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1.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604045, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335148

RESUMO

Objectives: We present patterns of sunburn, sun safety behaviors and indoor tanning bed use in a nationally representative sample of schoolchildren aged 10-17. These behaviors were explored across gender, age, and social class groups. Methods: Within the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Ireland study, 10,271 young people (aged 13.54 ± 1.92, percentage girls 53.3%) reported frequency of sun safety behaviors, sunburn, and frequency and circumstances of indoor tanning bed use. Results: Children frequently experienced sunburn (90% lifetime, 74% last year), and 3% reported never using any sun protection. Applying sunscreen and wearing sunglasses were the most commonly used sun safety measures; other ways of sun protection were less popular. Indoor tanning bed use was reported by around 5%, and a large proportion of users were not advised of any indoor tanning safety measures. Sun safety behaviors varied by age and gender, with some socio-economic differences in tanning bed use. An association was found between frequency of family holidays abroad and sunburn. Conclusion: Targeted interventions are needed to increase sun safety behaviors and eliminate tanning bed use among children in Ireland.


Assuntos
Banho de Sol , Queimadura Solar , Protetores Solares , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Banho de Sol/estatística & dados numéricos , Queimadura Solar/epidemiologia , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico
2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1611-1630, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343493

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a melanoma-associated locus on chromosome band 7p21.1 with rs117132860 as the lead SNP and a secondary independent signal marked by rs73069846. rs117132860 is also associated with tanning ability and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Because ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a key environmental exposure for all three traits, we investigated the mechanisms by which this locus contributes to melanoma risk, focusing on cellular response to UVR. Fine-mapping of melanoma GWASs identified four independent sets of candidate causal variants. A GWAS region-focused Capture-C study of primary melanocytes identified physical interactions between two causal sets and the promoter of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Subsequent chromatin state annotation, eQTL, and luciferase assays identified rs117132860 as a functional variant and reinforced AHR as a likely causal gene. Because AHR plays critical roles in cellular response to dioxin and UVR, we explored links between this SNP and AHR expression after both 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure. Allele-specific AHR binding to rs117132860-G was enhanced following both, consistent with predicted weakened AHR binding to the risk/poor-tanning rs117132860-A allele, and allele-preferential AHR expression driven from the protective rs117132860-G allele was observed following UVB exposure. Small deletions surrounding rs117132860 introduced via CRISPR abrogates AHR binding, reduces melanocyte cell growth, and prolongs growth arrest following UVB exposure. These data suggest AHR is a melanoma susceptibility gene at the 7p21.1 risk locus and rs117132860 is a functional variant within a UVB-responsive element, leading to allelic AHR expression and altering melanocyte growth phenotypes upon exposure.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7 , Loci Gênicos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Alelos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanócitos/efeitos da radiação , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cultura Primária de Células , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Banho de Sol , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
3.
Cutis ; 107(5): 261-263, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288855

RESUMO

Skin cancer rates have been steadily increasing over the last 20 years despite persistent efforts to educate the public on skin cancer prevention and sun safety. Adolescents and young adults are an especially important demographic to reach, as increased UV exposure during these years leads to greatly increased risks of developing skin cancer. Our survey aims to investigate the attitudes and behaviors regarding sun protection and tanning among adolescents and young adults (age range, 13-27 years).


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas , Banho de Sol , Queimadura Solar , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065061

RESUMO

Despite the increasing prevalence of social media usage in health care contexts, its impact on skin cancer prevention and awareness has not been largely investigated. We conducted a review of literature on this topic with the objective of summarizing and analyzing the role of social media in skin cancer and sun damage awareness and to identify the uses, benefits, and limitations of different social media platforms on skin cancer prevention. In today's technological society, it is critical to understand and study the best form of communication. Specific platforms like Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and TikTok vary in originators of material, target demographics, messaging strategies, and reliability of information with regards to skin cancer, sun, and indoor tanning damage. Our results demonstrate that social media interventions have shown promise in skin cancer prevention and continue to escalate by the day. Dermatologists should keep pace with the latest dermatological content on social media and examine its evolution to target the right audience with the proper messages. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness and true impact of social media on meaningful and lasting behavior change for skin cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas , Mídias Sociais , Banho de Sol , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle
6.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 20(2): 285-292, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721253

RESUMO

In prospective observational cohort studies, increasing sun exposure habits have been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our aim was to assess possible observational mechanisms for this phenomenon. A written questionnaire was answered by 23,593 women in the year 2000 regarding risk factors for melanoma, including factors of possible interest for hypertension, such as detailed sun exposure habits, hypertension, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, exercise, and chronic high stress. Hypertension was measured by the proxy "use of hypertension medication" 2005-2007, and high stress by "need of anti-depressive medication". Sun exposure habits was assessed by the number of `yes' to the following questions; Do you sunbath during summer?, During winter vacation?, Do you travel south to sunbath?, Or do you use sun bed? Women answering 'yes' on one or two questions had moderate and those answering 'yes' on three or four as having greatest sun exposure. The main outcome was the risk of hypertension by sun exposure habits adjusted for confounding. As compared to those women with the greatest sun exposure, women with low and moderate sun exposure were at 41% and 15% higher odds of hypertension (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.3‒1.6, p < 0.001 and OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.1‒1.2, p < 0.001), respectively. There was a strong age-related increased risk of hypertension. Other risk factors for hypertension were lack of exercise (OR 1.36), a non-fair phenotype (OR 1.08), chronic high stress level (OR 1.8), and lack of university education (OR 1.3). We conclude that in our observational design sun exposure was associated with a dose-dependent reduced risk of hypertension, which might partly explain the fewer deaths of cardiovascular disease with increasing sun exposure.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Banho de Sol/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009186, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few studies about the presence of murine typhus in Greece. Our objective was to conduct a large scale retrospective investigation to determine the clinical and epidemiological features of patients diagnosed with murine typhus in Greece. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 2012 to 2019 serum samples from hospitalized patients and outpatients throughout Greece suspected for murine typhus infection were tested by immunofluorescence assay for Rickettsia typhi. Immunofluorescence positive samples obtained since 2016 were also tested by qPCR targeting R. typhi. Clinical and epidemiological data were retrospectively collected for the patients with confirmed murine typhus. Overall, we tested 5,365 different patients and, in total, 174 patients from all geographic regions of Greece were diagnosed with murine typhus. The most frequently reported sign or symptom was fever (89%), followed by headache (84%) and rash (81%). The classical triad of fever, headache, and rash was present in 72% of patients during their illness. Severe infections with complications including acute renal failure or septic shock were not recorded. The majority of cases (81%) occurred during May-October and peaked in June and September. Most of patients (81%) infected in Athens, recalled that their only activity the last weeks before symptoms onset was swimming on the beach and 59% of them also reported an insect bite while sunbathing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results may reflect the reemergence of murine typhus in Greece and we highlight the importance of awareness of this difficult-to-recognize undifferentiated febrile illness.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Banho de Sol/estatística & dados numéricos , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rickettsia typhi/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas/diagnóstico
8.
Am J Prev Med ; 60(5): e213-e220, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589300

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sunburn increases skin cancer risk and is common among U.S. adults. However, little is known about the contexts in which sunburns often occur. The purpose of this study is to examine the contextual factors surrounding sunburns among U.S. adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from a 2018 online panel survey were analyzed. A total of 4,088 panel members were recruited by mail using probability-based, random sampling by address. Respondents were asked about their most recent sunburn, and analyses were limited to those who remembered their most recent sunburn (N=3,106). Data were weighted to match the U.S. Current Population Survey proportions; analyses were conducted in 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: Participants' age ranged from 18 to 93 years. About half (50.8%) were women, and most (82.3%) were non-Hispanic White adults. Swimming or spending time in water (32.5%), working outside at home (26.2%), traveling/vacationing (20.7%), and engaging in nonswimming physical activity (14.2%) were the most frequently reported activities. Using sunscreen on the face, neck, and chest (38.8%) and on the body (19.9%) and wearing sunglasses (34.2%) were the most frequently reported sun safety behaviors. Wearing clothes to the ankles (6.6%) and a long-sleeved shirt (4.5%) were least frequently reported. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information about the contexts in which adult sunburns often occur, especially about contexts unrelated to intentional tanning, which was relatively infrequent. The results suggest the need to promote multiple forms of sun protection tailored to specific outdoor activities and develop innovative solutions for outdoor physical and aquatic activities, which present unique sun safety challenges.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas , Banho de Sol , Queimadura Solar , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/epidemiologia , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
9.
Prev Med ; 146: 106459, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609617

RESUMO

Ultraviolet radiation exposure is the leading cause of skin cancer, and childhood and adolescence is a particularly susceptible life period for exposure. This systematic review assessed whether interventions in elementary and secondary school settings reduced sun exposure, sunburns, and development of melanocytic nevi, and improved sun-safe knowledge, attitudes and sun protection behaviors in childhood and adolescence. A systematic search up to June 2020 of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane and ProQuest databases was undertaken, for studies conducted among students in an elementary or secondary school setting that compared an intervention group with a pre-intervention or separate control group. Data were summarized using qualitative synthesis. Pooled effects from meta-analysis with random effects were also reported where appropriate. Sixty-five studies were included (22 randomized, 43 non-randomized). Most studies assessed measures of sun-safe behaviors, knowledge and attitudes (57, 48 and 33 studies, respectively), and observed improved sun protection behaviors and sun-safe knowledge, whereas few studies reduced time in the sun. About half improved participants' attitudes towards tanning desirability. Sunburns and nevus counts were less frequently assessed, but about half of these studies observed a reduction. There was substantial heterogeneity for outcomes except attitudes towards the desirability of tanning (pooled odds ratio from 6 studies: 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.70-0.94). Key positive intervention features included: elementary school settings, interactive features or multiple components, and incorporating social norm influences. Most studies were classified at high risk of bias. In conclusion, school-based sun-related interventions had positive impacts on behaviors and attitudes among elementary and secondary school children.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas , Banho de Sol , Queimadura Solar , Adolescente , Criança , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Raios Ultravioleta
10.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(3): e138-e144, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and determinants of sun protection behaviours among outdoors workers at work and leisure in Alberta, Canada. METHODS: We collected outdoor workers' demographics, skin cancer risk factors, job information, and sun habits at work and leisure using self-completed questionnaires. For both settings, we compared use of specific behaviours and modelled determinants of sun protection behaviour scores. RESULTS: At work, wearing a sleeved shirt (81% often/always) and hat (73%) were most prevalent, while seeking shade (12%) and applying sunscreen (36%) were least prevalent. Workers had higher sun protection scores at work than leisure. Hours spent outdoors was a strong determinant for both models. Additional leisure model predictors were eye colour, sex, skin type, and job group. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in behaviours across settings were observed and should be considered when developing solar UVR exposure reduction initiatives.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Banho de Sol , Queimadura Solar , Alberta/epidemiologia , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Roupa de Proteção , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/epidemiologia , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico
11.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(3): 279-290, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394206

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an established cause of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC)-basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The aim of this study was to estimate the current burden of BCC and SCC associated with UVR and modifiable UVR behaviours (sunburn, sunbathing, and indoor tanning) in Canada in 2015. METHODS: The current burden of BCC and SCC associated with UVR was estimated by comparing 2015 incidence rates with rates of less exposed body sites (trunk and lower limbs) after adjusting for estimated surface areas. The burden associated with modifiable UVR behaviours was estimated by using prevalence estimates among Caucasians from the Second National Sun Survey, and relative risks that are generalizable to Canadians from conducting meta-analyses of relevant studies. RESULTS: We estimated that 80.5% of BCCs and 83.0% of SCCs were attributable to UVR. Adult sunburn was associated with relative risks of 1.85 (95% CI 1.15-3.00) for BCC and 1.41 (95% CI 0.91-2.18) for SCC, while adult sunbathing was associated with relative risks of 1.82 (95% CI 1.52-2.17) for BCC and 1.14 (95% CI 0.53-2.46) for SCC. We estimated that 18.6% of BCCs and 9.9% of SCCs were attributable to adult sunburn, while 28.1% of BCCs were attributable to adult sunbathing. We estimated that 46.2% of BCCs and 17.3% of SCCs were attributable to modifiable UVR behaviours combined. CONCLUSION: Our results provide quantifiable estimates of the potentially avoidable burden of NMSCs among Canadians. These estimates can be used to motivate prevention efforts in Canada.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Queimadura Solar/complicações , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Banho de Sol
13.
J Health Psychol ; 26(6): 870-879, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140324

RESUMO

This study explored relationships between mental health and indoor tanning among high school students in New York City using 2015 data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Those more likely to use indoor tanning were females (odds ratio = 6.26, 95% confidence interval = 6.08-6.45) and non-Hispanic White (odds ratio = 1.10, 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.14). Being bullied on school property (odds ratio = 1.30, 95% confidence interval = 1.25-1.34), having attempted suicide (odds ratio = 2.08, 95% confidence interval = 1.99-2.18), and having sought counseling (odds ratio = 1.22, 95% confidence interval = 1.18-1.26) were significantly associated with indoor tanning. This study indicates that engaging in indoor tanning is associated with a number of mental health factors.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Banho de Sol , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos
15.
Actas Dermosifiliogr (Engl Ed) ; 112(2): 159-166, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The incidence of skin cancer in our society is growing at an alarming rate due to overexposure to solar UV radiation in recreational and occupational settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate sun exposure and protection attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge among mountain ultramarathon runners and to assess risk factors for sunburn in this population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of runners who participated in the «Gran Trail Aneto-Posets¼ race in Aragon, Spain. Using a validated questionnaire, we collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, running experience, sunburn in the previous summer, and sun exposure and protection behaviors. We calculated descriptive statistics and performed bivariate and multivariate analyses of associations using history of sunburn as the primary outcome. Statistical significance was set at a p level of less than 0.05. RESULTS: We surveyed 657 runners (72.1% men) with a mean age of 39.71 years; 45.1% reported sunburn in the past year. The most common protective measures used were sunglasses (74.7%), sunscreen (sun protection factor ≥ 15) (61.9%), a hat (52.2%), and other protective clothing (7.4%). Risk factors for sunburn were younger age, low Fitzpatrick skin type (I and II), running for three or more hours a day, and staying in the shade as a protective measure. By contrast, protective factors were use of sunscreen and seeking shade rather than sun at midday (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Sunburn is common among long-distance mountain runners, despite what appears to be adequate sun protection knowledge and behaviors. Targeted strategies are needed to improve sun protection behaviors among mountain runners.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Corrida de Maratona , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Altitude , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Roupa de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Pigmentação da Pele , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Banho de Sol , Queimadura Solar/epidemiologia , Protetores Solares
16.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0233816, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315862

RESUMO

The main ingredient of sunless tanning products is dihydroxyacetone (DHA). DHA reacts with the protein and amino acid composition in the surface layers of the skin, producing melanoidins, which changes the skin colour, imitating natural skin tan caused by melanin. The purpose of this study was to characterise DHA-induced skin colour changes and to test whether we can predict the outcome of DHA application on skin tone changes. To assess the DHA-induced skin colour shift quantitatively, colorimetric and spectral measurements of the inner forearm were obtained before, four hours and 24 hours after application of a 7.5% concentration DHA gel in the experimental group (n = 100). In a control group (n = 60), the same measurements were obtained on both the inner forearm (infrequently sun-exposed) and the outer forearm (frequently sun-exposed); the difference between these two areas was defined as the naturally occurring tan. Skin colour shifts caused by DHA tanning and by natural tanning were compared in terms of lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) in the standard CIELAB colour space. Naturalness of the DHA-induced skin tan was evaluated by comparing the trajectory of the chromaticity distribution in (L*, b*) space with that of naturally occurring tan. Twenty-four hours after DHA application, approximately 20% of the skin colour samples became excessively yellow, with chromaticities outside the natural range in (L*, b*) space. A principal component analysis was used to characterise the tanning pathway. Skin colour shifts induced by DHA were predicted by a multiple regression on the chromaticities and the skin properties. The model explained up to 49% of variance in colorimetric components with a median error of less than 2 ΔE. We conclude that the control of both the magnitude and the direction of the colour shift is a critical factor to achieve a natural appearance.


Assuntos
Di-Hidroxiacetona/farmacologia , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Cor , Colorimetria/métodos , Di-Hidroxiacetona/análise , Di-Hidroxiacetona/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Banho de Sol , Protetores Solares/análise , Protetores Solares/química
17.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 17(6): 739-745, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a multifactorial disease involving complex interactions between genetic and physiological/environmental factors. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) plays a role in numerous cellular pathways and it has been suggested that VDR genetic variants influence individual susceptibility to PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of six VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and factors such as tanning potential and UV sunlight exposure with PCa risk. RESULTS: Marginal significant interactions were found, with a 2-fold increase risk of PCa between SNP 1 (c.278-69G>A) and sunlight UV exposure [odds ratio (OR)=2.02, 95% confidence intervaI (CI)=1.036-4.36; p=0.05]; and a 4-fold increase risk of PCa between SNP 4 (c.907+75C>T) and tanning potential (OR=4.40, 95% CI=0.89-29.12; p=0.0591). In contrast, SNP 5 (rs731236, TaqI) and tanning potential interaction had a protective effect by reducing the risk of PCa by 55% (ß=-0.804; OR=0.448, 95% CI=0.197-9.42; p=0.0427). SNPs 2 (rs61614328) and 6 (rs533037428) did not show any association with PCa even in the presence of UV sunlight exposure. CONCLUSION: The protective effect of SNP 4 from PCa is lost and modified by tanning potential in African Americans. This finding needs to be verified by larger studies in different ethnic populations.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Banho de Sol/estatística & dados numéricos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Fatores de Risco
18.
Int J Dermatol ; 59(11): 1401-1408, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966597

RESUMO

Today, parents are warned to protect their children from the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays, the most preventable and leading cause of skin cancer. Yet, during the first half of the 20th century, the medical community widely extolled the health benefits of daily sunbaths for babies and children. What initially had begun as evidence-based medical therapies to prevent pediatric diseases, specifically tuberculosis and rickets, soon took on a life of its own as physicians, public health experts, and the general public embraced sunbathing and tanning as a means to ensure health and wellbeing for children and families. Here, we trace how specific medical therapies entered mainstream pediatric medicine and, converging with societal and cultural forces, shaped attitudes and behaviors towards sunbathing that still exist today. Understanding our complex history with the sun may shed light on the current peak of skin cancer incidence and future disease development. Moreover, it may help improve how we educate parents and children about sun safety by taking into account the current social and cultural context of medical practice and health communication.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas , Banho de Sol , Criança , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Fototerapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 155-170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918218

RESUMO

To shed further light on the ongoing debate whether sunbed use may increase melanoma risk, we have critically assessed the scientific literature that is at present available, focussing on a meta-analysis that we published recently. Our literature search identified several meta-analyses that report a weak association for ever-exposure to UV radiation from a solarium with melanoma risk. However, the quality of studies included in these meta-analyses and the resulting evidence levels and grades of recommendation were very low due to the lack of interventional trials and because of severe limitations of many of the observational studies. The results of cohort and case-control studies published until today do not prove causality, not even by the Hill criteria. The overall quality of these observational studies and the resulting evidence levels are low due to severe limitations (including unobserved or unrecorded confounding), which leads to bias. It must be recognized that in the majority of studies, published to date, many of the confounding factors, including sun exposure, sunburns and skin type, have not been adequately and systematically recorded and adjusted for. We conclude that the many limitations of the individual studies and the resulting low levels of evidence and grades of recommendation do at present not allow postulation of a causal relationship between solarium use and melanoma risk. At present, there is no convincing evidence that moderate/responsible solarium use increases melanoma risk.


Assuntos
Melanoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Banho de Sol , Humanos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Queimadura Solar/epidemiologia
20.
JAMA Dermatol ; 156(11): 1223-1227, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876658

RESUMO

Importance: Several state governments have enacted bans on the use of indoor tanning beds at tanning salons among minors, but studies of the association of such restrictions with tanning behavior have produced mixed results. Little is known about the prevalence of tanning in nonsalon locations that are typically not covered by restrictions. Evidence that age bans are associated with a reduction in tanning bed use is needed to support policy makers' efforts to expand tanning regulations. Objective: To determine the prevalence and location of indoor tanning among New Jersey youths after a 2013 statewide indoor tanning ban for minors younger than 17 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study comprised 4 biennial (2012-2018) and representative cross-sectional surveys conducted among 12 659 high school students (grades 9-12) in New Jersey. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was the frequency of indoor tanning in the past year. Location of tanning bed use (ie, tanning salons or nonsalon locations, such as private residences or gyms) was also assessed. Results: Survey responses from a total of 12 659 high school students (6499 female [51%]; mean [SD] age, 15.8 [1.3] years) were analyzed across the 4 survey waves. Tanning prevalence among students younger than 17 years (ie, younger than the legal tanning age) was 48% lower in 2018 compared with 2012 (adjusted odds ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.33-0.81; P = .002). Tanning prevalence was 72% lower among female students 17 years or older (adjusted odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.18-0.44; P < .001). Prevalence rates were not significantly different for male students 17 years or older and for racial/ethnic minority students. The prevalence of tanning in salons and private residences was similar among students younger than 17 years. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that the prevalence of tanning in New Jersey has begun to decrease among all youths younger than the legal tanning age and among female students of legal age in the 5 years after a statewide tanning ban. These findings provide valuable evidence to policy makers to support ongoing state-level efforts to enact age-specific bans on indoor tanning. The unique assessment of tanning location demonstrates the need for both greater enforcement of existing tanning salon regulations to ensure compliance and broadening restrictions to cover nonsalon tanning locations.


Assuntos
Indústria da Beleza/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Banho de Sol/estatística & dados numéricos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Indústria da Beleza/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/etiologia , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , New Jersey , Políticas , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/psicologia , Banho de Sol/legislação & jurisprudência
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