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1.
Microb Pathog ; 158: 105086, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to impart immunity against SARS COV 2 in the community, the oil rich countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) provided citizens and expatriates with free vaccination. Different types of vaccination brands were utilized for this purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of the different types of vaccinations used. METHODS: This is an observational analytical case study of one Bahraini family who were vaccinated with 1st, 2nd or no dose. RESULTS: Out of 22 double dose recipients of SARS COV2 vaccine, 20 were infected. Those 20 were vaccinated against SARS COV 2 using Sinopharm, the rest (2) were in direct contact with the source but were vaccinated against SARS COV 2 using other type of vaccine. Out of 26 single dose recipients of Sinopharm vaccine, 23 were infected. The other three were not in direct contact with the infected source. Social gathering has been the main source of transmission. The infection has been mild with headache, chest pain. From 20 cases with double dose vaccinations only one had a lung infection and needed hospitalization. Out of 23 cases with single dose vaccinations 10 were hospitalized due to lung infections. All family members who were not vaccinated were infected, three were hospitalized one of which was deceased due to diabetes mellitus complications. CONLCUSION: Sinopharm provides partial protection against SARS COV 2 infection. That might be due to lack of its potential to detect recent variations in the protein structure of spike(S) protein of virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Barein/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 688, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being able to use COVID-19 RT-PCR Ct values as simple clinical markers of disease outcome or prognosis would allow for the easy and proactive identification and triaging of high-risk cases. This study's objective was thus to explore whether a correlation exists between COVID-19 viral loads, as indicated by RT-PCR Ct values, and disease severity, as indicated by respiratory indices. RESULTS: A multi-centre cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted, using data obtained from Bahrain's National COVID-19 Task force's centralised database. The study period ranged from May 2, 2020 to July 31, 2020. A multivariable logistic regression was used to assess for a correlation using data from a total of 1057 admitted COVID-19 cases. The covariates adjusted for included sex, age, presentation, and comorbidities. In our cohort, Ct value showed no statistical significance for an association with requirement for oxygenation on admission (Odds ratio 1.046; 95%CI 0.999 to 1.096, p = 0.054). CONCLUSION: Viral load, as indicated by Ct values, did not seem to be associated with requirement for oxygenation on admission in our cohort. We postulate however that time since onset of symptom may have acted as an unaccounted-for confounder. As such, RT-PCR Ct values may not be a useful prognostic clinical tool in isolation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Carga Viral/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Barein/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Testes Sorológicos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 376, 2021 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adult obesity has been associated with various systemic diseases and is an increasing problem in Bahrain. Recent evidence indicates a correlation between adult obesity and periodontitis. Hence the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of periodontitis in overweight/obese adults in Bahrain and to determine the factors associated with periodontitis in these obese adults. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted in overweight subjects attending Ministry of Health (MOH) Nutrition Clinics at primary health centers in Bahrain. After obtaining the institutional ethics approval, the demographic and anthropometric data, including Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) using World Health Organization (WHO) thresholds for severity of obesity, were recorded. Periodontal status was measured using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and the extent and severity of periodontal disease were categorized according to the number of sextants with CPI codes 3 and 4. RESULTS: A total of 372 participated with a mean age 44.0 (± 10.5) years for males, and 42.5 (± 11.2) years for females. Periodontitis was present in 361 (97%) of participants. Hypertension and diabetes were the most prevalent co-morbidities at 23.4% and 16% respectively. Mean WC was significantly greater in males at 114 cm (± 15.6) compared to females 109.5 cm (± 12.5) (p < 0.001). BMI was not associated with severity or extent of periodontitis but WC was weakly correlated in males but not in females (Spearman rho = + 0.2, p < 0.05). In the logistic regression model using overall WC to predict the severity of periodontitis, the adjusted OR was 1.02 (95% CI 1.00-1.04) and for age it was 1.05 (95% CI 1.00-1.07). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of periodontitis was high in this sample of overweight Bahrainis. BMI was not correlated with periodontitis but WC had a weak positive correlation. Implementation of periodontal health screening as a routine part of a nutrition clinic program is recommended.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Periodontite , Adulto , Barein/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e044102, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To generate cross-national forecasts of COVID-19 trajectories and quantify the associated impact on essential critical care resources for disease management in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. DESIGN: Population-level aggregate analysis. SETTING: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Saudi Arabia. METHODS: We applied an extended time-dependent SEICRD compartmental model to predict the flow of people between six states, susceptible-exposed-infected-critical-recovery-death, accounting for community mitigation strategies and the latent period between exposure and infected and contagious states. Then, we used the WHO Adaptt Surge Planning Tool to predict intensive care unit (ICU) and human resources capacity based on predicted daily active and cumulative infections from the SEICRD model. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Predicted COVID-19 infections, deaths, and ICU and human resources capacity for disease management. RESULTS: COVID-19 infections vary daily from 498 per million in Bahrain to over 300 per million in UAE and Qatar, to 9 per million in Saudi Arabia. The cumulative number of deaths varies from 302 per million in Oman to 89 in Qatar. UAE attained its first peak as early as 21 April 2020, whereas Oman had its peak on 29 August 2020. In absolute terms, Saudi Arabia is predicted to have the highest COVID-19 mortality burden, followed by UAE and Oman. The predicted maximum number of COVID-19-infected patients in need of oxygen therapy during the peak of emergency admissions varies between 690 in Bahrain, 1440 in Oman and over 10 000 in Saudi Arabia. CONCLUSION: Although most GCC countries have managed to flatten the epidemiological curve by August 2020, trends since November 2020 show potential increase in new infections. The pandemic is predicted to recede by August 2021, provided the existing infection control measures continue effectively and consistently across all countries. Current health infrastructure including the provision of ICUs and nursing staff seem adequate, but health systems should keep ICUs ready to manage critically ill patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Barein/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Omã/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Catar , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Biomark Med ; 15(8): 541-549, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988463

RESUMO

Aim: COVID-19 pandemic continues and dearth of information remains considering the utility of various inflammatory biomarkers. We carried out the present study to delineate the roles of these biomarkers in various strata of patients with coronavirus infection. Materials & methods: A retrospective study was carried out after obtaining approval from the relevant Ethics Committee. Patients established with COVID-19 infection as shown by positive real-time quantitative PCR test were included. Details on their demographics, diagnosis, whether they received tocilizumab, and the values of the following biomarkers were obtained: IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin, D-dimer, procalcitonin, fibrinogen, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted and correlation of biomarkers with IL-6 were estimated. Results: One-hundred and three patients were recruited. We observed that serum ferritin followed by D-dimer had better predictive accuracy in identifying patients with pneumonia compared with asymptomatic; and CRP in addition to the earlier markers had better accuracy for predicting severe illness compared with mild-moderate. Serum IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with severe illness admitted in intensive care unit. Significantly, higher levels of IL-6 and serum ferritin were observed in patients receiving tocilizumab. A trend of increased IL-6 levels was observed immediately following the initiation of tocilizumab therapy followed by a drop thereafter. Conclusion: We observed serum ferritin, D-dimer and CRP to accurately predict patients developing severe COVID-19 infections as well as those at risk of developing COVID pneumonia. A trend in IL-6 levels was observed in patients on tocilizumab therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Barein/epidemiologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
Microb Pathog ; 157: 104955, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058304

RESUMO

The challenges imposed by the ongoing outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 affects every aspect of our modern world, ranging from our health to our socio-economic needs. Our existence highly depends on the vaccine's availability, which demands in-depth research of the available strains and their mutations. In this work, we have analyzed all the available SARS-COV2 genomes isolated from the Kingdom of Bahrain in terms of their variance and origin analysis. We have predicted various known and unique mutations in the SARS-COV2 isolated from Bahrain. The complexity of the phylogenetic tree and dot plot representation of the strains mentioned above with other isolates of Asia indicates the versatility and multiple origins of Bahrain's SARS-COV2 isolates. We have also identified two high impact spike mutations from these strains which increase the virulence of SARS-COV2. Our research could have a high impact on vaccine development and distinguishes the source of SARS-COV2 in the Kingdom of Bahrain.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Ásia , Barein/epidemiologia , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Viral
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 656-661, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647516

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to over 92 million cases and 1.9 million deaths worldwide since its outbreak. Public health responses have focused on identifying symptomatic individuals to halt spread. However, evidence is accruing that asymptomatic individuals are infectious and contributing to this global pandemic. METHODS: Observational data of 320 index cases and their 1289 positive contacts from the National COVID-19 Database in Bahrain were used to analyze symptoms, infectivity rate and PCR Cycle threshold (Ct) values. RESULTS: No significant difference (p = 1.0) in proportions of symptomatic (n = 160; 50.0%) and asymptomatic index cases (n = 160; 50.0%) were seen; however, SARS-CoV-2 positive contact cases were predominantly asymptomatic (n = 1127, 87.4%). Individuals aged 0-19 years constituted a larger proportion of positive contact cases (20.8%) than index cases (4.7%; p < 0.001). A total of 22% of the positive contacts were infected by symptomatic male index cases aged between 30-39 years. The total numbers of exposed contacts (p = 0.33), infected contacts (p = 0.81) and hence infectivity rate (p = 0.72) were not different between symptomatic and asymptomatic index cases. PCR Ct values were higher in asymptomatic compared to symptomatic index cases (p < 0.001), and higher in asymptomatic compared to symptomatic positive contacts (p < 0.001). No differences between the infectivity rates of index cases with Ct values <30 and values ≥30 were observed (p = 0.13). CONCLUSION: These data reveal that the high asymptomatic incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Bahrain and subsequent positive contacts from an index case were more likely to be asymptomatic, showing the high "silent" risk of transmission and need for comprehensive screening for each positive infection to help halt the ongoing pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Barein/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
8.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 15(1): e34-e43, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782041

RESUMO

This article reports the establishment of an isolated, fully functional field intensive care unit (FICU) unit equipped with all necessary critical care facilities as a part of the national pre-emptive preparedness to treat an unexpected surge outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in Bahrain. One floor of an existing car parking structure was converted into a 130-bed FICU set-up by the in-house project implementation team comprised of multidisciplinary departments. The setting was a military hospital in the Kingdom of Bahrain, and the car park was on the hospital premises. The FICU contained a 112-bed fully equipped ICU and an 18-bed step-down ICU, and was built in 7 d to cater to the intensive care of COVID-19 patients in Bahrain.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitais Militares/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades Móveis de Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Barein/epidemiologia , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências
9.
Int J Cancer ; 148(3): 593-600, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683692

RESUMO

Data from population-based cancer registries (PBCR) are critical for planning, monitoring and evaluation of cancer control programs, but are frequently underutilized by key stakeholders. As part of the ongoing partnership of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO) in cancer surveillance, we designed a cancer registry survey to assess the level of involvement of PBCR in national cancer control planning across the region. A questionnaire on registry characteristics, their contribution to cancer control and perceived barriers, was sent to 14 countries with operational PBCR. We obtained replies from Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia and the United Arab Emirates. We found a high participation of PBCR in cancer control planning (all registries involved, 46% routinely) and the evaluation of screening (92% registries involved, 46% routinely), but a much lower level of participation in palliative care and rehabilitation activities. Specified barriers included poor governance, a lack of awareness by policy makers, insufficient resources and a limited availability of data electronically, including mortality data. Appropriate planning to ensure the sustainability of PBCR (including the employment of permanent staff), increasing training, building research capacity and ensuring an efficient provision of high-quality data to policymakers, were among the proposed solutions. The results of our study reinforce the need for further tailoring of activities in support of cancer registration and enhanced networking among stakeholders, toward improving quality and use of cancer registry data for cancer control in the EMR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Barein/epidemiologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Iraque/epidemiologia , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Líbano/epidemiologia , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/reabilitação , Omã/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Catar/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Sleep Breath ; 25(1): 503-511, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592021

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Few studies have addressed the sleep disturbances of healthcare workers during crisis events of public health. This study aimed to examine the sleep quality of frontline healthcare workers (FLHCW) in Bahrain during the COVID-19 pandemic, and compare it with the sleep quality of non-frontline healthcare workers (NFLHCW). METHODS: Healthcare workers (n = 280) from multiple facilities belonging to the Ministry of Health, Bahrain, were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. An online questionnaire, including socio-demographics, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), was used to evaluate sleep disturbances and stress levels of healthcare workers. Poor sleep quality was defined as PSQI ≥ 5 and moderate-severe stress as PSS ≥ 14. Descriptive statistics were used to compare the scores of FLHCW and NFLHCW. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of poor sleep quality, moderate-severe stress, and the combined problem of poor sleep quality and moderate-severe stress. RESULTS: A total of 257 participants (129 FLHCW and 128 NFLHCW) provided usable responses. The overall PSQI and PSS scores were 7.0 ± 3.3 and 20.2 ± 7.1, respectively. The FLHCW scored higher in the PSQI and PSS compared with the NFLHCW; however, the differences in the PSQI and PSS scores were not statistically significant. For the FLHCW, 75% were poor sleepers, 85% had moderate-severe stress, and 61% had both poor sleep quality and moderate-severe stress. For the NFLHCW, 76% were poor sleepers, 84% had moderate-severe stress, and 62% had both poor sleep quality and moderate-severe stress. Female sex and professional background were the predictors of poor sleep quality and stress. CONCLUSIONS: Poor sleep quality and stress are common during the COVID-19 crisis. Approximately, 60% of both FLHCW and NFLHCW have poor sleep quality combined with moderate-severe stress.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Barein/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pandemias , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 285-288, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The frequency of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection with viral spread is unclear. Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection development and progression was investigated in subjects undergoing mandatory quarantine on airport arrival. METHODS: 2714 subjects were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and all were quarantined for 2 weeks. Viral retesting was undertaken on symptom development and routinely at 14 days if asymptomatic. Asymptomatic, positive patients underwent viral testing every 2 days to determine viral clearance. RESULTS: 188/2714 (6.9%) patients became SARS-CoV-2 positive. On arrival, 136/188 tested positive, with 44/188 (23.4%) symptomatic and 92/188 (48.9%) asymptomatic. All 92 patients remained asymptomatic and were retested every 2 days until viral clearance. 2526 quarantined subjects remained virus free at 14 days. Viral clearance did not differ between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (12.6 ± 1.0 days and 12.1 ± 0.4 days, respectively). Of the 52/188 (27.7%) testing negative on arrival, 27/52 subsequently became positive and developed symptoms 2-13 days after arrival. 25/188 (13.3%) remained asymptomatic and tested positive at day 14, with viral testing undertaken every 2 days in these subjects; of these, 24 remained asymptomatic, with viral clearance at 9.4 ± 0.7 days - less than for those who were asymptomatic on arrival (p < 0.002). CONCLUSION: Asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 were more prevalent than those exhibiting symptoms, and are an infection reservoir.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Quarentena , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Barein/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
12.
Saudi Med J ; 41(12): 1344-1349, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic and its consequences on general surgery residents. Methods: Cross-sectional, survey based study including surgical residents in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Kingdom of Bahrain. RESULTS: Surgical trainees who participated in our survey (n=234) were young (mean age 28), single (53.8%), and males (65.8%). Approximately half (50.4%) have been deployed to cover the staff shortage in intensive care units (ICUs) or emergency departments (EDs). Half of our trainees (117) scored positive in the screening tool of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). There was a significant association between experiencing anxiety and male gender (p=0.055), level of training (p=0.002), deployment to cover ICUs (p=0.050), testing positive for COVID-19 (p=0.054) and having an infected family member (p=0.004). CONCLUSION: Coronavirus-19 pandemic has a serious effect on all healthcare workers and surgical residents have experienced a considerable amount of stress. Accordingly, this psychological burden should be appropriately addressed in organizations planning strategies. We suggest formulating guidelines to help surgical trainees to continue their learning process with least psychological burden.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência , Estresse Ocupacional/etiologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Barein/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Ocupacional/diagnóstico , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Cirurgiões/educação
13.
J Int Med Res ; 48(10): 300060520961917, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086878

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the contributions from the six Arabian Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries to the national scientific literature on depressive disorders. METHODS: This literature review identified all of the published studies on all major depressive disorders as cited on the PubMed® and APA PsycInfo® databases from inception to 31 December 2016 from the six GGC countries. Data were extracted using a standardized form. The study compared the volume of research production between the countries by calculating an index that allowed for the country population size. RESULTS: A total of 28 studies met the inclusion criteria. Saudi Arabia headed the list of publications (10 articles) followed by the United Arab Emirates (n = 6), Kuwait (n = 5), Qatar (n = 3); and Bahrain and Oman produced two articles each. Only six out of the 28 (21.4%) studies included a random sample or adopted good sampling strategies. The majority of studies (24 of 28; 85.7%) were cross-sectional in design. Only one study clearly stated the use of the DSM-4 criteria for diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The scientific literature published by the GCC countries on depressive disorders is scant and lacking scientific depth. These findings should be considered as a wake-up call for public health researchers, mental health workers and policymakers.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Barein/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Kuweit , Omã , Catar/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 101: 14-16, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980556

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a newly identified strain of the coronavirus family that has been shown to affect the hemoglobin beta chain, the same chain that has sickle cell disease (SCD) mutation. This study was undertaken to see if COVID-19 infection increased disease severity in patients with SCD. METHODS: Mass screening of the Bahraini population was undertaken between February and April 2020. RESULTS: A total of 38,092 Bahraini people were tested for COVID-19 during this period; 378 (1%) were SCD patients. Six patients with SCD had COVID-19 (1.6%): three remained asymptomatic, two had mild symptoms and one required oxygen therapy. The SCD patients had a similar average length of stay when compared with non-SCD COVID-19 patients (10.7 days). CONCLUSION: The infection rate, clinical course and viral clearance seen for the SCD patients with COVID-19 were no different to those without SCD.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Barein/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(13): 7524-7533, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Weather-related dynamics have an impact on the pattern of health and disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of temperature and humidity on the daily new cases and daily new deaths due to COVID-19 in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries in the Middle East. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected all the six GCC countries, including Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and Oman. This region has a relatively high temperature and humidity, and has homogenous Arab ethnicity with a similar socioeconomic culture. The data on the global outbreak of COVID-19, including daily new cases and deaths were recorded from World Health Organization. The information on daily temperature and humidity was obtained from world climate web "Time and Date". The daily basis, mean temperature and humidity were recorded from the date of appearance of first case of COVID-19 in the region, Jan 29, 2020 to May 15, 2020. We also evaluated the growth factor, "a ratio by which a quantity multiplies itself over time; it equals daily cases divided by cases on the previous day". RESULTS: In GCC countries, the daily basis mean temperature from Jan 29, 2020 to May 15, 2020 was 29.20±0.30°C and humidity was 37.95±4.40%. The results revealed that there was a negative correlation and decrease in the number of daily cases and deaths from COVID-19 with increase in humidity in Oman, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. The correlation coefficient between temperature with daily cases shows that an increase in temperature was associated with an increase in daily cases and deaths due to COVID-19, however, the temperature is still gradually rising in the region. The growth factor result for daily cases was 1.09±0.00 and daily deaths was 1.07±0.03 for COVID-19, and shows declining trends in GCC region. CONCLUSIONS: An increase in relative humidity was associated with a decrease in the number of daily cases and deaths due to COVID-19 in GCC countries. The daily growth factor for patients and deaths shows a declining trend. However, the climate is swiftly changing in the region; further studies may be conducted during the peak of summer season. The findings have outcomes for policymakers and health officials about the impact of temperature and humidity on epidemiological trends of daily new cases and deaths due to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Temperatura , Barein/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Omã/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Catar/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 166: 108298, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623031

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic creates a challenge in the provision of care for patients with diabetes. Furthermore, those with uncontrolled diabetes are at a higher risk for complications due to COVID-19. The purpose of this study is to find an innovative method to sustain effective diabetes care services amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Outpatient diabetes care was successfully transformed from traditional face-to-face encounters in the clinic to an online telemedicine service. RESULTS: 1,972 patients were encountered over a 4-week study period during which we had a low proportion of unreached patients (4%). Some patients were still seen in person because they came as walk-in visits or insisted to be seen in person. CONCLUSION: Telemedicine has become an essential healthcare service and could be augmented by the use of technology like web-based applications and communication via transfer of data from patients' glucometer, insulin pumps, or sensors. Diabetes care can be transitioned to telemedicine effectively and would be successful in reaching more patients than by traditional face-to-face visits. This model of care is time consuming and unfortunately does not reduce the need for medical staff.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina/métodos , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Barein/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/virologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , SARS-CoV-2
18.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(3): 260-267, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281634

RESUMO

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem in children. The vitamin D status of children and adolescents has not been evaluated in Bahrain. Aims: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in healthy children in Bahrain and to investigate the relationship between vitamin D level and age and sex. Methods: Medical records of children aged 1 month to 16 years who attended a vitamin D screening campaign at Al Kindi Specialized Hospital, Bahrain between September and October 2016 were reviewed. Data on sex and age were recorded and vitamin D level was measured as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Children were grouped as: vitamin D sufficient [25(OH)D ≥ 75 nmol/L], vitamin D insufficient (51-74 nmol/L) and vitamin D deficient (≤ 50 nmol/L). Results: A total of 531 children were included in the study, 50.8% of whom were boys. Most of the children (93.4%) had low vitamin D levels; 78.3% were vitamin D deficient and 15.1% vitamin D insufficient. Only 6.6% were vitamin D sufficient. A significantly greater proportion of girls were vitamin D deficient than boys (P < 0.001). More primary-school children and adolescents were vitamin D deficient than preschool children (P < 0.001). A negative correlation was found between vitamin D level and age (r = -0.467; P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that vitamin D level decreased by -2.164 nmol/L for each year of age. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is a problem among healthy children in Bahrain. Public health policies or interventions are suggested to improve vitamin D status in Bahrain, especially for school-aged children.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Barein/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(17): e19950, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332676

RESUMO

Neck circumference (NC) is an attractive method for determining overweight and obesity in school age children because it is inexpensive and culturally acceptable. However, this technique has not been assessed for its accuracy in school children from countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, which have high prevalence of overweight and obesity.The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the correlation between the body mass index (BMI), NC, and waist-hip ratio and demographic characteristics among 10- to 18-year-old adolescent school children in Bahrain.BMI was calculated using Center of Disease Control and Prevention Children's BMI Tool for Schools. Data was collected for a total of n = 397 adolescents from 4 different private schools with an average age of 12.91 years; 57.7% were male and 42.3% female.In this sample of adolescents, 50.1% were either overweight (21.4%) or obese (28.7%). BMI was significantly associated with waist-hip ratio (P < .01), gender (P < .05), and age (P < .01). Multiple linear regressions revealed that NC was significantly associated with age (P < .001) and less so with gender (P = .071) and BMI was significantly associated with NC (P < .01), gender (P < .01), and age (P < .05). Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic for males and females combined showed fair sensitivity and specificity (Area under the curve (AUC) = 0.707; 95% CI: 0.656, 0.758).NC is weakly correlated with BMI, and only a fair instrument for identifying overweight/obesity based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Therefore, NC could only be used as an adjunct screening tool for weight status in this sample.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Pescoço , Obesidade Pediátrica/classificação , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adolescente , Barein/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Prevalência
20.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 312(8): 533-544, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055931

RESUMO

Skin cancers are the most common malignancies diagnosed worldwide. In Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, skin cancer remains a significant health burden. Multiple studies have attempted to elucidate patient knowledge and attitudes regarding skin cancer risks and behavioral interventions to reduce risks. A systematic literature search of relevant articles was conducted in PubMed, ScienceDirect, and the Saudi Digital Library databases. A narrative analysis of relevant study results was conducted. A total of 12 studies were reviewed across GCC. These studies revealed common themes among GCC populations. Many study participants were aware that excess sun exposure represents a threat to health and increases cancer risk. Several studies reported sun exposure, with a mean of 19.13 h per week. More studies reported patients engaging in lower or no sunscreen use rather than regular sunscreen use. There are discrepancies in the understanding of sun exposure risk and risk mitigation practices among the study populations. Skin cancer poses a significant burden to patients in GCC countries and improved patient education will enhance population health.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Roupa de Proteção , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Barein/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Omã/epidemiologia , Catar/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Autoexame , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
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