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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255235, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355897

RESUMO

Abstract In soybean breeding program, continuous selection pressure on traits response to yield created a genetic bottleneck for improvements of soybean through hybridization breeding technique. Therefore an initiative was taken to developed high yielding soybean variety applying mutation breeding techniques at Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Bangladesh. Locally available popular cultivar BARI Soybean-5 was used as a parent material and subjected to five different doses of Gamma ray using Co60. In respect to seed yield and yield attributing characters, twelve true breed mutants were selected from M4 generation. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) for plant height, branch number and pod number were considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement that ensure expected yield. The mutant SBM-18 obtained from 250Gy provided stable yield performance at diversified environments. It provided maximum seed yield of 3056 kg ha-1 with highest number of pods plant-1 (56). The National Seed Board of Bangladesh (NSB) eventually approved SBM-18 and registered it as a new soybean variety named 'Binasoybean-5' for large-scale planting because of its superior stability in various agro-ecological zones and consistent yield performance.


Resumo No programa de melhoramento da soja, a pressão pela seleção contínua para a resposta das características de rendimento criou um gargalo genético para melhorias da soja por meio da técnica de melhoramento por hibridação. Portanto, foi desenvolvida uma variedade de soja de alto rendimento, aplicando técnicas de reprodução por mutação, na Divisão de Melhoramento de Plantas, no Instituto de Agricultura Nuclear de Bangladesh (BINA), em Bangladesh. A cultivar popular BARI Soybean-5, disponível localmente, foi usada como material original e submetida a cinco doses diferentes de raios gama usando Co60. Em relação ao rendimento de sementes e às características de atribuição de rendimento, 12 mutantes genuínos foram selecionados a partir da geração M4. Altos valores de herdabilidade e avanço genético com alto coeficiente de variância genotípico (GCV) para altura da planta, número de ramos e número de vagens foram considerados atributos favoráveis ​​ao melhoramento da soja, garantindo, assim, a produtividade esperada. O mutante SBM-18, obtido a partir de 250Gy, proporcionou desempenho de rendimento estável em ambientes diversificados e produtividade máxima de sementes de 3.056 kg ha-1 com o maior número de vagens planta-1 (56). O Conselho Nacional de Sementes de Bangladesh (NSB) finalmente aprovou o SBM-18 e o registrou como uma nova variedade de soja, chamada 'Binasoybean-5', para plantio em larga escala por causa de sua estabilidade superior em várias zonas agroecológicas e desempenho de rendimento consistente.


Assuntos
Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/genética , Fenótipo , Bangladesh , Melhoramento Vegetal , Genótipo , Mutação
2.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 41(1): 14, 2022 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies in the literature have found mixed results on the effect of microcredit on health outcomes. Of the five previous experimental studies that included microcredit and a health intervention, three reported no significant changes in health status or behaviors. The purpose of this study was to test for marginal and interactive effects of increased microcredit and provision of basic health services. METHODS: This study had a 4-celled experimental design in 128 villages in rural Bangladesh. For villages in one cell, an additional microcredit worker was assigned. For those in a second cell, a health assistant visited households each month, provided simple medicines and announced a satellite clinic held monthly in each village. For a third cell, both interventions were combined, and villages in a fourth cell served as control. A baseline survey was completed and a follow-up survey was done three years later. Outcome measures were food security, contraceptive use, having a trained birth attendant at last birth, and measles immunization. RESULTS: Comparison of follow-up with baseline levels of the four outcome measures (for 3787 households (96% completeness) and 3687 women (94% completeness)) showed significant improvement in food security in all study arms and a significant increase in trained birth attendant at last birth in the health services villages. Due to confusion within Grameen Bank about which workers would provide the additional microcredit work, that intervention was poorly implemented so in multivariate analyses, the data for that intervention arm were grouped with data from the control arm. Logistic regression with values of the outcomes at follow-up as dependent variable and study arm and women's schooling as covariates showed no significant effects of either separate or grouped study arms. CONCLUSION: Two of the three health behaviors showed no significant changes over time but having a trained birth attendant at last delivery did increase significantly in the health services arm. Therefore, community health education can sometimes be effective in promoting healthy behaviors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This was a field trial rather than a clinical trial, so trial registration was unnecessary.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , População Rural , Bangladesh , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Parto , Gravidez
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 887, 2022 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbial food contamination, although a known contributor to diarrheal disease and highly prevalent in low-income settings, has received relatively little attention in nutrition programs. Therefore, to address the critical pathway from food contamination to infection to child undernutrition, we adapted and integrated an innovative food hygiene intervention into a large-scale nutrition-sensitive agriculture trial in rural Bangladesh. In this article, we describe the intervention, analyze participation and uptake of the promoted food hygiene behaviors among intervention households, and examine the underlying determinants of behavior adoption. METHODS: The food hygiene intervention employed emotional drivers, engaging group activities, and household visits to improve six feeding and food hygiene behaviors. The program centered on an 'ideal family' competition. Households' attendance in each food hygiene session was documented. Uptake of promoted behaviors was assessed by project staff on seven 'ideal family' indicators using direct observations of practices and spot checks of household hygiene conditions during household visits. We used descriptive analysis and mixed-effect logistic regression to examine changes in household food hygiene practices and to identify determinants of uptake. RESULTS: Participation in the food hygiene intervention was high with more than 75% attendance at each session. Hygiene behavior practices increased from pre-intervention with success varying by behavior. Safe storage and fresh preparation or reheating of leftover foods were frequently practiced, while handwashing and cleaning of utensils was practiced by fewer participants. In total, 496 of 1275 participating households (39%) adopted at least 5 of 7 selected practices in all three assessment rounds and were awarded 'ideal family' titles at the end of the intervention. Being an 'ideal family' winner was associated with high participation in intervention activities [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 11.4, 95% CI: 5.2-24.9], highest household wealth [AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.4-3.6] and secondary education of participating women [AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4-3.4]. CONCLUSION: This intervention is an example of successful integration of a behavior change food hygiene component into an existing large-scale trial and achieved satisfactory coverage. Future analysis will show if the intervention was able to sustain improved behaviors over time and decrease food contamination and infection.


Assuntos
Desinfecção das Mãos , Higiene , Bangladesh , Criança , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , População Rural
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(5): e36943, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased mobile phone penetration allows the interviewing of respondents using interactive voice response surveys in low- and middle-income countries. However, there has been little investigation of the best type of incentive to obtain data from a representative sample in these countries. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of different airtime incentives options on cooperation and response rates of an interactive voice response survey in Bangladesh and Uganda. METHODS: The open-label randomized controlled trial had three arms: (1) no incentive (control), (2) promised airtime incentive of 50 Bangladeshi Taka (US $0.60; 1 BDT is approximately equivalent to US $0.012) or 5000 Ugandan Shilling (US $1.35; 1 UGX is approximately equivalent to US $0.00028), and (3) lottery incentive (500 BDT and 100,000 UGX), in which the odds of winning were 1:20. Fully automated random-digit dialing was used to sample eligible participants aged ≥18 years. The risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals for primary outcomes of response and cooperation rates were obtained using log-binomial regression. RESULTS: Between June 14 and July 14, 2017, a total of 546,746 phone calls were made in Bangladesh, with 1165 complete interviews being conducted. Between March 26 and April 22, 2017, a total of 178,572 phone calls were made in Uganda, with 1248 complete interviews being conducted. Cooperation rates were significantly higher for the promised incentive (Bangladesh: 39.3%; RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.24-1.55, P<.001; Uganda: 59.9%; RR 1.47, 95% CI 1.33-1.62, P<.001) and the lottery incentive arms (Bangladesh: 36.6%; RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.15-1.45, P<.001; Uganda: 54.6%; RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.21-1.48, P<.001) than those for the control arm (Bangladesh: 28.4%; Uganda: 40.9%). Similarly, response rates were significantly higher for the promised incentive (Bangladesh: 26.5%%; RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39, P<.001; Uganda: 41.2%; RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.16-1.39, P<.001) and lottery incentive arms (Bangladesh: 24.5%%; RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.06-1.29, P=.002; Uganda: 37.9%%; RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.06-1.29, P=.001) than those for the control arm (Bangladesh: 21.0%; Uganda: 32.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Promised or lottery airtime incentives improved survey participation and facilitated a large sample within a short period in 2 countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03773146; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03773146.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Motivação , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e061305, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Occupational health is still in the developmental stage in Bangladesh. There is a lack of focus on agricultural workers. Statistics on musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) of any occupational group can assist in developing intervention and ergonomics-based prevention. This study aimed to assess work-related MSS among tea garden workers. SETTING: This cross-sectional study was done in one tea garden in Moulvibazar district which has the highest number of gardens in Bangladesh. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: 346 tea garden workers were interviewed using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire Extended Version 2. Workers 18-60 years of age and of both sexes were interviewed individually. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of MSS among the tea garden workers, MSS in different body regions and MSS related informations. Sociodemographic and work-related factor associated with MSS. RESULTS: Among the tea garden workers, 276 were female and 70 were male. The study showed 80.9% had symptoms in the past 12 months while 80.1% and 76.6% had in the past 4 weeks and on the day of the interview, respectively. Symptoms were most commonly reported at the shoulder (78.2%) followed by upper back (56.1%) and lower back (32.5%). Workers engaged with plucking operation were found to be significantly associated with symptoms compared with non-pluckers (p<0.05). Female workers were more likely to display symptoms in the neck (p<0.05) than male workers. Increased work hours were significantly associated with symptoms in the lower back (p<0.05). Overtime was responsible for symptoms in the elbow and hip/buttock (p<0.05). Statistics from relevant studies in India, Malaysia and Thailand were compared with the results of this study. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of MSS among tea garden workers was found to be very high, and ergonomic interventions like reduction of weight load, job rotation and small breaks can reduce these symptoms.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Chá
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 406, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522351

RESUMO

Industrial pollution in Bangladesh has posed a serious threat to human health, economic activity, and the environment. By emphasizing industries that produce major pollutants, substantial improvements can be made to pollution mitigation measures. In countries where primary pollution data is not readily available, the Industrial Pollution Projection System (IPPS) could be used to calculate the pollution load utilizing total industrial output or employment data. IPPS data, which was designed for developed countries like the USA, had been used directly for other countries without any normalization in previously reported studies. The main purpose of this study is to modify the current IPPS approach for any other country by incorporating specific correction factor for a specific country. In this study, a specific correction factor for Bangladesh was determined, taking into account the country's major polluting industries, and used to estimate the pollution scenario for the year 2020. The accuracy of the specific pollution intensities was also evaluated by comparing the data obtained using both gross output and employee number. According to this study, the top three air-polluting industries are structural clay products, cement-lime-plaster industry, and iron and steel industry. Similarly, for water pollution, the food industry, paper and paper product industry, and textile industry are the largest pollutant contributors. The detailed pollution load matrix in terms of air and water pollution is also developed, and can be used to predict both short-term and long-term scenarios of industrial pollution in Bangladesh, which eventually will assist the policy makers to adopt appropriate pollution management approach. Moreover, the methods developed in this study will help to tailor the IPPS data for any country and increase the accuracy of the pollution load.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição do Ar/análise , Bangladesh , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Indústrias , Aço , Poluição da Água
7.
J Glob Health ; 12: 04036, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493782

RESUMO

Background: Hypoxaemia is one of the strongest predictors of mortality among children with pneumonia. It can be identified through pulse oximetry instantaneously, which is a non-invasive procedure but can be influenced by factors related to the specific measuring device, health provider and patient. Following WHO's global recommendation in 2014, Bangladesh decided to introduce pulse oximetry in paediatric outpatient services, ie, the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) services in 2019. A national committee updated the existing IMCI implementation package and decided to test it by assessing the pulse oximetry performance of different types of assessors in real-life inpatient settings. Methods: We adopted an observational design and conducted a technology assessment among children admitted to a rural district hospital. Eleven nurses and seven paramedics received one-day training on pulse oximetry as assessors. Each assessor performed at least 30 pulse oximetry measurements on children with two types of handheld devices. The primary outcome of interest was obtaining a successful measurement of SpO2, defined as observing a stable (±1%) reading for at least 10 seconds. Performance time, ie, time taken to obtain a successful measurement of SpO2 was considered the secondary outcome of interest. In addition, we used Generalized Estimating Equation to assess the effect of different factors on the pulse oximetry performance. Results: The assessors obtained successful measurements of SpO2 in all attempts (n = 1478) except one. The median time taken was 30 (interquartile range (IQR) = 22-42) seconds, and within 60 seconds, 92% of attempts were successful. The odds of obtaining a successful measurement within 60 seconds were 7.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.7-14.2) times higher with a Masimo device than a Lifebox device. Similarly, assessors aged >25 years were 4.8 (95% CI = 1.2, 18.6) times more likely to obtain a successful measurement within 60 seconds. The odds of obtaining a successful measurement was 2.6 (95% CI = 1.6, 4.2) times higher among children aged 12-59 months compared to 2-11 months. Conclusions: Our study indicated that assessors could achieve the necessary skills to perform pulse oximetry successfully in real-life inpatient settings through a short training module, with some effect of device-, provider- and patient-related factors. The National IMCI Programme of Bangladesh can use these findings for finalising the national IMCI training modules and implementation package incorporating the recommendation of using pulse oximetry for childhood pneumonia assessment.


Assuntos
Criança Hospitalizada , Pneumonia , Bangladesh , Criança , Humanos , Hipóxia , Oximetria , Pneumonia/diagnóstico
8.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 105, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the high risk of maternal morbidity and mortality, increased risks of unintended pregnancy, and the unmet need for contraceptives prevalent among the Rohingya refugees, this study aims to explore the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of family planning (FP) and associated factors among Rohingya women living in refugee camps in Bangladesh. METHODS: Four hundred Rohingya women were interviewed. Data were collected using a structured and pretested questionnaire, which included study participants' socio-demographic characteristics, access to FP services, knowledge, attitude, and practice of FP. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify the influencing factors of FP-KAP. RESULTS: Of the 400 Rohingya refugee women, 60% were unaware that there was no physical harm brought by using a permanent method of birth control. Half of the women lack proper knowledge regarding whether a girl was eligible for marriage before the age of 18. More than two-thirds of the women thought family planning methods should not be used without the husband's permission. Moreover, 40% were ashamed and afraid to discuss family planning matters with their husbands. Of the study participants, 58% had the opinion that a couple should continue bearing children until a son is born. Linear regression analyses found that study participants' who have a profession, have less children, whose primary source of FP knowledge was through a physician/nurse, have had FP interventions in the camp, and talk with a health care provider on FP were found to have better FP-KAP. CONCLUSION: The study showed that Rohingya refugee women are a marginalized population in terms of family planning and their comprehensive FP-KAP capability was low. Contraceptives among the Rohingyas were unpopular, mainly due to a lack of educational qualifications and family planning awareness. In addition, family planning initiatives among Rohingya refugees were limited by a conservative culture and religious beliefs. Therefore, strengthening FP interventions and increasing the accessibility to essential health services and education are indispensable to improving improve maternal health among Rohingya refugees.


Considering the high risk of maternal morbidity and mortality, increased risks of unintended pregnancy, and the unmet need for contraceptives prevalent among the Rohingya refugees, this study aims to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of family planning (FP) and associated factors among Rohingya women living in the refugee camps in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. Four hundred Rohingya women participated in the study. We found that Rohingya refugee women were a marginalized population in family planning and their comprehensive FP-KAP status was low. Contraceptive uptake among the Rohingya women was low due to a lack of education and family planning awareness. In addition, family planning initiatives among Rohingya refugees were limited by various traditional cultural and religious beliefs. Therefore, strengthening FP interventions and increasing accessibility to essential health services and education are indispensable to improving maternal health among refugees.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Campos de Refugiados , Bangladesh , Criança , Anticoncepcionais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez
9.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267243, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503777

RESUMO

The evolving pandemic of non-communicable diseases like hypertension, diabetes mellitus are globally on the rise, and the trend is also escalating in Bangladesh. We aimed to assess the prevalence trend and associated factors of hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), and hypertension- diabetes mellitus combined (HDC) among Bangladeshi adults from 2011 to 2018. Two nationally representative cross-sectional data from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS): 2011 and 2017-18 were utilized. According to baseline characteristics, the average annual rate of change (AARC) was applied to quantify the annual rate of increase/decrease in HTN, DM, and HDC from 2011 to 2018. The prevalence ratios of HTN, DM, and HDC were assessed through modified Poisson regression with robust error variance (PR, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)). The data were prepared in SPSS version 23 and exported to Stata version 13 for further analysis. Among 11,686 participants, the overall mean age of the study participants was 52.79 years, Standard Deviation (SD)±12.99, and 42.28% were female. From 2011-2018, HTN, DM, and HDC prevalence in Bangladesh has increased by 13, 3.2, and 3.1 percentage points, respectively. The average annual rate of increase was observed in the HTN and HDC prevalence by all socio-economic and demographic categories during 2011-2018. The prevalence of HDC among Chittagong residents was approximately double in 2018: 3.95% (2011) versus 6.59% (2018). Increased age, inactive workers, overweight adults, and adults in wealthy families were common risk factors associated with HTN, DM, and HDC in Bangladesh. The prevalence of developing HTN and HDC was significantly higher among adults aged ≥ 70 years (PR: 2.70, 95% CI: 2.42-3.00; PR: 2.97, 95% CI: 2.08-4.24, respectively). A comprehensive approach of different stakeholders is required to develop appropriate strategies, including appropriate weight management, adequate physical activity, and healthier food habits. Health agencies should take initiatives to spread awareness among people at an early age, but special attention is needed for older people and those at risk for NCDs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
10.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 116, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The population's mental and physical health worldwide are currently at risk due to the coronavirus pandemic. We evaluated the mental health status of the adolescents trapped indoors because of the precautionary restrictions and prolonged closure of the educational institutions. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted on adolescents from multiple urban and semi-urban areas of Bangladesh from 22 January to 3 February 2021. A self-reported online questionnaire containing questions regarding sociodemographic factors, home quarantine-related factors and mental health symptoms was distributed to collect data. Descriptive analysis, bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to measure the association of the variables. Cronbach's alpha was estimated to present the internal consistency of the scales. RESULTS: A total of 322 adolescents (aged 12-19) with a mean age of 16.00 years (SD = 1.84) responded to the invitation. 54.97% (n = 177) of them were male, and the participants were predominantly urban residents (87.27%, n = 281). We observed varying degrees of depression in 67.08%, anxiety in 49.38% and stress in 40.68% of the participants according to DASS-21. Age, sex, education, mother's occupation, total monthly income, playing sports, doing household chores, going out of home, watching television, using the internet, attending online classes, changing food habits, and communicating with friends had a positive significant association with mental health burdens. CONCLUSION: Home quarantine has a noticeable adverse impact on the mental health of teenagers. Psychological evaluations and counselling via online and offline programs are essential to improve adolescents' declining mental health conditions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quarentena , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Water Environ Res ; 94(5): e10718, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502725

RESUMO

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is one of the most important variables indicating stream pollution with a severe condition of organic loading and maintaining aquatic life in ecosystems. Advanced monitoring techniques such as machine learning (ML) methods have been developed for an accurate, reliable, and cost-effective prediction of BOD. This study investigated the effectiveness of four stand-alone ML algorithms, namely, artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), and gradient boosting machine (GBM), and six novel hybrid algorithms, namely, RF-SVM, ANN-SVM, GBM-SVM, RF-ANN, GBM-ANN, and RF-GBM, in predicting BOD of the Buriganga river system of Bangladesh. The feature importance analysis of RF algorithm indicated that chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity, total solids (TS), suspended solids (SS), and turbidity are the most influential parameters for predicting BOD5 . The significance of this study is the application of the novel hybrid models that resulted in higher prediction success; RF-SVM with the highest R2 value (0.908). The employed novel hybrid ML models can be particularly useful for efficient and systematic data management, water pollution control, and prevention in developing countries such as Bangladesh. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Investigated the efficiency of four stand-alone and six novel hybrid ML models for predicting BOD in a river of Bangladesh. The significance of this study is the application of the six novel hybrid models that resulted in higher prediction success. The best three prediction models were RF-SVM, ANN-SVM, and GBM-SVM with a prediction success of 91%, 89.6%, and 88.8% respectively. ML models indicated COD, conductivity, TDS, TS, SS, and turbidity as the most influential variables for predicting BOD. The novel hybrid models can be useful for developing countries for efficient systematic data management, pollution control, and prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Algoritmos , Bangladesh , Aprendizado de Máquina , Oxigênio
12.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0264902, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533177

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Bangladesh, injury is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity in children. All children under 5 years of age are at high risk for drowning though the risks are highest when children first learn to walk and crawl while they do not understand the danger of water. The Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB) in collaboration with Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit (JH-IIRU) has been implementing two drowning prevention interventions, providing playpens and community day care centres (anchal), or both in three rural sub-districts of Bangladesh under Saving of Lives from Drowning (SoLiD) project in Bangladesh. In CIPRB intervention areas, wooden playpens were distributed among the children nine months to three years at household (HH) level. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore and understand the acceptability and perceptions of parents towards playpen and its relevance for drowning and injury related mortality and morbidity prevention. METHODS: Anchal mothers ('anchal maa' in Bangla) distributed 30,553 playpens and collected compliance information at the HH level using a structured questionnaire. 1600 trained anchal maas collected data via face to face interviews from May 2014 to November 2015. Playpen compliance visits were conducted periodically on the second and seventh days and every two months after delivering the playpen. Data were entered using standard data entry formats and analyzed using SPSS software version 23. RESULTS: Parents reported that playpen is a safe place and protects children from drowning and other injuries. During compliance data collection, anchal maa founds that 71.8% of all children were using playpen and 93.7% (of 71.8%) children were playing inside the playpen while mothers were busy with their household chores like cooking, washing dishes and clothes, taking care of their poultry and domestic animals etc. 95.7% parents reported playpen is being used for keeping the child safe. On an average, the children were placed two to six times per day in a playpen. 99.1% of the children who reported using a playpen did not get any injuries (falls, cuts and bruises) while using the playpen. Satisfaction level with the playpen intervention among mothers was 90.5%. Some respondents suggested improving the playpen utilization by providing toys, adding wheels for ease of mobility, and increasing the height. CONCLUSION: The playpens were found to be well accepted and utilized for the children, especially when mothers were busy with their household chores.


Assuntos
Afogamento , População Rural , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Afogamento/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267488, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and countrywide lockdown could negatively impact household food insecurity among low-income households. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of household food insecurity and its influencing factors among low-income people in Bangladesh during the lockdown of COVID-19. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted through face-to-face interviews from 500 low-income households during the countrywide COVID-19 lockdown. A pretested, structured and validated questionnaire was used to collect socioeconomic characteristics, household income conditions, and food accessibility. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) were used to measure food insecurity. Multinomial logistic regression models were estimated to evaluate and predict risk factors that influence food insecurity. RESULTS: The study found that above 67% of households was mild-to-moderate food insecure while 23% experienced severe food insecurity. Significantly, 88%, 97.4%, and 93.4% of the households had anxiety and uncertainty, inadequate quality, and inadequate quantity of food, respectively. The regression analysis revealed the age 36-50 years (RRR: 4.86; 95% CI: 2.31-7.44, RRR: 4.16; 95% CI: 2.25-6.10) and monthly income <58.3 USD (RRR: 3.04; 95% CI: 1.12-5.14, RRR: 3.26; 95% CI: 1.79-4.71) were significantly associated with food insecurity (p <0.001). Likewise, less-income (RRR: 3.87; 95% CI: 1.37-6.46, RRR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.16-4.83), increase in food prices (RRR: 1.29; 95% CI: 0.32-2.33, RRR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.05-1.12), and those who did not have same type of earning as before during the COVID-19 lockdown (RRR: 3.41; 95% CI: 1.33-5.62, RRR: 2.60; 95% CI: 0.99-4.24) were potential risk factor for MMFI and FI. CONCLUSION: This study found that households become more susceptible to food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown period. Based on the findings, we suggest some essential food policies and adequate food assistance to mitigate these negative consequences.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266631, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to traditional media (TV, radio, and newspapers) and the use of mobile as an interpersonal communication tool allow for a variety of information provision. The purpose of this study is to investigate how women's media and mobile access affect maternal health service (MHS) utilization. The study also aims to look into the moderated mediation effects of socioeconomic variables on the association mentioned above. METHODS: The study analyzed reproductive and media data of 5,011 ever-married women extracted from the latest nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Hierarchical logistic regression and moderated mediation analysis are performed to determine the association. RESULTS: Only 26.9% of women used mobile for health service use, while more than 55% had media access. Media access is significantly associated with all three types of MHS use; mobile usage also has a significant association with antenatal and delivery care. When women have both access to media and mobile, the likelihood of delivering in a health facility increased by 1.82 times (AOR: 1.82, 95%CI: 1.51, 2.20) which is slightly better than having access to only one type of media channel. Women's education, household wealth, place of residence, religion, and current working status are among the socioeconomic factors associated with access to media and mobile. Women's education mediates the relationship of media and MHS; however, the mediation effect of women (ß: .45; LLCI: .21, ULCI: .68) on the association of media and place of delivery is seen to be moderated by household wealth. Women who belong to well-off families moderates positively (Effect: .33, 95%CI: .27, .40) the education effect of media and where to deliver. Place of residence, another moderator, significantly moderates (Effect: .09, BootLLCI: .02, BootULCI: .16) the mediation effect of women's education on the association of media and antenatal care visits; women living in urban areas seems to have positively moderated the education effects on the mentioned association. CONCLUSIONS: Provision of media access and mobile use indicate better utilization of MHS in Bangladesh, and women's education mediates these relationships via the influence of household wealth and area of residence. Therefore, while planning interventions to increase MHS use, its relationships with the media and mobile use should be extrapolated. The collective use of these channels could be a catalyst for the success of health promotion initiatives to improve women's health behaviors, build community capacity, and create mass awareness that supports the optimal use of MHS in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Uso do Telefone Celular , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Bangladesh , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Glob Health Action ; 15(1): 2031595, 2022 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bangladesh has achieved notable economic progress in recent decades while economic inequality increased. Special attention is warranted on the ultra-poor population of the country. An 18 month-long economic development program, designed based on an ultra-poor graduation approach, was implemented to alleviate poverty and improve child nutrition in rural Bangladesh. OBJECTIVE: The study examined the impact of livelihood components of an economic development program on outcomes related to poultry/crop production, consumption, and income generation among the ultra-poor throughout quarterly follow-ups. METHODS: This secondary data analysis used the monitoring records of 2960 poor or ultra-poor households receiving assets of (1) 9-26 ducks (n = 2125), (2) 11 chickens (n = 872), and/or (3) vegetable seeds (n = 2407). Data measuring the production of assets, income generation, and consumption of assets were collected quarterly throughout 2019. To examine a one-year-long trend in participation, production, income generation, and consumption of assets, a one-way analysis of variance was conducted across the follow-ups. Additional analyses of annual income and consumption comparing duck and chicken groups were performed using linear regression models. RESULTS: The number of poultry assets per household decreased between the April- June and July-Sep follow-ups, while consumption of poultry and vegetable assets increased during the monsoon season (p < 0.001 for all). The vegetable production reflected seasonal fluctuations, where the lowest production and income were reported during the monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons. We observed increasing voluntary adoption of poultry farming among the non-asset group for both duck and chicken over the follow-ups (p < 0.001 for all). The households provided with duck assets gained a greater mean annual income compared to the households provided with chicken assets. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight opportunities for strengthening the ultra-poor graduation approach on livelihood promotion in future scale-up in rural Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Renda , Animais , Bangladesh , Características da Família , Humanos , População Rural
16.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267595, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472094

RESUMO

With the rapid proliferation of mobile telephony and the establishment of an IT-enabled payment and settlement system, Bangladesh nowadays is experiencing a remarkable growth in the usage of mobile financial services (MFS). As more and more people are opting to use this service, a huge number of mobile accounts are opened every day and a substantial amount of money is deposited, withdrawn and transferred frequently through the mobile network. This ever-increasing amount of mobile money flowing through the network may have a sizeable impact on the overall money supply of the country. Thus far, no systematic study has been conducted to quantify the impact of the mobile money on the conventional money supply of Bangladesh. In this study, we attempt to quantify the contribution of mobile money on the money supply which is an important quantity-based nominal anchor of monetary policy in Bangladesh. Apart from deriving algebraic relationships between money supply and e-money, here we have empirically shown that during the 03 years span of 2018-2021, MFS transactions account for nearly 10.88% and 11.29% of total narrow and broad money supply of Bangladesh as on January 2021. Besides, we also qualitatively discuss the impact of e-money on an important price-based nominal anchor of monetary policy in Bangladesh, i.e., interest rate. Based upon the above discussion, here we argue that MFS can act as an effective tool to slash interest rate by a reasonable proportion through adding significantly to the overall supply of money in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Bangladesh , Humanos , Políticas
17.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221096277, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35471851

RESUMO

The current condition of ensuring WHO-recommended newborn and young child feeding practice is becoming a challenge in many developing nations, particularly in places where family food security is threatened. Because many households in underdeveloped nations frequently face acute food shortage due to poverty, optimal child nutrition is jeopardized. The purpose of this study was to analyze the child feeding behaviors of mothers with children aged 0-24 months and to investigate their household food insecurity in a coastal region of Bangladesh, Suborno Char (one of Noakhali District's coastal neighbourhoods) was studied from October 2019 to April 2020. In this study, a cross-sectional survey with multistage sampling technique was employed, and Suborno Char of Noakhlai district was purposely sampled of 400 women and their children aged 0-24 months. Data were obtained using a standard questionnaire and were analyzed using statistical functions in SPSS 20.0.0. Exclusive breastfeeding 53.5%, timely supplemental feeding 75.5%, and feeding children meals from homemade, canned/formula/fortified, both homemade and canned, milk these 4 food groups were at 22.2%. The moms' education level was strongly associated with their child feeding practices. Mothers from food insecure homes were less likely to exclusively breastfeed than mothers from food secure households after drawing interpretation of univariate & multivariate analysis of variables crude odds ratio (COR) and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and confidence interval (CI) (COR .233 at 95% CI 0.083, .655 and AOR .478 at 95% CI 0.133, 1.713). Similar outcomes were seen for early complementary feeding and minimal dietary diversification of children. In conclusion, this study discovered a less dietary inclusion trend of child feeding practices among moms (0-24 months childbearing) in Bangladesh's coastal region.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Mães , Bangladesh , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
18.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 30: 100719, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431075

RESUMO

Hookworms are the most common and voracious blood-sucking parasites of the small intestines of mammalian hosts such as dogs, cats, ruminants and humans. Canine hookworms are endemic in the Southeast Asian countries including Bangladesh. There is scarcity of information on the prevalence of hookworms of stray dogs in Bangladesh. The present study determined the prevalence of canine hookworms using fecal examination followed by morphometric and molecular identification. Fecal samples were collected from 320 stray dogs living in rural areas of Mymensingh district (Gauripur upazila, Mymensingh sadar upazila and Tarakanda upazila) and hookworm eggs were identified using the flotation techniques. The overall prevalence of hookworm was 79.1% through microscopic examination. Estimated fecal prevalence was higher in Gauripur upazila (89.7%) followed by Mymensingh sadar upazila (84.8%) and Tarakanda upazila (53.2%). Five hookworm species were identified based on the morphometric examination, namely, Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Ancylostoma braziliense and Ancylostoma duodenale, respectively. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed with the genomic DNA by targeting the 5.8S rRNA (~ 404 bp) and Cytochrome oxidase-1 (Cox 1, ~ 450 bp) and confirmed the identification for the first time in Bangladesh. This study reveals that stray dogs may act as reservoir hosts of human hookworm infection. Further detail molecular study is warranted to explore the genetic diversity of hookworms that infect both dogs and human in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Infecções por Uncinaria , Ancylostoma/genética , Ancylostomatoidea , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/veterinária , Mamíferos , Prevalência
19.
Trials ; 23(1): 325, 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Household air pollution is a leading health risk for global morbidity and mortality and a major health risk in South Asia. However, there are no prospective investigations of the impact of household air pollution on perinatal morbidity and mortality. Our trial aims to assess the impact of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for cooking to reduce household air pollution exposure on perinatal morbidity and mortality compared to usual cooking practices in Bangladesh. HYPOTHESIS: In a community-based cluster randomised controlled trial of pregnant women cooking with LPG throughout pregnancy, perinatal mortality will be reduced by 35% compared with usual cooking practices in a rural community in Bangladesh. METHODS: A two-arm community-based cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted in the Sherpur district, Bangladesh. In the intervention arm, pregnant women receive an LPG cookstove and LPG in cylinders supplied throughout pregnancy until birth. In the control or usual practice arm, pregnant women continue their usual cooking practices, predominately traditional stoves with biomass fuel. Eligible women are pregnant women with a gestational age of 40-120 days, aged between 15 and 49 years, and permanent residents of the study area. The primary outcome is the difference in perinatal mortality between the LPG arm and the usual cooking arm. Secondary outcomes include (i) preterm birth and low birth weight, (ii) personal level exposure to household air pollution, (iii) satisfaction and acceptability of the LPG stove and stove use, and (iv) cost-effectiveness and cost-utility in reducing perinatal morbidity and mortality. We follow up all women and infants to 45 days after the birth. Personal exposure to household air pollution is assessed at three-time points in a sub-sample of the study population using the MicroPEM™. The total required sample size is 4944 pregnant women. DISCUSSION: This trial will produce evidence of the effectiveness of reduced exposure to household air pollution through LPG cooking to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality compared to usual cooking practices. This evidence will inform policies for the adoption of clean fuel in Bangladesh and other similar settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12618001214224 . Prospectively registered on 19 July 2019.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Petróleo , Nascimento Prematuro , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Austrália , Bangladesh , Culinária/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e052578, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define the prevalence and seizure subtypes among children with cerebral palsy (CP) in rural Bangladesh and explore barriers to optimum epilepsy control. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The study was conducted in Shahjadpur, a rural subdistrict of Bangladesh. PARTICIPANTS: Children (<18 years) with CP and epilepsy identified using the Bangladesh CP Register (BCPR) in the study site. METHODS: Assessments were conducted in three focused epilepsy clinics overseen by a paediatric neurologist between December 2016 and January 2018, with intervening phone and video-conference follow-ups. Details of event type, frequency and medication compliance were collected. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were prescribed based on seizure type, family income, comorbidity and medication availability. RESULTS: 23.4% (170/726) of the BCPR cohort had a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy of whom 166 were assessed. Following the focused epilepsy clinics, 62.0% (103/166) children were clinically determined to have ongoing epileptic seizures. 62.1% (64/103) had generalised onset tonic clonic seizures, 27.2% (28/103) had focal onset seizures with impaired awareness and 10.7% (11/103) had other seizure types. None of the children with prolonged seizures (31/103) had an emergency seizure management plan. Non-epileptic events were being pharmacologically treated as seizures in 18.1% (30/166) children. Financial constraints were the main reason for non-compliance on follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Gaps in optimum epilepsy management in rural Bangladesh are amenable to improvement anchored with local healthcare workers. Training and clinical care focused on recognition of common seizure types, seizure mimics and rationalising use of available AEDs can be facilitated by better referral pathways and telehealth support.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Epilepsia , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Criança , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
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