped for univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis with the level of significance set at 5%. RESULTS: A statistically significant association was found between impaired quality of life, altered pro-social behavior, and the absence of parental complaints about the children's written language development. CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life is impaired in children with poor school performance. The lack of parental complaints about written language and changes in social behavior increased the likelihood of a child having a poor quality of life.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Audição/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Brasil , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/fisiopatologia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Comportamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Edumecentro ; 11(1): 244-249, ene.-mar. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039697

RESUMO

RESUMEN Existe preocupación acerca del bajo rendimiento escolar en estudiantes de ciencias médicas. Los autores de esta comunicación analizaron varios factores que condicionan este fenómeno, y enfatizan en la necesidad de investigar los asociados a los estados psicológicos de los estudiantes, entre ellos, las causas afectivas o emocionales relacionadas con el funcionamiento familiar, social y personal. Toda investigación dirigida hacia la solución de esta problemática debe partir de un diagnóstico profundo y la implementación de estrategias para la intervención oportuna a fin de minimizar las influencias negativas de la psiquis en los procesos mentales.


ABSTRACT There is concern about poor school performance in medical science students. The authors of this research paper analyzed several factors that condition this phenomenon, and emphasize the need to investigate those associated with the psychological states of students, among them, affective or emotional causes related to family, social and personal functioning. All research aimed at solving this problem must start with a deep diagnosis and the implementation of strategies for timely intervention in order to minimize the negative influences of the psyche on mental processes.


Assuntos
Psicologia , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Educação Médica , Avaliação Educacional
14.
Distúrb. comun ; 31(1): 69-76, mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-996215

RESUMO

Introdução: A amamentação é fator de proteção para doenças respiratórias, além de contribuir para o desenvolvimento intelectual das crianças. Objetivo: Analisar a relação do tempo de amamentação com sinais de respiração oral em crianças com mau desempenho escolar. Métodos: Estudo transversal, realizado com 82 crianças de 7 a 12 anos de idade, com mau desempenho escolar, recrutadas nas escolas públicas de uma cidade do interior de Minas Gerais. Os pais responderam a um questionário contendo os seguintes temas: tempo de amamentação em meses, sexo da criança, escolaridade materna e sinais de respiração oral. Para a análise estatística foi empregado o teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson e Teste Exato de Fisher, considerando o nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Do total das crianças estudadas, 61 (74%) receberam amamentação por mais de seis meses, 60 (73%) eram do sexo masculino, 47 (56%) das mães eram analfabetas ou tinham o ensino fundamental incompleto. Os sinais de respiração oral estavam presentes em 57 (70%) dos escolares. Houve associação entre o tempo de amamentação e o relato de queixas de obstrução nasal esporadicamente, dificuldade ou demora ao engolir o alimento e dormir de boca aberta. Conclusão: As crianças que foram amamentadas por tempo inferior a seis meses apresentaram maior número combinado de sinais de respiração oral. Houve associação estatisticamente significante entre os sinais de respiração oral e o tempo de amamentação. O rastreamento de crianças que precisam ser encaminhadas para avaliação multiprofissional do modo respiratório pode ser realizado por meio das informações sobre tempo de amamentação e sinais de respiração oral combinados.


Introduction: Breastfeeding is a protective factor for respiratory diseases, as well as contributing to the intellectual development of children. Objective: To analyze the relationship of breastfeeding time with signs of oral breathing in children with poor school performance. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 82 children aged 7 to 12 years old with poor school performance, recruited from public schools in a city in the interior of Minas Gerais. The parents answered a questionnaire containing the following topics: breastfeeding time in months, gender of the child, maternal schooling and signs of oral breathing. For the statistical analysis, Pearson's Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used, considering a significance level of 5%. Results: Of the total number of children studied, 61 (74%) received breastfeeding for more than six months, 60 (73%) were male, 47 (56%) of the mothers were illiterate or had incomplete elementary education. Signs of oral breathing were present in 57 (70%) of schoolchildren. There was an association between the time of breastfeeding and the report of complaints of nasal obstruction sporadically, difficulty or delay when swallowing food and sleeping with open mouth. Conclusion: Children who were breastfed for less than six months had a greater combined number of signs of oral breathing. There was a statistically significant association between the signs of oral breathing and the time of breastfeeding. Screening of children who need to be referred for multiprofessional evaluation of the respiratory mode can be performed through information on breastfeeding time and combined mouth breathing signals.


Introducción: La lactancia materna es un factor de protección para las enfermedades respiratorias, además de contribuir al desarrollo intelectual de los niños. Objetivo: Analizar la relación del tiempo de lactancia con signos de respiración oral en niños con mal desempeño escolar. Métodos: Estudio transversal, realizado con 82 niños de 7 a 12 años de edad, con mal desempeño escolar, reclutados en las escuelas públicas de una ciudad del interior de Minas Gerais. Los padres respondieron a un cuestionario que contenía los siguientes temas: tiempo de lactancia en meses, sexo del niño, escolaridad materna y signos de respiración oral. Para el análisis estadístico se empleó la prueba Chi-cuadrado de Pearson y la prueba exacta de Fisher, considerando el nivel de significancia del 5% .Resultados: Del total de los niños estudiados, 61 (74%) recibieron amamantación superior a seis meses, 60 (73%) eran del sexo masculino, 47 (56%) de las madres eran analfabetas o tenían la enseñanza fundamental incompleta. Los signos de respiración oral estaban presentes en 57 (70%) de los escolares. Se observó asociación entre el tiempo de lactancia y el relato de quejas de obstrucción nasal esporádicamente, dificultad o demora al tragar el alimento y dormir de boca abierta. Conclusión: Los niños que fueron amamantados por tiempo inferior a seis meses presentaron mayor número combinado de signos de respiración oral. Se observó asociación estadísticamente significativa entre los signos de respiración oral y el tiempo de lactancia. El seguimiento de niños que necesitan ser encaminados para evaluación multiprofesional del modo respiratorio puede ser realizado por medio de las informaciones sobre tiempo de lactancia y señales de respiración oral combinadas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Aleitamento Materno , Fonoaudiologia , Respiração Bucal
15.
Soc Work Public Health ; 34(1): 61-74, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773138

RESUMO

The educational status among African Americans is a story of continuing achievement and continuing disparities in outcomes. On one hand, there are continuing stories of high academic accomplishments among Black Americans who attend and graduate from high-ranking American institutions of higher education. On the other hand, the continuing gap in educational opportunities and outcomes within Black America is shaping present and future education disparities. This essay examines the impact of recent education policy on education reform and outcomes for African Americans. The dynamic characteristics of the Black American educational experience are discussed. Some attention is given to historical factors that helped shape present-day education reform measures and their impact on the African-American educational experience. Education policy as a public health issue is briefly addressed throughout this article. Suggestions are made for future policy initiatives and advocacy, teaching, and for human-service professionals working with Black children and youth in school settings.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Escolaridade , Política Pública , Humanos , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Estados Unidos
16.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 34(4): 689-696, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data to describe academic achievement outcomes for children with mild to moderate pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of low academic achievement in patients with mild to moderate CKD. METHODS: Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition, Abbreviated (WIAT-II-A) data were collected at entry into the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) study. Achievement in basic reading, spelling, mathematics, and total achievement was evaluated with a focus on the effects of comorbid CKD-related variables, neurocognitive, and school-based characteristics on academic achievement. RESULTS: WIAT-II-A data were available for 319 children in the CKiD cohort. Low total academic achievement was present in 34% percent of the sample. There was no significant effect of CKD-related medical variables on academic achievement. Mathematics had the lowest distribution of achievement scores. In univariate models, low achievement was significantly related to days of missed school (p = 0.006) and presence of individualized education plan (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Low academic achievement was seen in over one-third of children with CKD, with the most difficulty observed in the domain of mathematics. Providers and educators should monitor for academic difficulties in this population in order to facilitate early educational assistance and promote positive educational outcomes.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Escolaridade , Inteligência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/psicologia , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Absenteísmo , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 24: e2018, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038760

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Associar a competência leitora em palavras e pseudopalavras de escolares de 7 a 10 anos de idade, segundo as variáveis sexo, idade, desempenho escolar e habilidades auditivas. Métodos Estudo observacional analítico transversal, com amostra não probabilística composta por 109 escolares. Foram utilizados como instrumentos o Teste de Competência de Leitura de Palavras e Pseudopalavras, o Teste de Desempenho Escolar, o Teste de Localização Sonora, o Teste de Memória para Sons Verbais em Sequência e o Teste de Memória para Sons Não Verbais em Sequência Resultados O Teste de Competência de Leitura de Palavras e Pseudopalavras apresentou resultado normal na maioria das crianças. No Teste de Desempenho Escolar, a maioria dos escolares apresentou desempenho inferior, conforme critérios de classificação do teste. A Avaliação Simplificada do Processamento Auditivo resultou em maior porcentagem de adequação da habilidade auditiva de localização sonora, seguida pela habilidade auditiva de ordenação temporal simples para sons não verbais e para sons verbais. Houve associação significativa entre os resultados do Teste de Competência de Leitura de Palavras e Pseudopalavras e do Teste de Desempenho Escolar e seus subtestes. Conclusão O estudo revelou associação entre a competência leitora em palavras/pseudopalavras e o desempenho escolar de crianças de 7 anos a 10 anos, 11 meses e 29 dias. Contudo, não houve evidência de associação entre a competência leitora em palavras/pseudopalavras, as variáveis sociodemográficas e as habilidades auditivas.


ABSTRACT Purpose To associate the word and non-word reading competence of students aged from 7 to 10 years according to variables as gender, age, school performance and auditory abilities. Methods Observational analytic cross-sectional study with a non-probabilistic sample. The study was conducted with 109 students of three educational institutions. The Word-Pseudoword Reading Competence Test, the Test for School Achievement, the Sound Localization Test, the Sequential Memory Test for Verbal and Non-verbal Sounds were used as instruments. Results In most children the Word-Pseudoword Reading Competence Test showed normal results. Most students showed low performance in the Test for School Achievement. The Simplified Auditory Processing Test resulted in a higher percentage of adequacy of the sound localization ability, followed by the auditory ability of simple temporal ordering for non-verbal sounds and verbal sounds. There was a significant association between the results of the Word-Pseudoword Reading Competence Test and the Test for School Achievement and its subtests. Conclusion The study revealed an association between word and non-word reading competence and school performance of children aged from 7 to 10 years, 11 months and 29 days. However, there was no evidence of association between word and pseudoword reading competence, sociodemographic variables and auditory abilities.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Percepção Auditiva , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Desempenho Acadêmico , Percepção Sonora , Memória de Curto Prazo , Leitura , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Cognição , Compreensão , Testes Auditivos , Testes de Linguagem , Aprendizagem
18.
Psico USF ; 24(2): 323-335, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012784

RESUMO

The study aimed to investigate the association of risk and protection factors in the academic performance and life satisfaction of elementary school students. Participants included 400 students of both sexes, aged between 11 and 17 years, and 26 female teachers from public and private schools in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The instruments were: Social Skills Inventory for Adolescents, Social Support Perception Scale, Brazilian Youth Questionnaire and Maslach Burnout Inventory. Main results showed that exposure to family violence by the students, emotional exhaustion and low professional achievement by the teachers contribute to a poor performance of students in school. Students with indicators of social support by the family and the community and of self-control skills presented higher life satisfaction. This study reveals contextual and personal variables that affect students' socio-emotional and academic development which prove subsidies for future interventions. (AU)


O estudo investigou a associação de fatores de risco e de proteção sobre o desempenho escolar e a satisfação com a vida de estudantes do Ensino Fundamental. Participaram 400 alunos de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 11 e 17 anos e 26 professoras de escolas públicas e particulares do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: Inventário de Habilidades Sociais para Adolescentes; Escala de Percepção de Apoio Social; Questionário da Juventude Brasileira; Inventário de Burnout de Maslach. Os principais resultados mostraram que a exposição à violência na família pelos estudantes, exaustação emocional e baixa realização profissional das professoras contribuem para o baixo desempenho escolar dos estudantes. Alunos com indicadores de apoio social na família e comunidade e habilidades sociais de autocontrole apresentam maior satisfação com a vida. Os dados do estudo evidenciam variáveis contextuais e pessoais que afetam o desenvolvimento socioemocional e acadêmico dos estudantes, fornecendo subsídios para futuras intervenções. (AU)


El estudio explotó la asociación de factores de riesgo y de protección sobre el desempeño escolar y la satisfacción con la vida de estudiantes de la Enseñanza Primaria. Participaron 400 alumnos de ambos sexos, con edades entre 11 y 17 años y 26 profesoras de escuelas públicas y privadas del Estado de Río de Janeiro. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: Inventario de Habilidades Sociales para Adolescentes; Escala de Percepción de Apoyo Social; Cuestionario de la Juventud Brasileña; Inventario de Burnout de Maslach. Los principales resultados mostraron que la exposición a la violencia en la familia por los estudiantes, agotamiento emocional y baja realización profesional de las profesoras contribuyen para el bajo desempeño escolar de los estudiantes. Alumnos con indicadores de apoyo social en la familia y en la comunidad y habilidades de autocontrol presentan mayor satisfacción con la vida. Los datos del estudio evidencian variables contextuales y personales que afectan el desarrollo socioemocional y académico de los estudiantes, ofreciendo subsidios para futuras intervenciones. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes/psicologia , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Habilidades Sociais , /psicologia , Apoio Social , Violência Doméstica , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Professores Escolares/psicologia
20.
INSPILIP ; 2(2): 1-15, jul.-dic. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-981805

RESUMO

El bullying en la actualidad es un verdadero problema de salud creciente que ha ganado espacio,pero sin embargo es poco denunciado, a pesar de existir leyes en el Ecuador que lo estipulan como delito;la forma de maltrato en la actualidad se ha intensificado debido a la utilización de redes sociales y discriminación de clase. En Ambato, en una unidad educativa privada, se realizó el presente estudio transversal descriptivo en jóvenes de 13 a 18 años deedad, mediante la aplicación de una encuesta, y los resultados mostraron que el 49 % de adolescentes admite ser acosado, identificándosea la provocación, el maltrato verbal como formas frecuentes de intimidación, seguido del maltrato físico y psicológico; el lugar donde se produce el mayor número de intimidaciones es fuera de la unidad educativa y en ausencia del docente; el adolescente intimidado en alto porcentaje no comparte su problema, lo que hace que esta modalidad de intimidación no sea resuelta deforma inmediata y no se tome el correctivo necesario, tanto para el acosador como para el intimidado,lo cual en el futuro traerá graves consecuencias, dentro de las cuales se pueden citar trastornos psicológicos, de conducta, bajo rendimiento escolar, distimia y en el peor de los casos llegar a autolisis. Por todo aquello es necesario realizar campañas de concienciación dirigidas a docentes, padres de familia y estudiantes, con el fin de detectar y corregir a tiempo esta problemática social, evitando consecuencias fatales.


Bullying is in the actuality a real and silent health problem, that has gained ground, however it is little denounced, despite of the existence of laws in Ecuador that report it as a crime, the way to abuse today has been intensified due to the use of social networks and class discrimination. In Ambato, in a private education unit, was made this descriptive cross-sectional study in teenagers between 13-18 years old, and the results showed that 49 % of teenagers admit being bullied, as the main factor was identified the provocation, and as more frequent the verbal abuse, followed by physical and psychological abuse; the place the most number of intimidations where made is in the around of the educational unit and in the absence of teachers; the teenager who is bullied in high percentage does not share their problem, what makes this type of intimidation not be resolved immediately and they do not take the necessary corrective measures, for both the bully as the aggressed, this will bring serious consequences in the future within which we can cite psychological disorders, behavioral, poor school performance, dysthymias and in the worst of case to the autolysis, For this reason, it is necessary to conduct awareness campaigns aimed at teachers, parents and students, in order to detect and correct as soon as possible this social problem, avoiding fatal consequences.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Transtornos do Humor , Discriminação Social , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Comportamento
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