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2.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(9): 1195-1198, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879251

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to understand the reading habits of Japanese pharmacists regarding clinical trial literature in 2014. Questionnaires were mailed to 1997 pharmacists in Miyagi Prefecture. Six hundreds and five [342 (56.5%) hospital pharmacists and 254 (42.0%) community pharmacists] responded to questionnaires (Response rate: 30.3%). Regarding the question, "Do you habitually read clinical trial literature?", 19.5% of hospital and 8.3% community pharmacists responded "yes", respectively, which showed both pharmacists are not habitual readers of clinical trial literature. That would be because they did not study critical reading of clinical trial literature at pharmacy schools as well as their work environments to access and retrieve clinical trial literature were limited.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Humanos , Japão , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235485, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639999

RESUMO

Evaluation studies of outcomes used in clinical research and their consistency are appearing more frequently in the literature, as a key part of the core outcome set (COS) development. Current guidance suggests such evaluation studies should use systematic review methodology as their default. We aimed to examine the methods used. We searched the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) database (up to May 2019) supplementing it with additional resources. We included evaluation studies of outcome consistency in clinical studies across health subjects and used a subset of A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) 2 (items 1-9) to assess their methods. Of 93 included evaluation studies of outcome consistency (90 full reports, three summaries), 91% (85/93) reported performing literature searches in at least one bibliographic database, and 79% (73/93) was labelled as a "systematic review". The evaluations varied in terms of satisfying AMSTAR 2 criteria, such that 81/93 (87%) had implemented PICO in the research question, whereas only 5/93 (6%) had included the exclusions list. None of the evaluation studies explained how inconsistency of outcomes was detected, however, 80/90 (88%) concluded inconsistency in individual outcomes (66%, 55/90) or outcome domains (20%, 18/90). Methods used in evaluation studies of outcome consistency in clinical studies differed considerably. Despite frequent being labelled as a "systematic review", adoption of systematic review methodology is selective. While the impact on COS development is unknown, authors of these studies should refrain from labelling them as "systematic review" and focus on ensuring that the methods used to generate the different outcomes and outcome domains are reported transparently.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos
4.
In Vivo ; 34(3 Suppl): 1613-1617, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-528713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate the research trends in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bibliometric analysis was performed using a machine learning bibliometric methodology. Information regarding publication outputs, countries, institutions, journals, keywords, funding and citation counts was retrieved from Scopus database. RESULTS: A total of 1883 eligible papers were returned. An exponential increase in the COVID-19 publications occurred in the last months. As expected, China produced the majority of articles, followed by the United States of America, the United Kingdom and Italy. There is greater collaboration between highly contributing authors and institutions. The "BMJ" published the highest number of papers (n=129) and "The Lancet" had the most citations (n=1439). The most ubiquitous topic was COVID-19 clinical features. CONCLUSION: This bibliometric analysis presents the most influential references related to COVID-19 during this time and could be useful to improve understanding and management of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Infecções por Coronavirus , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , China , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Estados Unidos
5.
In Vivo ; 34(3 Suppl): 1613-1617, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate the research trends in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bibliometric analysis was performed using a machine learning bibliometric methodology. Information regarding publication outputs, countries, institutions, journals, keywords, funding and citation counts was retrieved from Scopus database. RESULTS: A total of 1883 eligible papers were returned. An exponential increase in the COVID-19 publications occurred in the last months. As expected, China produced the majority of articles, followed by the United States of America, the United Kingdom and Italy. There is greater collaboration between highly contributing authors and institutions. The "BMJ" published the highest number of papers (n=129) and "The Lancet" had the most citations (n=1439). The most ubiquitous topic was COVID-19 clinical features. CONCLUSION: This bibliometric analysis presents the most influential references related to COVID-19 during this time and could be useful to improve understanding and management of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Infecções por Coronavirus , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , China , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Estados Unidos
6.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês, Espanhol, Francês, Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47529

RESUMO

O Repositório de preprints Emerging Researcher Information (EmeRI) foi implementado em 2020 a partir de uma cooperação entre a Associação Brasileira de Editores Científicos (ABEC) e o Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia (Ibict) com o objetivo de prestar serviços às revistas e editores, de modo a agilizar a difusão de resultados de pesquisas científicas emergentes a partir da disponibilização de arquivos de preprints. A proposta do EmeRI surgiu conforme demandas espontâneas de alguns editores científicos brasileiros que viram a necessidade de acelerar a disponibilização dos artigos submetidos a suas revistas, especialmente frente à pandemia do Coronavírus. Ademais, o EmeRI insere-se nos movimentos mundiais de Acesso Aberto e Ciência Aberta, que pressupõem, respectivamente, o acesso à informação científica livre de barreiras e a abertura e celeridade do processo científico


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Bibliográficas
7.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3270, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401904

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to discuss the paths taken by Brazilian Nursing in the development of terminological subsets of the International Classification for Nursing Practice. METHOD: documentary research, carried out in master's dissertations and doctoral theses, which developed terminological subsets, available at the Bank of Doctoral Theses and Master's Dissertations of the Under-graduation Personnel Improvement Coordination. The variables were analyzed were institution, year; academic level, type of health service, methodological approach, clientele, theoretical reference, validation of terms, cross mapping, modeling of new concepts, validation of statements, method used for elaboration, term collection, finalization and dissemination. RESULTS: 124 doctoral theses and master's dissertations were found, 91 were excluded and 33 were included, 23 (69.70%) of which were master's dissertations, with the highest production in 2014 (n=10; 30.30%), with emphasis on the Northeast (36.36%); the 'Primary Care' scenario, with six studies (18.18%); and the predominant clientele was cancer patients. As for the methodological characteristics, in 96% of the studies, the quantitative approach was used; in 2%, a qualitative approach; and 2% associated the quantitative and qualitative approaches. As for the type of study, 60% were methodological and 24% descriptive-exploratory, with the Horta model being the most used (36%). CONCLUSION: the paths are successful, yet still permeated by weaknesses in the validations and potentialities to standardize the language.


Assuntos
Dissertações Acadêmicas como Assunto , Bibliometria , Terminologia Padronizada em Enfermagem , Vocabulário Controlado , Brasil , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Idioma , Pesquisa em Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 359-368, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431267

RESUMO

Parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs poses a serious threat to malaria control. The WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) aims to provide a collaborative platform to support the global malaria research effort. Here, we describe the "WWARN clinical trials publication library," an open-access, up-to-date resource to streamline the synthesis of antimalarial safety and efficacy data. A series of iteratively refined database searches were conducted to identify prospective clinical trials assessing antimalarial drug efficacy with at least 28 days of follow-up. Of approximately 45,000 articles screened, 1,221 trials published between 1946 and 2018 were identified, representing 2,339 treatment arms and 323,819 patients. In trials from endemic locations, 75.7% (787/1,040) recruited patients with Plasmodium falciparum, 17.0% (177/1,040) Plasmodium vivax, 6.9% (72/1,040) both, and 0.4% (4/1,040) other Plasmodium species; 57.2% (585/1,022) of trials included under-fives and 5.3% (55/1,036) included pregnant women. In Africa, there has been a marked increase in both P. falciparum and P. vivax studies over the last two decades. The WHO-recommended artemisinin-based combination therapies alone or with a gametocidal drug were assessed in 39.5% (705/1,783) of P. falciparum treatment arms and 10.5% (45/429) of P. vivax arms, increasing to 78.0% (266/341) and 22.9% (27/118), respectively, in the last five years. The library is a comprehensive, open-access tool that can be used by the malaria community to explore the collective knowledge on antimalarial efficacy (available at https://www.wwarn.org/tools-resources/literature-reviews/wwarn-clinical-trials-publication-library). It is the first of its kind in the field of global infectious diseases, and lessons learnt in its creation can be adapted to other infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium/fisiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Bases de Dados Factuais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Malária/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Plasmodium knowlesi/fisiologia , Plasmodium malariae/fisiologia , Plasmodium ovale/fisiologia , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia
9.
Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes ; 150-152: 20-28, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Journal hand searching offers the possibility to complement a literature search as part of systematic reviews and other evidence syntheses. Hand searching is indicated in cases where scientific journals with potentially relevant publications addressing the research question are not indexed in a literature database. However, it is often unclear whether these journals are actually indexed, and when they are, in which literature databases. In many cases, it is also unknown which journals should be searched by hand in addition to systematic literature search after databases to be searched have been specified. Therefore, the project aimed to investigate the indexation of selected scientific health science journals and to provide an overview of indexation in order to facilitate the hand search planning process. METHODS: Journals from German-speaking countries covering eight professional fields (medical laboratory assistance, occupational therapy, midwifery, logopedics, nursing, physiotherapy, public health and rehabilitation) were considered that publish original research papers or systematic reviews or other review types in German and/or English. Two researchers per field identified relevant journals and independently analyzed the indexing locations using the journal websites. In case of missing information, we contacted the editors. RESULTS: A total of 70 journals were included: from 1 to 17 journals per field. These journals are indexed in 1 to 29 databases. Twelve journals are not indexed or do not offer information concerning indexation. Indexation is distributed across n=74 different literature databases. Most journals are indexed in LIVIVO (n=55) and bibnet.org (n=33). Other common indexing databases are Scopus (n=18), Web of Science Core Collection (n=16), PSYNDEX (n=13), and Embase (n=10). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate a heterogeneous indexation of the included journals. Only a small number is indexed in common international literature databases such as MEDLINE or CINAHL. On the other hand, only a few journals are not indexed in any database. The results can be used as a basis to define databases for literature searches as part of systematic reviews. In addition, the findings might guide the selection of journals for hand searching after literature databases have been defined.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Indexação e Redação de Resumos , Alemanha , MEDLINE
11.
Br J Nurs ; 29(7): 431-435, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279549

RESUMO

Undertaking a literature search can be a daunting prospect. Breaking the exercise down into smaller steps will make the process more manageable. This article suggests 10 steps that will help readers complete this task, from identifying key concepts to choosing databases for the search and saving the results and search strategy. It discusses each of the steps in a little more detail, with examples and suggestions on where to get help. This structured approach will help readers obtain a more focused set of results and, ultimately, save time and effort.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Humanos , Pesquisa em Enfermagem
12.
Br J Nurs ; 29(8): 481-483, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324469

RESUMO

This article follows on from a previous article on how to carry out a literature search (Watson, 2020) and looks at how you can enhance your search by going beyond journal databases to using search engines, websites and grey literature sources. Ways to evaluate the resources you find, the use of critical appraisal tools and factors to consider when presenting your results are also discussed.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Ferramenta de Busca , Viés , Humanos , Internet , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto
13.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 28(2): 134-143, Abr-Jun. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1121743

RESUMO

Introducción: el cuidado intensivo implica la atención brindada en unidades de alta complejidad, se caracteriza por estar dirigida al paciente con patologías graves, inestabilidad fisiológica y alto riesgo de complicación. Sin embargo, frente al incremento de una población con mayor complejidad asociada al envejecimiento, enfermedades crónicas y sus complicaciones, surge el término cuidado crítico que refleja tanto las nuevas características del paciente como la respuesta del cuidado avanzado centrado en las necesidades personales. Objetivo: describir la transformación del cuidado intensivo hacia el cuidado crítico y sus implicaciones para la enfermería con base en la revisión de bibliografía disponible en acceso abierto. Metodología: revisión narrativa de la literatura del periodo 2010-2019 incluyendo artículos en español de Scielo y PubMed, utilizando los descriptores cuidado crítico or terapia intensiva or cuidado intensivo and enfermería. Resultados: por consenso de autores se eligieron 26 artículos en los que se identificaron las siguientes temáticas: a) las unidades de cuidado; b) el paciente crítico; c) los criterios de ingreso; d) el personal y sus funciones, y e) nuevos retos. Conclusión: el término cuidado crítico refleja la respuesta a la demanda de cuidado profesional de mayor complejidad y con ello la expansión del campo de acción de la enfermería profesional.


Introduction: Intensive care involves care provided in highly complex units and ¡fs characterized by being directed to the patient with serious pathologies, physiological instability and high risk of complications. However, faced with the increase in a population that presents greater complexity associated with aging, chronic diseases and their complications, the term critical care has emerged, reflecting both the new characteristics of the patient and the response of advanced care focused on the needs of the person. Objective: To describe the transformaron of intensive care towards critical care and its implications for nursing based on a review of the literature available in open access. Methods: A narrative review of the literature of the period 2010-2019 including articles in Spanish of the bases Scielo and Pubmed using the descriptors critical care or intensive therapy or intensive care and nursing. Results: According to the authors' consensus criteria, 26 articles were chosen in which the following topics were identified: a) the care units; b) the critical patient; c) entry criteria; d) the staff and their functions and e) new challenges. Conclusión: The term critical care reflects the response to the demand for professional care of greater complexity and with it the expansión of the field of action of professional nursing.


Assuntos
Humanos , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Revisão , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Cuidados Críticos , Prática Avançada de Enfermagem , Enfermagem de Cuidados Críticos , México
16.
World Neurosurg ; 138: e620-e626, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bibliometric indexes are often used to evaluate and compare neurosurgeons and departments, and they have been shown to correlate with academic rank and department reputation. We evaluated academic productivity of neurosurgeons practicing in departments accredited by the Joint Residency Advisory and Accreditation Committee and European Association of Neurological Surgeons. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we calculated number of publications, citations, h-index, and m-quotient from PubMed and Web of Science databases for 285 neurosurgeons affiliated with 19 departments that are accredited or in progress of accreditation by the Joint residency Advisory and Accreditation Committee. Academic productivity was compared as a function of academic rank and research degree. RESULTS: Median number of publications in PubMed and Web of Science indexed journals were 13 (range, 0-352) and 15 (range, 0-323), respectively. Median h-index was 4 (range, 0-41), and median m-quotient was 0.56 (range, 0-2.86). There was a significant variability between the studied departments in median number of publications and h-index (P = 0.001). Professors and associate professors had significantly higher bibliometric indexes than neurosurgeons without academic rank (all P values < 0.001). Department chairmen had higher bibliometric indexes than other faculty members (all P values < 0.001). Neurosurgeons holding a research degree authored more publications and had higher bibliometric indexes than faculty members not holding a research degree (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to evaluate academic productivity of neurosurgeons practicing in Europe and Turkey. Higher academic rank and advanced research degree were associated with greater academic productivity. Further studies exploring regional differences in academic productivity of European neurosurgeons are encouraged.


Assuntos
Acreditação , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Neurocirurgiões , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Comitês Consultivos , Bibliometria , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Eficiência , Europa (Continente) , Docentes , Humanos , Internato e Residência/normas , Neurocirurgia/educação , PubMed , Publicações , Pesquisa/educação , Turquia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227742, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Automated approaches to improve the efficiency of systematic reviews are greatly needed. When testing any of these approaches, the criterion standard of comparison (gold standard) is usually human reviewers. Yet, human reviewers make errors in inclusion and exclusion of references. OBJECTIVES: To determine citation false inclusion and false exclusion rates during abstract screening by pairs of independent reviewers. These rates can help in designing, testing and implementing automated approaches. METHODS: We identified all systematic reviews conducted between 2010 and 2017 by an evidence-based practice center in the United States. Eligible reviews had to follow standard systematic review procedures with dual independent screening of abstracts and full texts, in which citation inclusion by one reviewer prompted automatic inclusion through the next level of screening. Disagreements between reviewers during full text screening were reconciled via consensus or arbitration by a third reviewer. A false inclusion or exclusion was defined as a decision made by a single reviewer that was inconsistent with the final included list of studies. RESULTS: We analyzed a total of 139,467 citations that underwent 329,332 inclusion and exclusion decisions from 86 unique reviewers. The final systematic reviews included 5.48% of the potential references identified through bibliographic database search (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.38% to 8.58%). After abstract screening, the total error rate (false inclusion and false exclusion) was 10.76% (95% CI: 7.43% to 14.09%). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests important false inclusion and exclusion rates by human reviewers. When deciding the validity of a future automated study selection algorithm, it is important to keep in mind that the gold standard is not perfect and that achieving error rates similar to humans may be adequate and can save resources and time.


Assuntos
Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Indexação e Redação de Resumos , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
19.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 28(1): 49-57, Ene-Mar. 2020. graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1121617

RESUMO

Introducción: en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales (UCIN) los prematuros son expuestos e circunstancias estresantes, esto trae consecuencias que se ven reflejadas a nivel cardiovascular, respiratorio, inmunológico, hormonal y conductual. Existen tratamientos no farmacológicos para disminuir el estrés y minimizar el dolor como: la terapia táctil kinestésica a base de masajes y la musicoterapia. Objetivo: identificar entre la terapia táctil kinestésica y musicoterapia, la más efectiva para reducir el estrés en prematuros de la unidad crítica neonatal. Metodología: revisión sistemática. Búsqueda en inglés, español y portugués de artículos sobre prematuros que han recibido musicoterapia o terapia táctil kinestésica en las bases de datos: Scielo, Pubmed, Elsevier, Cochrane, Lilacs y Google Académico. Evaluada la calidad metodológica seleccionamos 30 artículos para el análisis. Resultados: la musicoterapia trae consigo una amplia lista de beneficios además de reducir niveles de cortisol. Conclusión: ambas terapias fueron aplicadas a prematuros de 32 a 37 semanas de gestación. Un total de 15 artículos avalan mejores resultados cuando los masajes duran de 10-15 minutos y se aplican tres veces al día, contribuyendo a la ganancia de peso. Un total de 14 artículos demostró tener mejores resultados con musicoterapia durante 15-10 minutos, de 1 a 3 veces al día, ayudando a mejorar la saturación de oxígeno, los signos vitales y la disminución de los días de uso de respirador artificial.


Introduction: In the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), premature infants are exposed to stressful circumstances, this has cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, hormonal and behavioral consequences. There are non-pharmacological treatments to reduce stress and minimize pain such as: Kinesthetic Tactile Therapy and Music Therapy. Objective: To identify between kinesthetic tactile therapy and music therapy, the most effective for reducing stress in premature infants of the NICU. Methods: Systematic review. Search in English, Spanish and Portuguese of arricies on premature infants who have received music therapy or kinesthetic tactile therapy in the databases: Scielo, Pubmed, Elsevier, Cochrane, Lilacs and Google Scholar. Evaluated the methodological quality we selected 30 arricies for the analysis. Results: Music therapy brings with ¡t an extensive list of benefits in addition to reducing cortisol levels. Conclusión: Both therapies were applied to premature infantsfrom 32 to 37 weeks of gestation. A total of 15 arricies guarantee better results when massages last 10-15 minutes and are applied three times a day, contributingto weight gain. A total of 14 arricies were shown to have better results with music therapy for 15-10 minutes, 1 to 3 times a day, helping to improve oxygen saturation, vital signs and decrease the days of use of an artificial respirator.


Assuntos
Humanos , Dor , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Revisão , Toque Terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados a Trauma e Fatores de Estresse , Massagem , Musicoterapia , México
20.
Rev. méd. Panamá ; 40(1): 30-35, ene.2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099684

RESUMO

Introducción: Los costes informales derivan de cuidados informales que es la atención prestada a un enfermo o discapacitado por parte de personas que no son profesionales socio sanitarios y que no reciben una remuneración económica. El objetivo del trabajo es explicar los costes informales en salud, su definición, su obtención, análisis y el im­ pacto en su incorporación en las evaluaciones económicas en salud. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda del tema sobre costes informales en la base de datos de Medline­Pubmed y en la búsqueda de la biblioteca de la Universidad Carlos III Madrid vía internet a través de varias bases de datos como EconLit y ABI/IN­ FORM collection. Resultados: Se define los cuidados informales, los métodos para su medición en tiempo, en preferencias reveladas, preferencias establecidos fijados, otros métodos, la importan­ cia de incorporar los costos informales en las evaluaciones económicas en salud. Conclusión: La evaluación económica a nivel de la perspectiva de la sociedad se debe incluir, pero muchas veces se realiza según el pagador por lo difícil que puede ser su medición.


Introduction: Informal costs derive from informal care, which is the care provided to a sick or disabled person by people who are not socio­health professionals and who do not receive financial compensation. The objective of the work is to explain the informal costs in health, its definition, its obtaining, analysis and the impact on its incorporation in the economic health evaluations. Material and methods: A search of the topic on informal costs was carried out in the Medli­ ne­Pubmed database and in the search of the Carlos III Madrid University library via the In­ ternet through several databases such as EconLit and ABI / INFORM collection. Results: Informal care is defined, the methods for its measurement in time, in revealed preferences, established preferences, other methods, the importance of incorporating informal costs in economic health evaluations. Conclusion: The economic evaluation at the level of the society perspective must be in­ cluded, but many times it is carried out according to the payer because of how difficult its measurement can be done


Assuntos
Avaliação em Saúde , Cuidadores/economia , Economia Médica/organização & administração , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde
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