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1.
Korean J Parasitol ; 56(5): 521-525, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419740

RESUMO

Rodents are well-known reservoirs and vectors of many emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, but little is known about their role in zoonotic disease transmission in Bhutan. In this study, a cross-sectional investigation of zoonotic disease pathogens in rodents was performed in Chukha district, Bhutan, where a high incidence of scrub typhus and cases of acute undifferentiated febrile illness had been reported in people during the preceding 4-6 months. Twelve rodents were trapped alive using wire-mesh traps. Following euthanasia, liver and kidney tissues were removed and tested using PCR for Orientia tsutsugamushi and other bacterial and rickettsial pathogens causing bartonellosis, borreliosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, leptospirosis, and rickettsiosis. A phylogenetic analysis was performed on all rodent species captured and pathogens detected. Four out of the 12 rodents (33.3%) tested positive by PCR for zoonotic pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella grahamii, and B. queenslandensis were identified for the first time in Bhutan. Leptospira interrogans was also detected for the first time from rodents in Bhutan. The findings demonstrate the presence of these zoonotic pathogens in rodents in Bhutan, which may pose a risk of disease transmission to humans.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum/patogenicidade , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Reservatórios de Doenças , Vetores de Doenças , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/transmissão , Leptospira interrogans/patogenicidade , Orientia tsutsugamushi/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Rickettsia/patogenicidade , Roedores/genética , Roedores/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Butão/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Orientia tsutsugamushi/genética , Orientia tsutsugamushi/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
2.
Korean J Parasitol ; 56(4): 365-370, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196669

RESUMO

To confirm that Bartonella and Wolbachia were carried by sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) in southern Xinjiang of China, 17 M. ovinus samples, which were collected in Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang, were randomly selected. In this study, the Bartonella gltA and Wolbachia 16S rRNA gene were amplified through conventional PCR and the sequence of those amplified products, were analyzed. The results demonstrated that Bartonella was carried by all of the 17 sheep keds and Wolbachia was carried by 15 out of them. Bartonella was identified as B. melophagi. Three strains of Wolbachia were supergroup F and 1 strain has not been confirmed yet. It is the first report about Wolbachia supergroup F was found in sheep keds and provided the molecular evidence that B. melophagi and Wolbachia supergroup F were carried by sheep keds in Aksu Prefecture of southern Xinjiang, China. The 2 pathogens were found in sheep keds around Taklimakan Desert for the first time.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Dípteros/microbiologia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Wolbachia/genética , Wolbachia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bartonella/classificação , Bartonella/patogenicidade , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/parasitologia , Wolbachia/classificação , Wolbachia/patogenicidade
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 489, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bats are among the most widely distributed mammals worldwide and can represent hosts or reservoirs for a number of different pathogens. Bartonella spp. are opportunistic bacterial pathogens, which are transmitted by a large variety of arthropods. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and host-associations of these Gram-negative bacteria in heart tissues of bats collected in four different countries from eastern and central Europe and to analyze their phylogenetic relationship with other bat-associated bartonellae. RESULTS: The results of this study show for the first time the presence of Bartonella spp. DNA in heart tissues of bats from central and eastern Europe. The overall prevalence of the infection was 1.38%. Phylogenetic analysis identified four new Bartonella spp. sequences, which were closely related with other Bartonella previously isolated from bats in Europe and North America. CONCLUSIONS: The gltA sequences of Bartonella spp. showed considerable heterogeneity in the phylogenetic analysis resulting in six different clades. Our study demonstrated the presence of Bartonella spp. only in heart tissues of bats from Romania, with two new bat species recorded as hosts (Myotis cf. alcathoe and Pipistrellus pipistrellus).


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/genética , Quirópteros/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Coração/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Quirópteros/anatomia & histologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Romênia/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197041, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29742157

RESUMO

Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are multi-protein complexes in a number of bacterial pathogens that can translocate proteins and DNA to the host. Most T4SSs function in conjugation and translocate DNA; however, approximately 13% function to secrete proteins, delivering effector proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells. Upon entry, these effectors manipulate the host cell's machinery for their own benefit, which can result in serious illness or death of the host. For this reason recognition of T4SS effectors has become an important subject. Much previous work has focused on verifying effectors experimentally, a costly endeavor in terms of money, time, and effort. Having good predictions for effectors will help to focus experimental validations and decrease testing costs. In recent years, several scoring and machine learning-based methods have been suggested for the purpose of predicting T4SS effector proteins. These methods have used different sets of features for prediction, and their predictions have been inconsistent. In this paper, an optimal set of features is presented for predicting T4SS effector proteins using a statistical approach. A thorough literature search was performed to find features that have been proposed. Feature values were calculated for datasets of known effectors and non-effectors for T4SS-containing pathogens for four genera with a sufficient number of known effectors, Legionella pneumophila, Coxiella burnetii, Brucella spp, and Bartonella spp. The features were ranked, and less important features were filtered out. Correlations between remaining features were removed, and dimensional reduction was accomplished using principal component analysis and factor analysis. Finally, the optimal features for each pathogen were chosen by building logistic regression models and evaluating each model. The results based on evaluation of our logistic regression models confirm the effectiveness of our four optimal sets of features, and based on these an optimal set of features is proposed for all T4SS effector proteins.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo IV/genética , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Brucella/genética , Brucella/patogenicidade , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Coxiella burnetii/patogenicidade , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Legionella pneumophila/genética , Legionella pneumophila/patogenicidade , Transporte Proteico/genética
5.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 9(5): 1090-1097, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29678402

RESUMO

The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is a medium-sized canid species native to Europe. This species is characterized by rapid large-scale expansion. A similar trend is also observed in Serbia, where the species is now distributed in more than a half of the territory. Although jackals prefer habitats in human-dominated landscapes, these animals have not been studied well enough from an eco-epidemiological point of view, and little is known about their potential for carrying zoonotic pathogens. In a study conducted during a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013), a total of 216 hunted or road-killed golden jackals were collected from 10 localities in Serbia. Ticks, when present, were removed, and after necropsy, spleen samples were collected from each animal. All tick and spleen samples were tested for the DNA of bacterial and protozoan tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia species, Bartonella species, Rickettsia species, Anaplasma species, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella species and Babesia species) by multiplex real-time PCR, conventional PCR and sequencing analyses. The DNA of Babesia canis was detected in nine out of 216 (4.2%) spleen samples, and two samples (0.9%) tested positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In 118 ticks collected from jackals, the DNA of two Babesia species (Ba. canis and Ba. microti), three Borrelia species (Bo. garinii, Bo. valaisiana, and Bo. lusitaniae) and A. marginale was detected. From the aspect of public health surveillance, the potential role of the golden jackal in the maintenance of vector-borne zoonotic pathogens in Serbia must be considered, and further eco-epidemiological studies should be performed to determine the precise role of this animal species in zoonotic disease transmission cycles.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Chacais/parasitologia , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma/patogenicidade , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/patogenicidade , Animais , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesia/patogenicidade , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Borrelia/patogenicidade , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/patogenicidade , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Vetores de Doenças , Humanos , Ixodes/microbiologia , Ixodes/parasitologia , Piroplasmida/genética , Piroplasmida/patogenicidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Saúde Pública , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsia/patogenicidade , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(2): e0006189, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently emerged in the field of entomology as a promising method for the identification of arthropods and the detection of associated pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An experimental model of Ctenocephalides felis (cat fleas) infected with Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae was developed to evaluate the efficacy of MALDI-TOF MS in distinguishing infected from uninfected fleas, and its ability to distinguish fleas infected with Bartonella quintana from fleas infected with Bartonella henselae. For B. quintana, two groups of fleas received three successive blood meals, infected or not. A total of 140 fleas (100 exposed fleas and 40 control fleas) were engorged on human blood, infected or uninfected with B. quintana. Regarding the second pathogen, two groups of fleas (200 exposed fleas and 40 control fleas) were fed in the same manner with human blood, infected or not with Bartonella henselae. Fleas were dissected longitudinally; one-half was used for assessment of B. quintana and B. henselae infectious status by real-time PCR, and the second half was subjected to MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Comparison of MS spectra from infected fleas and uninfected fleas revealed distinct MS profiles. Blind queries against our MALDI-TOF MS arthropod database, upgraded with reference spectra from B. quintana and B. henselae infected fleas but also non-infected fleas, provided the correct classification for 100% of the different categories of specimens tested on the first model of flea infection with Bartonella quintana. As for Bartonella henselae, 81% of exposed qPCR-positive fleas, 96% of exposed qPCR-negative fleas and 100% of control fleas were correctly identified on the second model of flea infection. MALDI-TOF MS successfully differentiated Bartonella spp.-infected and uninfected fleas and was also able to correctly differentiate fleas infected with Bartonella quintana and fleas infected with Bartonella henselae. MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified flea species as well as their infectious status, consistent with the results of real-time PCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MALDI-TOF is a promising tool for identification of the infection status of fleas infected with Bartonella spp., which allows new possibilities for fast and accurate diagnosis in medical entomology and vector surveillance.


Assuntos
Bartonella/classificação , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Pulgas/diagnóstico , Infestações por Pulgas/microbiologia , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Bartonella henselae/isolamento & purificação , Bartonella henselae/patogenicidade , Bartonella quintana/isolamento & purificação , Bartonella quintana/patogenicidade , Biomarcadores/análise , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , Ctenocephalides/microbiologia , Ctenocephalides/parasitologia , DNA Bacteriano , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Patologia Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Vet Parasitol ; 251: 17-26, 2018 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426471

RESUMO

Wild vertebrates are involved in the transmission cycles of numerous pathogens. Additionally, they can affect the abundance of arthropod vectors. Urbanization, landscape and climate changes, and the adaptation of vectors and wildlife to human habitats represent complex and evolving scenarios, which affect the interface of vector, wildlife and human populations, frequently with a consequent increase in zoonotic risk. While considerable attention has focused on these interrelations with regard to certain major vector-borne pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and tick-borne encephalitis virus, information regarding many other zoonotic pathogens is more dispersed. In this review, we discuss the possible role of wildlife in the maintenance and spread of some of these neglected zoonoses in Europe. We present case studies on the role of rodents in the cycles of Bartonella spp., of wild ungulates in the cycle of Babesia spp., and of various wildlife species in the life cycle of Leishmania infantum, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. These examples highlight the usefulness of surveillance strategies focused on neglected zoonotic agents in wildlife as a source of valuable information for health professionals, nature managers and (local) decision-makers. These benefits could be further enhanced by increased collaboration between researchers and stakeholders across Europe and a more harmonised and coordinated approach for data collection.


Assuntos
Vetores Artrópodes/parasitologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesia/patogenicidade , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/transmissão , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Doenças Negligenciadas/microbiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
8.
Microb Ecol ; 76(2): 544-554, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29313064

RESUMO

The present work aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of Bartonella in mammals and ectoparasites in Pantanal wetland, Brazil. For this purpose, 31 Nasua nasua, 78 Cerdocyon thous, 7 Leopardus pardalis, 110 wild rodents, 30 marsupials, and 42 dogs were sampled. DNA samples were submitted to a quantitative real-time PCR assay (qPCR). Positive samples in qPCR were submitted to conventional PCR assays targeting other five protein-coding genes. Thirty-five wild rodents and three Polygenis (P.) bohlsi bohlsi flea pools showed positive results in qPCR for Bartonella spp. Thirty-seven out of 38 positive samples in qPCR were also positive in cPCR assays based on ftsZ gene, nine in nuoG-cPCR, and six in gltA-cPCR. Concatenated phylogenetic analyses showed that two main genotypes circulate in rodents and ectoparasites in the studied region. While one of them was closely related to Bartonella spp. previously detected in Cricetidae rodents from North America and Brazil, the other one was related to Bartonella alsatica, Bartonella pachyuromydis, Bartonella birtlesii, Bartonella acomydis, Bartonella silvatica, and Bartonella callosciuri. These results showed that at least two Bartonella genotypes circulate among wild rodents. Additionally, the present study suggests that Polygenis (P.) bohlsi bohlsi fleas could act as possible Bartonella vectors among rodents in Pantanal wetland, Brazil.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/classificação , Bartonella/genética , Variação Genética , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Vetores de Doenças , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Genótipo , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Roedores/microbiologia , Sifonápteros/microbiologia
9.
J Vet Med Sci ; 80(4): 653-661, 2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311425

RESUMO

Bartonella bovis is a small Gram-negative bacterium recognized as an etiological agent for bacteremia and endocarditis in cattle. As few reports are available on the taxonomic position of B. bovis and its mechanism of virulence, this study aims to resolve the phylogeny of B. bovis and investigate putative virulence genes based on whole genome sequence analysis. Genome-wide comparisons based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and orthologous genes were performed in this study for phylogenetic inference of 27 Bartonella species. Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) analysis was used for annotation of putative virulence genes. The phylogenetic tree generated from the genome-wide comparison of orthologous genes exhibited a topology almost similar to that of the tree generated from SNP-based comparison, indicating a high concordance in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of Bartonella spp. The analyses show consistent grouping of B. bovis in a cluster related to ruminant-associated species, including Bartonella australis, Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella schoenbuchensis. RAST analysis revealed genes encoding flagellar components, in corroboration with the observation of flagella-like structure of BbUM strain under negative straining. Genes associated with virulence, disease and defence, prophages, membrane transport, iron acquisition, motility and chemotaxis are annotated in B. bovis genome. The flagellin (flaA) gene of B. bovis is closely related to Bartonella bacilliformis and Bartonella clarridgeiae but distinct from other Gram-negative bacteria. The absence of type IV secretion systems, the bona fide pathogenicity factors of bartonellae, in B. bovis suggests that it may have a different mechanism of pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Virulência
10.
Parasitol Int ; 67(2): 209-212, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29217417

RESUMO

Fleas are commonly recorded on stray as well as domestic dogs and cats in Hong Kong. Fleas can be a major cause of pruritus in dogs and cats and also vectors of potentially zoonotic bacteria in the genera Rickettsia and Bartonella. Morphological examination of 174 fleas from dogs and cats living in Hong Kong revealed only cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) genotyping of 20 randomly selected specimens, revealed three cox1 haplotypes (HK-h1 to HK-h3). The most common haplotype was HK-h1 with 17 specimens (17/20, 85%). HK-h1 was identical to cox1 sequences of fleas in Thailand and Fiji. HK-h1 and HK-h2 form a distinct cat flea cox1 clade previously recognized as the Clade 3. HK-h3 forms a new Clade 6. A multiplex Bartonella and Rickettsia real-time PCR of DNA from 20 C. felis found Bartonella and Rickettsia DNA in three (15%) and ten (50%) C. felis, respectively. DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of R. felis, B. clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae. This is the first reported study of that kind in Hong Kong, and further work is required to expand the survey of companion animals in the geographical region. The sampling of fleas on domestic cats and dogs in Hong Kong revealed them to be exclusively infested by the cat flea and to be harbouring pathogens of zoonotic potential.


Assuntos
Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Ctenocephalides/microbiologia , Rickettsia felis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Ctenocephalides/genética , Cães/parasitologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/transmissão , Haplótipos , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Rickettsia felis/genética , Rickettsia felis/patogenicidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Parasitology ; 145(3): 335-344, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28835291

RESUMO

Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most abundant wild canid species in Austria, and it is a well-known carrier of many pathogens of medical and veterinary concern. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and diversity of protozoan, bacterial and filarial parasites transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods in a red fox population in western Austria. Blood (n = 351) and spleen (n = 506) samples from foxes were examined by PCR and sequencing and the following pathogens were identified: Babesia canis, Babesia cf. microti (syn. Theileria annae), Hepatozoon canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. and Bartonella rochalimae. Blood was shown to be more suitable for detection of Babesia cf. microti, whilst the spleen tissue was better for detection of H. canis than blood. Moreover, extremely low genetic variability of H. canis and its relatively low prevalence rate observed in this study may suggest that the parasite has only recently been introduced in the sampled area. Furthermore, the data presented here demonstrates, for the first time, the possible vertical transmission of H. canis from an infected vixen to the offspring, and this could explain the very high prevalence in areas considered free of its main tick vector(s).


Assuntos
Artrópodes/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Raposas/microbiologia , Raposas/parasitologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/patogenicidade , Animais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Babesia/genética , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesia/patogenicidade , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/parasitologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/transmissão , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Vetores de Doenças , Eucoccidiida/genética , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Eucoccidiida/patogenicidade , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/microbiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
12.
Microbes Infect ; 20(7-8): 416-423, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162422

RESUMO

Intracellular bacteria, such as Chlamydiales, Anaplasma or Bartonella, need to persist inside their host in order to complete their developmental cycle and to infect new hosts. In order to escape from the host immune system, intracellular bacteria have developed diverse mechanisms of persistence, which can directly impact the health of their host.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/fisiologia , Bartonella/fisiologia , Chlamydiales/fisiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Anaplasma/imunologia , Anaplasma/patogenicidade , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bartonella/imunologia , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Chlamydiales/imunologia , Chlamydiales/patogenicidade , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Imunomodulação
13.
PLoS Genet ; 13(10): e1007077, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29073136

RESUMO

Host-targeting type IV secretion systems (T4SS) evolved from conjugative T4SS machineries that mediate interbacterial plasmid transfer. However, the origins of effectors secreted by these virulence devices have remained largely elusive. Previous work showed that some effectors exhibit homology to toxins of bacterial toxin-antitoxin modules, but the evolutionary trajectories underlying these ties had not been resolved. We previously reported that FicT toxins of FicTA toxin-antitoxin modules disrupt cellular DNA topology via their enzymatic FIC (filamentation induced by cAMP) domain. Intriguingly, the FIC domain of the FicT toxin VbhT of Bartonella schoenbuchensis is fused to a type IV secretion signal-the BID (Bep intracellular delivery) domain-similar to the Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) that are secreted into eukaryotic host cells via the host-targeting VirB T4SS. In this study, we show that the VbhT toxin is an interbacterial effector protein secreted via the conjugative Vbh T4SS that is closely related to the VirB T4SS and encoded by plasmid pVbh of B. schoenbuchensis. We therefore propose that the Vbh T4SS together with its effector VbhT represent an evolutionary missing link on a path that leads from a regular conjugation system and FicTA toxin-antitoxin modules to the VirB T4SS and the Beps. Intriguingly, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the fusion of FIC and BID domains has probably occurred independently in VbhT and the common ancestor of the Beps, suggesting parallel evolutionary paths. Moreover, several other examples of TA module toxins that are bona fide substrates of conjugative T4SS indicate that their recruitment as interbacterial effectors is prevalent and serves yet unknown biological functions in the context of bacterial conjugation. We propose that the adaptation for interbacterial transfer favors the exaptation of FicT and other TA module toxins as inter-kingdom effectors and may thus constitute an important stepping stone in the evolution of host-targeted effector proteins.


Assuntos
Antitoxinas/metabolismo , Sistemas de Secreção Bacterianos/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Bacterianos/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antitoxinas/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Conjugação Genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Plasmídeos , Homologia de Sequência , Virulência
14.
Genome Biol Evol ; 9(3): 761-776, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338931

RESUMO

The α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises a group of ubiquitous mammalian pathogens that are studied as a model for the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis. Vast abundance of two particular phylogenetic lineages of Bartonella had been linked to enhanced host adaptability enabled by lineage-specific acquisition of a VirB/D4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) and parallel evolution of complex effector repertoires. However, the limited availability of genome sequences from one of those lineages as well as other, remote branches of Bartonella has so far hampered comprehensive understanding of how the VirB/D4 T4SS and its effectors called Beps have shaped Bartonella evolution. Here, we report the discovery of a third repertoire of Beps associated with the VirB/D4 T4SS of B. ancashensis, a novel human pathogen that lacks any signs of host adaptability and is only distantly related to the two species-rich lineages encoding a VirB/D4 T4SS. Furthermore, sequencing of ten new Bartonella isolates from under-sampled lineages enabled combined in silico analyses and wet lab experiments that suggest several parallel layers of functional diversification during evolution of the three Bep repertoires from a single ancestral effector. Our analyses show that the Beps of B. ancashensis share many features with the two other repertoires, but may represent a more ancestral state that has not yet unleashed the adaptive potential of such an effector set. We anticipate that the effectors of B. ancashensis will enable future studies to dissect the evolutionary history of Bartonella effectors and help unraveling the evolutionary forces underlying bacterial host adaptation.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Secreção Bacterianos/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo IV/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/patologia , Evolução Molecular , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Fatores de Virulência/genética
15.
ISME J ; 11(5): 1232-1244, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28234349

RESUMO

The genus Bartonella comprises facultative intracellular bacteria with a unique lifestyle. After transmission by blood-sucking arthropods they colonize the erythrocytes of mammalian hosts causing acute and chronic infectious diseases. Although the pathogen-host interaction is well understood, little is known about the evolutionary origin of the infection strategy manifested by Bartonella species. Here we analyzed six genomes of Bartonella apis, a honey bee gut symbiont that to date represents the closest relative of pathogenic Bartonella species. Comparative genomics revealed that B. apis encodes a large set of vertically inherited genes for amino acid and cofactor biosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism. Most pathogenic bartonellae have lost these ancestral functions, but acquired specific virulence factors and expanded a vertically inherited gene family for harvesting cofactors from the blood. However, the deeply rooted pathogen Bartonella tamiae has retained many of the ancestral genome characteristics reflecting an evolutionary intermediate state toward a host-restricted intraerythrocytic lifestyle. Our findings suggest that the ancestor of the pathogen Bartonella was a gut symbiont of insects and that the adaptation to blood-feeding insects facilitated colonization of the mammalian bloodstream. This study highlights the importance of comparative genomics among pathogens and non-pathogenic relatives to understand disease emergence within an evolutionary-ecological framework.


Assuntos
Bartonella/genética , Abelhas/microbiologia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Bacteriano , Animais , Bartonella/classificação , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Bartonella/fisiologia , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Genômica , Insetos/microbiologia , Simbiose , Fatores de Virulência/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0171175, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28129398

RESUMO

Bats are important reservoirs for many zoonotic pathogens. However, no surveys of bacterial pathogens in bats have been performed in the Caucasus region. To understand the occurrence and distribution of bacterial infections in these mammals, 218 bats belonging to eight species collected from four regions of Georgia were examined for Bartonella, Brucella, Leptospira, and Yersinia using molecular approaches. Bartonella DNA was detected in 77 (35%) bats from all eight species and was distributed in all four regions. The prevalence ranged 6-50% per bat species. The Bartonella DNA represented 25 unique genetic variants that clustered into 21 lineages. Brucella DNA was detected in two Miniopterus schreibersii bats and in two Myotis blythii bats, all of which were from Imereti (west-central region). Leptospira DNA was detected in 25 (13%) bats that included four M. schreibersii bats and 21 M. blythii bats collected from two regions. The Leptospira sequences represented five genetic variants with one of them being closely related to the zoonotic pathogen L. interrogans (98.6% genetic identity). No Yersinia DNA was detected in the bats. Mixed infections were observed in several cases. One M. blythii bat and one M. schreibersii bat were co-infected with Bartonella, Brucella, and Leptospira; one M. blythii bat and one M. schreibersii bat were co-infected with Bartonella and Brucella; 15 M. blythii bats and three M. schreibersii bats were co-infected with Bartonella and Leptospira. Our results suggest that bats in Georgia are exposed to multiple bacterial infections. Further studies are needed to evaluate pathogenicity of these agents to bats and their zoonotic potential.


Assuntos
Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Brucella/genética , Brucella/patogenicidade , Brucelose/microbiologia , Quirópteros/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , República da Geórgia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/patogenicidade , Filogenia
17.
J Infect Dis ; 215(2): 303-311, 2017 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27803173

RESUMO

The hallmark of Bartonella infection is long-lasting intraerythrocytic parasitism. However, the process of Bartonella bacteremia is still enigmatic. In the current study, we used Bartonella tribocorum to determine how Bartonella invasion into the bloodstream from dermal inoculation might occur. Bartonella was poorly phagocytized by peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Intracellular Bartonella survived and replicated in macrophages at an early stage of infection. Intracellular Bartonella inhibited spontaneous cell death of macrophages. They also inhibited Salmonella-induced pyroptosis and mildly reduced inflammasome activation through an unidentified mechanism. A rat model confirmed that Bartonella was also inadequately phagocytized in vivo, because numerous free-floating bacilli were observed in lymph collected from thoracic duct drainage as early as 2 hours after inoculation. Lymphatic fluid drainage in the bloodstream significantly reduced the bacterial load in the bloodstream. These findings illustrated a potential route by which Bartonella invade bloodstream from dermal inoculation before they are competent to infect erythrocytes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/patologia , Sangue/microbiologia , Sistema Linfático/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Animais , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Ecohealth ; 13(4): 761-774, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27660213

RESUMO

Certain bat species serve as natural reservoirs for pathogens in several key viral families including henipa-, lyssa-, corona-, and filoviruses, which may pose serious threats to human health. The Common Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus), due to its abundance, sanguivorous feeding habit involving humans and domestic animals, and highly social behavioral ecology, may have an unusually high potential for interspecies disease transmission. Previous studies have investigated rabies dynamics in D. rotundus, yet the diversity of other viruses, bacteria, and other microbes that these bats may carry remains largely unknown. We screened 396 blood, urine, saliva, and fecal samples from D. rotundus captured in Guatemala for 13 viral families and genera. Positive results were found for rhabdovirus, adenovirus, and herpesvirus assays. We also screened these samples for Bartonella spp. and found that 38% of individuals tested positive. To characterize potential for interspecies transmission associated with feeding behavior, we also analyzed cytochrome B sequences from fecal samples to identify prey species and found that domestic cattle (Bos taurus) made up the majority of blood meals. Our findings suggest that the risk of pathogen spillover from Desmodus rotundus, including between domestic animal species, is possible and warrants further investigation to characterize this microbial diversity and expand our understanding of foraging ecology in their populations.


Assuntos
Bartonella/patogenicidade , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão
19.
J Wildl Dis ; 52(4): 844-849, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27529290

RESUMO

Spleen samples from 292 wild carnivores from Colorado, US were screened for Bartonella infection. Bartonella DNA was detected in coyotes ( Canis latrans ) (28%), striped skunks ( Mephitis mephitis ) (23%), red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) (27%), and raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) (8%) but not in black bears ( Ursus americanus ), gray foxes ( Urocyon cinereoargenteus ), and mountain lions ( Puma concolor ). Two Bartonella species, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. rochalimae, were identified. All 10 infected striped skunks exclusively carried B. rochalimae while coyotes, red foxes, and raccoons could be infected with both Bartonella species. Five of seven infected coyotes carried B. v. berkhoffii whereas five of seven infected red foxes and 11 of 14 infected raccoons carried B. rochalimae. Further studies are needed to understand relationships between Bartonella species, wild carnivores, and their ectoparasites.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Coiotes/microbiologia , Raposas/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Colorado
20.
J Vector Ecol ; 40(2): 327-32, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26611968

RESUMO

Cats and their fleas collected in Guatemala were investigated for the presence of Bartonella infections. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 8.2% (13/159) of cats, and all cultures were identified as B. henselae. Molecular analysis allowed detection of Bartonella DNA in 33.8% (48/142) of cats and in 22.4% (34/152) of cat fleas using gltA, nuoG, and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer targets. Two Bartonella species, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae, were identified in cats and cat fleas by molecular analysis, with B. henselae being more common than B. clarridgeiae in the cats (68.1%; 32/47 vs 31.9%; 15/47). The nuoG was found to be less sensitive for detecting B. clarridgeiae compared with other molecular targets and could detect only two of the 15 B. clarridgeiae-infected cats. No significant differences were observed for prevalence between male and female cats and between different age groups. No evident association was observed between the presence of Bartonella species in cats and in their fleas.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Ctenocephalides/microbiologia , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Bartonella/fisiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Bartonella henselae/genética , Bartonella henselae/patogenicidade , Bartonella henselae/fisiologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S
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