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2.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 18(6): 511-516, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290126

RESUMO

Biobanking has been playing a crucial role in the development of new vaccines, drugs, biotechnology, and therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of a wide range of human diseases. This puts biobanks at the forefront of responding to the ongoing worldwide outbreak of the severe pandemic, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The leading public health institutions around the world have developed and established interim policies and guidelines for researchers and biobank staff to handle the infectious biospecimens safely and adequately from COVID-19 patients. A study of these important and complementary policies and guidelines is conducted in this study. It should be emphasized that the COVID-19 biospecimens must be collected, processed, and preserved by trained personnel equipped with right personal protective equipment to prevent the transmission of the coronavirus and ensure the specimen quality for testing and research. Six of the leading global public health organizations or institutions included in this study are the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Public Health England, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and the Office of Research at the University of California, San Francisco. In conclusion, following the recommended guidance and policies with extreme precautions is essential to ensure the quality of the collected COVID-19 biospecimens and accuracy of the conducted research or treatment, and prevent any possible transmission. Efforts from cryobiologist and biobanking engineers to optimize the protocol of COVID-19 biospecimen cryopreservation and develop the user-friendly and cost-effective devices are urgently required to meet the urgent and increased needs in the specimen biobanking and transportation.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Pesquisa Biomédica , Pandemias , Manejo de Espécimes , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
3.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 549, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The widespread adoption of high throughput technologies has democratized data generation. However, data processing in accordance with best practices remains challenging and the data capital often becomes siloed. This presents an opportunity to consolidate data assets into digital biobanks-ecosystems of readily accessible, structured, and annotated datasets that can be dynamically queried and analysed. RESULTS: We present Isabl, a customizable plug-and-play platform for the processing of multimodal patient-centric data. Isabl's architecture consists of a relational database (Isabl DB), a command line client (Isabl CLI), a RESTful API (Isabl API) and a frontend web application (Isabl Web). Isabl supports automated deployment of user-validated pipelines across the entire data capital. A full audit trail is maintained to secure data provenance, governance and ensuring reproducibility of findings. CONCLUSIONS: As a digital biobank, Isabl supports continuous data utilization and automated meta analyses at scale, and serves as a catalyst for research innovation, new discoveries, and clinical translation.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Internet , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software , Interface Usuário-Computador
4.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 18(6): 547-560, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226280

RESUMO

The COVID-19 era has brought about a number of novel challenges for the global biobanking community. An array of diverse tools (e.g., standards, best practices, and plans) exists to support quality and fitness-for-purpose in biobank operations. The International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER) COVID-19 Response Task Force has set out to identify needs and gaps in these tools and make recommendations for the next generation of available tools, having closely examined the COVID-19-related challenges. While conducting this work to examine the relationships between tools and biobank adaptability, a subgroup of the task force conducted a parallel effort to develop and describe individual COVID-19 era case studies based on a number of operating biobanks. Each case study presents a different combination of implemented tools. Observations and lessons learned from these case studies are provided, and experiences with tool implementation are discussed. This information is supplemented by data relating to tool usefulness that was obtained through an ISBER survey discussed in a companion article. The knowledge gained from this study will be combined with other task force efforts to make recommendations to better position the biobanking community in their response to future emergencies.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Pesquisa Biomédica , Pandemias , /metabolismo , /epidemiologia , Humanos
7.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 18(6): 533-546, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164554

RESUMO

The era of COVID-19 has brought about a number of novel challenges for the global biobanking community. To better position the biobanking community to cope with current and future challenges, the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER) COVID-19 Response Task Force was convened to identify needs and gaps in biobanking tools (existing resources that support good practice), for example, standards, best practices, business, etc. and to make recommendations to benefit the community. Toward these goals, the Task Force assembled a set of questions to explore individual biobanks' experiences, with emphasis on identification of key challenges and approaches, including tools employed. A survey was designed with the use of these questions and administered by ISBER. This article presents a summary of the aggregated data obtained from the survey responses, illustrating some of the major issues encountered and identifying which tools the survey respondents found most useful. In particular, this article focuses on the challenges identified during the early months of the COVID-19 era. Recommendations are provided to support biobank emergency preparedness for the future, address lessons learned, and propose solutions to bridge identified gaps. The analysis and the complete survey dataset will also inform the larger Task Force goal to develop specific tool recommendations.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Pandemias , /metabolismo , /epidemiologia , Humanos
8.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 18(6): 517-524, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175565

RESUMO

In only a few months after its inception, the COVID-19 pandemic lead to the death of hundreds of thousands of patients and to the infection of millions of people on most continents, mostly in the United States and in Europe. During this crisis, it was demonstrated that a better understanding of the pathogenicity, virulence, and contagiousness of SARS-CoV-2, all of which were initially underestimated, was urgently needed. The development of diagnostic tests to identify SARS-CoV-2 or to detect anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies in blood, of vaccines, and of preventive and curative treatments has been relying on intense activity of scientists in academia and industry. It is noteworthy that these scientists depend on the use of high-quality biological samples taken from positive COVID-19 patients in a manner that preserves their integrity. Given this unique and emergent situation, it was necessary to urgently establish biological collections clinically annotated for immediate development of clinical and translational research projects focusing on COVID-19 biological aspects. It is in this very specific context that biobanks must rapidly adapt their infrastructure and/or operational capacity to fulfill new critical needs. We report the establishment of a biobank dedicated to the collection of blood-derived products (plasma, serum, and leukocytes) from COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the Nice Pasteur Hospital (Nice, France).


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , /epidemiologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 18(6): 561-569, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181021

RESUMO

When a new virus emerges and causes a significant epidemic, the emergency response relies on diagnostics, surveillance, testing, and proposal of treatments if they exist, and also in the longer term, redirection of research efforts toward understanding the newly discovered pathogen. To serve these goals, viral biobanks play a crucial role. The European Virus Archive (EVA) is a network of biobanks from research laboratories worldwide that has combined into a common set of practices and mutually beneficial objectives to give scientists the tools that they need to study viruses in general, and also to respond to a pandemic caused by emerging viruses. Taking the most recent outbreaks of the Zika virus and SARS-CoV-2 as examples, by looking at who orders what and when to the EVA, we illustrate how the global science community at large, public health, fundamental research and private companies, reorganize their activity toward diagnosing, understanding, and fighting the new pathogen.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Pandemias , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus/metabolismo , /epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/metabolismo
10.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 355, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty has been associated with worse prognosis following COVID-19 infection. While several studies have reported the association between frailty and COVID-19 mortality or length of hospital stay, there have been no community-based studies on the association between frailty and risk of severe infection. Considering that different definitions have been identified to assess frailty, this study aimed to compare the association between frailty and severe COVID-19 infection in UK Biobank using two frailty classifications: the frailty phenotype and the frailty index. METHODS: A total of 383,845 UK Biobank participants recruited 2006-2010 in England (211,310 [55.1%] women, baseline age 37-73 years) were included. COVID-19 test data were provided by Public Health England (available up to 28 June 2020). An adapted version of the frailty phenotype derived by Fried et al. was used to define frailty phenotype (robust, pre-frail, or frail). A previously validated frailty index was derived from 49 self-reported questionnaire items related to health, disease and disability, and mental wellbeing (robust, mild frailty, and moderate/severe frailty). Both classifications were derived from baseline data (2006-2010). Poisson regression models with robust standard errors were used to analyse the associations between both frailty classifications and severe COVID-19 infection (resulting in hospital admission or death), adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Of UK Biobank participants included, 802 were admitted to hospital with and/or died from COVID19 (323 deaths and 479 hospitalisations). After analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, a higher risk of COVID-19 was observed for pre-frail (risk ratio (RR) 1.47 [95% CI 1.26; 1.71]) and frail (RR 2.66 [95% CI 2.04; 3.47]) individuals compared to those classified as robust using the frailty phenotype. Similar results were observed when the frailty index was used (RR mildly frail 1.46 [95% CI 1.26; 1.71] and RR moderate/severe frailty 2.43 [95% CI 1.91; 3.10]). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty was associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 infection resulting in hospital admission or death, irrespective of how it was measured and independent of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Public health strategies need to consider the additional risk that COVID-19 poses in individuals with frailty, including which additional preventive measures might be required.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Autorrelato , Reino Unido
12.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241264, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) has rapidly infected millions of people worldwide. Recent studies suggest that racial minorities and patients with comorbidities are at higher risk of Covid-19. In this study, we analyzed the effects of clinical, regional, and genetic factors on Covid-19 positive status. METHODS: The UK Biobank is a longitudinal cohort study that recruited participants from 2006 to 2010 from throughout the United Kingdom. Covid-19 test results were provided to UK Biobank starting on March 16, 2020. The main outcome measure in this study was Covid-19 positive status, determined by the presence of any positive test for a single individual. Clinical risk factors were derived from UK Biobank at baseline, and regional risk factors were imputed using census features local to each participant's home zone. We used robust adjusted Poisson regression with clustering by testing laboratory to estimate relative risk. Blood types were derived using genetic variants rs8176719 and rs8176746, and genomewide tests of association were conducted using logistic-Firth hybrid regression. RESULTS: This prospective cohort study included 397,064 UK Biobank participants, of whom 968 tested positive for Covid-19. The unadjusted relative risk of Covid-19 for Black participants was 3.66 (95% CI 2.83-4.74), compared to White participants. Adjusting for Townsend deprivation index alone reduced the relative risk to 2.44 (95% CI 1.86-3.20). Comorbidities that significantly increased Covid-19 risk included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (adjusted relative risk [ARR] 1.64, 95% CI 1.18-2.27), ischemic heart disease (ARR 1.48, 95% CI 1.16-1.89), and depression (ARR 1.32, 95% CI 1.03-1.70). There was some evidence that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ARR 1.48, 95% CI 1.13-1.93) were associated with increased risk of Covid-19. Each standard deviation increase in the number of total individuals living in a participant's locality was associated with increased risk of Covid-19 (ARR 1.14, 95% CI 1.08-1.20). Analyses of genetically inferred blood types confirmed that participants with type A blood had increased odds of Covid-19 compared to participants with type O blood (odds ratio [OR] 1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.33). A meta-analysis of genomewide association studies across ancestry groups did not reveal any significant loci. Study limitations include confounding by indication, bias due to limited information on early Covid-19 test results, and inability to accurately gauge disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: When assessing the association of Black race with Covid-19, adjusting for deprivation reduced the relative risk of Covid-19 by 33%. In the context of sociological research, these findings suggest that discrimination in the labor market may play a role in the high relative risk of Covid-19 for Black individuals. In this study, we also confirmed the association of blood type A with Covid-19, among other clinical and regional factors.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241558, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The normal ranges for clinical chemistry tests are usually defined by cut-offs given by the distribution in healthy individuals. This approach does however not indicate if individuals outside the normal range are more prone to disease. METHODS: We studied the associations and risk prediction of 11 plasma and serum biomarkers with all-cause mortality in two population-based cohorts: a Swedish cohort (X69) initiated in 1969, and the UK Biobank (UKB) initiated in 2006-2010, with up to 48- and 9-years follow-up, respectively. RESULTS: In X69 and in UKB, 18,529 and 425,264 individuals were investigated, respectively. During the follow-up time, 14,475 deaths occurred in X69 and 17,116 in UKB. All evaluated tests were associated with mortality in X69 (P<0.0001, except bilirubin P<0.005). For calcium, blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin, hematocrit, uric acid, and iron, U-shaped associations were seen (P<0.0001). For leukocyte count, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatases and lactate dehydrogenase, linear positive associations were seen, while for albumin the association was negative. Similar associations were seen in UKB. Addition of all biomarkers to a model with classical risk factors improved mortality prediction (delta C-statistics: +0.009 in X69 and +0.023 in UKB, P<0.00001 in both cohorts). CONCLUSIONS: Commonly used clinical chemistry tests were associated with all-cause mortality both in the medium- and long-term perspective, and improved mortality prediction beyond classical risk factors. Since both linear and U-shaped relationships were found, we propose to define the normal range of a clinical chemistry test based on its association with mortality, rather than from the distribution.


Assuntos
Testes de Química Clínica/métodos , Mortalidade , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242828, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227030

RESUMO

Relational aspects, such as involvement of donor's relatives or friends in the decision-making on participation in a research biobank, providing relatives' health data to researchers, or sharing research findings with relatives should be considered when reflecting on ethical aspects of research biobanks. The aim of this paper is to explore what the role of donor's relatives and friends is in the process of becoming and being a biobank donor and which ethical issues arise in this context. We performed qualitative analysis of 40 qualitative semi-structured interviews with biobank donors and researchers. The results show that relatedness to relatives or other types of close relationships played a significant role in the donors' motivation to be involved in a biobank, risk-benefit assessment, and decisions on sharing information on research and its results. Interviewees mentioned ethical issues in the context of sharing relatives' health-related data for research purposes and returning research findings that may affect their relatives. We conclude that the question of what information on family members may be shared with a biobank by research participants without informed consent of those relatives, and when family members become research subjects, lacks a clear answer and detailed guidelines, especially in the context of the introduction of the European Union's (EU) General Data Protection Regulation. Researchers in Latvia and EU face ethical questions and dilemmas about returning research results and incidental findings to donors' relatives, and donors need more information on sharing research results with relatives in the informed consent process.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Doadores de Tecidos/ética , Adulto , Idoso , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Letônia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação/ética , Pesquisadores/ética
16.
JAMA ; 324(20): 2048-2057, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231665

RESUMO

Importance: Hereditary hemochromatosis is predominantly caused by the HFE p.C282Y homozygous pathogenic variant. Liver carcinoma and mortality risks are increased in individuals with clinically diagnosed hereditary hemochromatosis, but risks are unclear in mostly undiagnosed p.C282Y homozygotes identified in community genotyping. Objective: To estimate the incidence of primary hepatic carcinoma and death by HFE variant status. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cohort study of 451 186 UK Biobank participants of European ancestry (aged 40-70 years), followed up from baseline assessment (2006-2010) until January 2018. Exposures: Men and women with HFE p.C282Y and p.H63D genotypes compared with those with neither HFE variants. Main Outcomes and Measures: Two linked co-primary outcomes (incident primary liver carcinoma and death from any cause) were ascertained from follow-up via hospital inpatient records, national cancer registry, and death certificate records, and from primary care data among a subset of participants for whom data were available. Associations between genotype and outcomes were tested using Cox regression adjusted for age, assessment center, genotyping array, and population genetics substructure. Kaplan-Meier lifetable probabilities of incident diagnoses were estimated from age 40 to 75 years by HFE genotype and sex. Results: A total of 451 186 participants (mean [SD] age, 56.8 [8.0] years; 54.3% women) were followed up for a median (interquartile range) of 8.9 (8.3-9.5) years. Among the 1294 male p.C282Y homozygotes, there were 21 incident hepatic malignancies, 10 of which were in participants without a diagnosis of hemochromatosis at baseline. p.C282Y homozygous men had a higher risk of hepatic malignancies (hazard ratio [HR], 10.5 [95% CI, 6.6-16.7]; P < .001) and all-cause mortality (n = 88; HR, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.0-1.5]; P = .046) compared with men with neither HFE variant. In lifetables projections for male p.C282Y homozygotes to age 75 years, the risk of primary hepatic malignancy was 7.2% (95% CI, 3.9%-13.1%), compared with 0.6% (95% CI, 0.4%-0.7%) for men with neither variant, and the risk of death was 19.5% (95% CI, 15.8%-24.0%), compared with 15.1% (95% CI, 14.7%-15.5%) among men with neither variant. Among female p.C282Y homozygotes (n = 1596), there were 3 incident hepatic malignancies and 60 deaths, but the associations between homozygosity and hepatic malignancy (HR, 2.1 [95% CI, 0.7-6.5]; P = .22) and death (HR, 1.2 [95% CI, 0.9-1.5]; P = .20) were not statistically significant. Conclusions and Relevance: Among men with HFE p.C282Y homozygosity, there was a significantly increased risk of incident primary hepatic malignancy and death compared with men without p.C282Y or p.H63D variants; there was not a significant association for women. Further research is needed to understand the effects of early diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Proteína da Hemocromatose/genética , Hemocromatose/genética , Homozigoto , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Hemocromatose/sangue , Hemocromatose/complicações , Hemocromatose/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Policitemia/etiologia , Fatores Sexuais
17.
PLoS Genet ; 16(10): e1009141, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095761

RESUMO

The UK Biobank is a very large, prospective population-based cohort study across the United Kingdom. It provides unprecedented opportunities for researchers to investigate the relationship between genotypic information and phenotypes of interest. Multiple regression methods, compared with genome-wide association studies (GWAS), have already been showed to greatly improve the prediction performance for a variety of phenotypes. In the high-dimensional settings, the lasso, since its first proposal in statistics, has been proved to be an effective method for simultaneous variable selection and estimation. However, the large-scale and ultrahigh dimension seen in the UK Biobank pose new challenges for applying the lasso method, as many existing algorithms and their implementations are not scalable to large applications. In this paper, we propose a computational framework called batch screening iterative lasso (BASIL) that can take advantage of any existing lasso solver and easily build a scalable solution for very large data, including those that are larger than the memory size. We introduce snpnet, an R package that implements the proposed algorithm on top of glmnet and optimizes for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) datasets. It currently supports ℓ1-penalized linear model, logistic regression, Cox model, and also extends to the elastic net with ℓ1/ℓ2 penalty. We demonstrate results on the UK Biobank dataset, where we achieve competitive predictive performance for all four phenotypes considered (height, body mass index, asthma, high cholesterol) using only a small fraction of the variants compared with other established polygenic risk score methods.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Algoritmos , Asma/sangue , Asma/genética , Estatura/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 18(6): 503-510, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047969

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which caused a global outbreak of COVID-19 disease, has been a crisis of extraordinary proportions, causing serious impacts for research and public health. Biobanks have played a key important role in understanding the disease and response. In our article we will highlight the opportunities and risks of biobanks during and after the pandemic. The different aspects of safety and sustainability have and will be the main challenges for biobanks. Furthermore, the role of biobanks in biomedical research and public health has been emphasized as well as opportunities that have arisen for their participation in research.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Pesquisa Biomédica , Pandemias , Humanos
19.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 18(6): 525-532, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118846

RESUMO

Background: Biobankers have been unexpectedly involved in the pandemic of COVID-19 since early 2020. Although specific guidance was not available, the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER) Best Practices and the ISO 20387 document have been utilized to deal with the pandemic disaster. The ISO experts and best practice experts in ISBER teamed up to share the available information and learn the experiences of biobanks concerning COVID-19 through organizing webinars, surveys, and town hall meetings. Four ISBER regional ambassadors (RAs) from the Indo-Pacific Rim (IPR) region were also actively involved at one of the town hall meetings. These RAs, who are from Australia, India, Indonesia, and Japan, and the Director-at-Large of the region, have summarized their experiences in this article. Materials and Methods: The ISBER Standards Committee COVID-19 Task Force has kindly provided the survey results. The extracted glossary from the results was categorized into 10 factors: (1) crisis management; (2) sample-related issues; (3) logistics-related issues; (4) equipment-related issues; (5) ethical, legal, and social implication-related issues; (6) operation-related issues; (7) personnel-related issues; (8) management-related issues; (9) infection-related issues; and (10) research-related issues. Each IPR RA has provided a case considering these 10 factors. Results and Discussion: Two key points have emerged from the scenarios, which are as follows: (1) impacts of the biobanks in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are similar to those in high-income countries (HICs) and (2) tolerance of the biobanks in LMICs is not so robust as those in HICs. Furthermore, communication strategies with internal and external stakeholders are critical for a biobank to manage this crisis. This article summarizes the impacts, indicates the opportunities that COVID-19 has brought to the biobank community, and highlights the usefulness of the network beyond biobank services. Lastly, the biobanks need to turn the challenges into opportunities to overcome the crisis.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Pesquisa Biomédica , Pandemias , /metabolismo , /epidemiologia , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos
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