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1.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 25(7): e13490, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952297

RESUMO

Employing race-specific resistance genes remains an effective strategy to protect wheat from leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina (Pt) worldwide, while the newly emerged Pt races, owing to rapid genetic evolution, frequently overcome the immune response delivered by race-specific resistance genes. The molecular mechanisms underlying the newly evolved virulence Pt pathogen remain unknown. Here, we identified an avirulence protein AvrLr15 from Pt that induced Lr15-dependent immune responses. Heterologously produced AvrLr15 triggered pronounced cell death in Lr15-isogenic wheat leaves. AvrLr15 contains a functional signal peptide, localized to the plant nucleus and cytosol and can suppress BAX-induced cell death. Evasion of Lr15-mediated resistance in wheat was associated with a deletion and point mutations of amino acids in AvrLr15 rather than AvrLr15 gene loss in the Lr15-breaking Pt races, implying that AvrLr15 is required for the virulence function of Pt. Our findings identified the first molecular determinant of wheat race-specific immunity and facilitated the identification of the first AVR/R gene pair in the Pt-wheat pathosystem, which will provide a molecular marker to monitor natural Pt populations and guide the deployment of Lr15-resistant wheat cultivars in the field.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Doenças das Plantas , Puccinia , Triticum , Triticum/microbiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Puccinia/patogenicidade , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Virulência/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Basidiomycota/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Morte Celular , Deleção de Sequência/genética
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15428, 2024 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965257

RESUMO

Leaf rust (LR) caused by Puccinia hordei is a serious disease of barley worldwide, causing significant yield losses and reduced grain quality. Discovery and incorporation of new sources of resistance from gene bank accessions into barley breeding programs is essential for the development of leaf rust resistant varieties. To identify Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) conferring LR resistance in the two barley subsets, the Generation Challenge Program (GCP) reference set of 142 accessions and the leaf rust subset constructed using the Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy (FIGS) of 76 barley accessions, were genotyped to conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The results revealed a total of 59 QTL in the 218 accessions phenotyped against barley leaf rust at the seedling stage using two P. hordei isolates (ISO-SAT and ISO-MRC), and at the adult plant stage in four environments in Morocco. Out of these 59 QTL, 10 QTL were associated with the seedling resistance (SR) and 49 QTL were associated with the adult plant resistance (APR). Four QTL showed stable effects in at least two environments for APR, whereas two common QTL associated with SR and APR were detected on chromosomes 2H and 7H. Furthermore, 39 QTL identified in this study were potentially novel. Interestingly, the sequences of 27 SNP markers encoded the candidate genes (CGs) with predicted protein functions in plant disease resistance. These results will provide new perspectives on the diversity of leaf rust resistance loci for fine mapping, isolation of resistance genes, and for marker-assisted selection for the LR resistance in barley breeding programs worldwide.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hordeum , Doenças das Plantas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Plântula , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Plântula/genética , Plântula/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Puccinia/patogenicidade , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fenótipo , Basidiomycota , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Melhoramento Vegetal
3.
Theor Appl Genet ; 137(8): 179, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980436

RESUMO

Rust diseases, including leaf rust, stripe/yellow rust, and stem rust, significantly impact wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yields, causing substantial economic losses every year. Breeding and deployment of cultivars with genetic resistance is the most effective and sustainable approach to control these diseases. The genetic toolkit for wheat breeders to select for rust resistance has rapidly expanded with a multitude of genetic loci identified using the latest advances in genomics, mapping and cloning strategies. The goal of this review was to establish a wheat genome atlas that provides a comprehensive summary of reported loci associated with rust resistance. Our atlas provides a summary of mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) and characterised genes for the three rusts from 170 publications over the past two decades. A total of 920 QTL or resistance genes were positioned across the 21 chromosomes of wheat based on the latest wheat reference genome (IWGSC RefSeq v2.1). Interestingly, 26 genomic regions contained multiple rust loci suggesting they could have pleiotropic effects on two or more rust diseases. We discuss a range of strategies to exploit this wealth of genetic information to efficiently utilise sources of resistance, including genomic information to stack desirable and multiple QTL to develop wheat cultivars with enhanced resistance to rust disease.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença , Doenças das Plantas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Melhoramento Vegetal , Genoma de Planta , Genes de Plantas , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15779, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982270

RESUMO

Ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and deuteromycetes can degrade wood, but less attention has been paid to basidiomycetes involved in Esca, a major Grapevine Trunk Disease. Using a wood sawdust microcosm system, we compared the wood degradation of three grapevine cultivars inoculated with Fomitiporia mediterranea M. Fisch, a basidiomycete responsible for white-rot development and involved in Esca disease. The grapevine cultivar Ugni blanc was more susceptible to wood degradation caused by F. mediterranea than the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. Solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed that F. mediterranea preferentially degrades lignin and hemicellulose over cellulose (preferential, successive or sequential white-rot). In addition, co-inoculation of sawdust with two cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacterial strains of Paenibacillus (Nakamura) Ash (Paenibacillus sp. (S231-2) and P. amylolyticus (S293)), enhanced F. mediterranea ability to degrade Ugni blanc. The NMR data further showed that the increase in Ugni blanc sawdust degradation products was greater when bacteria and fungi were inoculated together. We also demonstrated that these two bacterial strains could degrade the wood components of Ugni blanc sawdust. Genome analysis of these bacterial strains revealed numerous genes predicted to be involved in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin degradation, as well as several other genes related to bacteria-fungi interactions and endophytism inside the plant. The occurrence of this type of bacteria-fungus interaction could explain, at least in part, why necrosis develops extensively in certain grapevine varieties such as Ugni blanc.


Assuntos
Lignina , Paenibacillus , Vitis , Madeira , Madeira/microbiologia , Vitis/microbiologia , Lignina/metabolismo , Paenibacillus/genética , Paenibacillus/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Basidiomycota/genética , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Genoma Bacteriano
5.
Planta ; 260(2): 47, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970694

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Transcription of PagMYB147 was induced in poplar infected by Melampsora magnusiana, and a decline in its expression levels increases the host's susceptibility, whereas its overexpression promotes resistance to rust disease. Poplars are valuable tree species with diverse industrial and silvicultural applications. The R2R3-MYB subfamily of transcription factors plays a crucial role in response to biotic stresses. However, the functional studies on poplar R2R3-MYB genes in resistance to leaf rust disease are still insufficient. We identified 191 putative R2R3-MYB genes in the Populus trichocarpa genome. A phylogenetic analysis grouped poplar R2R3-MYBs and Arabidopsis R2R3-MYBs into 33 subgroups. We detected 12 tandem duplication events and 148 segmental duplication events, with the latter likely being the main contributor to the expansion of poplar R2R3-MYB genes. The promoter regions of these genes contained numerous cis-acting regulatory elements associated with response to stress and phytohormones. Analyses of RNA-Seq data identified a multiple R2R3-MYB genes response to Melampsora magnusiana (Mmag). Among them, PagMYB147 was significantly up-regulated under Mmag inoculation, salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment, and its encoded product was primarily localized to the cell nucleus. Silencing of PagMYB147 exacerbated the severity of Mmag infection, likely because of decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzyme activity, and up-regulation of genes related to ROS scavenging and down-regulation of genes related to PAL, SA and JA signaling pathway. In contrast, plants overexpressing PagMYB147 showed the opposite ROS accumulation, PAL enzyme activity, SA and JA-related gene expressions, and improved Mmag resistance. Our findings suggest that PagMYB147 acts as a positive regulatory factor, affecting resistance in poplar to Mmag by its involvement in the regulation of ROS homeostasis, SA and JA signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Ciclopentanos , Resistência à Doença , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Populus , Fatores de Transcrição , Populus/genética , Populus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/microbiologia
6.
Plant Dis ; 108(7): 2197-2205, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956749

RESUMO

Rust disease is a common plant disease that can cause wilting, slow growth of plant leaves, and even affect the growth and development of plants. Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) is native to temperate regions of Europe, which has been introduced as a superior forage grass in temperate regions worldwide. Orchardgrass has rich genetic diversity and is widely distributed in the world, which may contain rust resistance genes not found in other crops. Therefore, we collected a total of 333 orchardgrass accessions from different regions around the world. Through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis conducted in four different environments, 91 genes that overlap or are adjacent to significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified as potential rust disease resistance genes. Combining transcriptome data from susceptible (PI292589) and resistant (PI251814) accessions, the GWAS candidate gene DG5C04160.1 encoding glutathione S-transferase (GST) was found to be important for orchardgrass rust (Puccinia graminis) resistance. Interestingly, by comparing the number of GST gene family members in seven species, it was found that orchardgrass has the most GST gene family members, containing 119 GST genes. Among them, 23 GST genes showed significant differential expression after inoculation with the rust pathogen in resistant and susceptible accessions; 82% of the genes still showed significantly increased expression 14 days after inoculation in resistant accessions, while the expression level significantly decreased in susceptible accessions. These results indicate that GST genes play an important role in orchardgrass resistance to rust (P. graminis) stress by encoding GST to reduce its oxidative stress response.


Assuntos
Dactylis , Resistência à Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doenças das Plantas , Puccinia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Puccinia/genética , Puccinia/fisiologia , Dactylis/genética , Dactylis/microbiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Basidiomycota/genética
7.
Molecules ; 29(13)2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38998999

RESUMO

Phellinus is a precious perennial medicinal fungus. Its polysaccharides are important bioactive components, and their chemical composition is complex. The polysaccharides are mainly extracted from the fruiting body and mycelium. The yield of the polysaccharides is dependent on the extraction method. They have many pharmacological activities, such as antitumor, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, etc. They are also reported to show minor toxic and side effects. Many studies have reported the anticancer activity of Phellinus polysaccharides. This review paper provides a comprehensive examination of the current methodologies for the extraction and purification of Phellinus polysaccharides. Additionally, it delves into the structural characteristics, pharmacological activities, and mechanisms of action of these polysaccharides. The primary aim of this review is to offer a valuable resource for researchers, facilitating further studies on Phellinus polysaccharides and their potential applications.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos Fúngicos , Humanos , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Basidiomycota/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Phellinus/química
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(13)2024 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38999986

RESUMO

Higher-fungi xylotrophic basidiomycetes are known to be the reservoirs of bioactive metabolites. Currently, a great deal of attention has been paid to the exploitation of mycelial fungi products as an innovative alternative in crop protection. No data exist on the mechanisms behind the interaction between xylotrophic mushrooms' glycopolymeric substances and plants. In this study, the effects of basidiomycete metabolites on the morphophysiological and biochemical variables of wheat plants have been explored. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Saratovskaya 29) seedlings were treated with extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) isolated from the submerged cultures of twenty basidiomycete strains assigned to 13 species and 8 genera. The EPS solutions at final concentrations of 15, 40, and 80 mg/L were applied to wheat seedlings followed by their growth for 10 days. In the plant samples, the biomass, length of coleoptile, shoot and root, root number, rate of lipid peroxidation by malondialdehyde concentration, content of hydrogen peroxide, and total phenols were measured. The peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity were defined. Most of the EPS preparations improved biomass yields, as well as the morphological parameters examined. EPS application enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreased oxidative damage to lipids. Judging by its overall effect on the growth indices and redox system of wheat plants, an EPS concentration of 40 mg/L has been shown to be the most beneficial compared to other concentrations. This study proves that novel bioformulations based on mushroom EPSs can be developed and are effective for wheat growth and antioxidative response. Phytostimulating properties found for EPSs give grounds to consider extracellular metabolites produced in the xylotrophic basidiomycete cultures as an active component capable of inducing plant responses to stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Basidiomycota , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos , Triticum , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/microbiologia , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Biomassa , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
9.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 801, 2024 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39001882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: JUB1, a NAC domain containing hydrogen peroxide-induced transcription factor, plays a critical role in plant immunity. Little is known about how JUB1 responds to leaf rust disease in wheat. Recent discoveries in genomics have also unveiled a multitude of sORFs often assumed to be non-functional, to argue for the necessity of including them as potential regulatory players of translation. However, whether methylation on sORFs spanning the 3'UTR of regulatory genes like JUB1 modulate gene expression, remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we identified the methylation states of two sORFs in 3'UTR of a homologous gene of JUB1 in wheat, TaJUB1-L, at cytosine residues in CpG, CHH and CHG sites at different time points of disease progression in two near-isogenic lines of wheat (HD2329), with and without Lr24 gene during leaf rust pathogenesis. Here, we report a significant demethylation of the CpG dinucleotides occurring in the sORFs of the 3'UTR in the resistant isolines after 24 h post-infection. Also, the up-regulated gene expression observed through RT-qPCR was directly proportional to the demethylation of the CpG sites in the sORFs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that TaJUB1-L might be a positive regulator in providing tolerance during leaf rust pathogenesis and cytosine methylation at 3'UTR might act as a switch for its expression control. These results enrich the potential benefit of conventional methylation assay techniques for unraveling the unexplored enigma in epigenetics during plant-pathogen interaction in a cost-effective and confidentially conclusive manner.


Assuntos
Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição , Triticum , Triticum/microbiologia , Triticum/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Basidiomycota/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , 5-Metilcitosina/metabolismo
10.
PeerJ ; 12: e17633, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948208

RESUMO

Wheat stem rust, which is caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), is a highly destructive disease that affects wheat crops on a global scale. In this study, the reactions of 150 bread wheat varieties were evaluated for natural Pgt infection at the adult-plant stage in the 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 growing seasons, and they were analyzed using specific molecular markers to detect stem rust resistance genes (Sr22, Sr24, Sr25, Sr26, Sr31, Sr38, Sr50, and Sr57). Based on phenotypic data, the majority of the varieties (62%) were resistant or moderately resistant to natural Pgt infection. According to molecular results, it was identified that Sr57 was present in 103 varieties, Sr50 in nine varieties, Sr25 in six varieties, and Sr22, Sr31, and Sr38 in one variety each. Additionally, their combinations Sr25 + Sr50, Sr31 + Sr57, Sr38 + Sr50, and Sr38 + Sr57 were detected in these varieties. On the other hand, Sr24 and Sr26 were not identified. In addition, many varieties had low stem rust scores, including a large minority that lacked Sr57. These varieties must have useful resistance to stem rust and could be the basis for selecting greater, possibly durable resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Variação Genética , Doenças das Plantas , Puccinia , Triticum , Triticum/microbiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Puccinia/patogenicidade , Variação Genética/genética , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Caules de Planta/imunologia , Caules de Planta/genética , Genes de Plantas , Basidiomycota/patogenicidade
11.
BMC Genom Data ; 25(1): 69, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39009972

RESUMO

Wheat is an essential food commodity cultivated throughout the world. However, this crop faces continuous threats from fungal pathogens, leaf rust (LR) and stripe rust (YR). To continue feeding the growing population, these major destructors of wheat must be effectively countered by enhancing the genetic diversity of cultivated germplasm. In this study, an introgression line with hexaploid background (ILsp3603) carrying resistance against Pt pathotypes 77-5 (121R63-1), 77-9 (121R60-1) and Pst pathotypes 46S119 (46E159), 110S119 (110E159), 238S119 (238E159) was developed from donor wheat wild progenitor, Aegilops speltoides acc pau 3603. To understand the genetic basis of resistance and map these genes (named Lrsp3603 and Yrsp3603), inheritance studies were carried out in F6 and F7 mapping population, developed by crossing ILsp3603 with LR and YR susceptible cultivar WL711, which revealed a monogenic (single gene) inheritance pattern for each of these traits. Bulk segregant analysis combined with 35 K Axiom SNP array genotyping mapped both genes as separate entities on the short arm of chromosome 6B. A genetic linkage map, comprising five markers, 1 SNP, 1 PLUG and three gene based SSRs, covered a genetic distance of 12.65 cM. Lrsp3603 was flanked by markers Tag-SSR14 (located proximally at 2.42 cM) and SNP AX-94542331 (at 3.28 cM) while Yrsp3603 was mapped at one end closest to AX-94542331 at 6.62 cM distance. Functional annotation of Lrsp3603 target region (∼ 1 Mbp) revealed 10 gene IDs associated with disease resistance mechanisms including three encoding typical R gene domains.


Assuntos
Aegilops , Basidiomycota , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença , Doenças das Plantas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Aegilops/genética , Aegilops/microbiologia , Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Genes de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Puccinia/patogenicidade
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 676, 2024 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39009989

RESUMO

Tilletia indica Mitra causes Karnal bunt (KB) in wheat by pathogenic dikaryophase. The present study is the first to provide the draft genomes of the dikaryon (PSWKBGD-3) and its two monosporidial lines (PSWKBGH-1 and 2) using Illumina and PacBio reads, their annotation and the comparative analyses among the three genomes by extracting polymorphic SSR markers. The trancriptome from infected wheat grains of the susceptible wheat cultivar WL711 at 24 h, 48h, and 7d after inoculation of PSWKBGH-1, 2 and PSWKBGD-3 were also isolated. Further, two transcriptome analyses were performed utilizing T. indica transcriptome to extract dikaryon genes responsible for pathogenesis, and wheat transcriptome to extract wheat genes affected by dikaryon involved in plant-pathogen interaction during progression of KB in wheat. A total of 54, 529, and 87 genes at 24hai, 48hai, and 7dai, respectively were upregulated in dikaryon stage while 21, 35, and 134 genes of T. indica at 24hai, 48hai, and 7dai, respectively, were activated only in dikaryon stage. While, a total of 23, 17, and 52 wheat genes at 24hai, 48hai, and 7dai, respectively were upregulated due to the presence of dikaryon stage only. The results obtained during this study have been compiled in a web resource called TiGeR ( http://backlin.cabgrid.res.in/tiger/ ), which is the first genomic resource for T. indica cataloguing genes, genomic and polymorphic SSRs of the three T. indica lines, wheat and T. indica DEGs as well as wheat genes affected by T. indica dikaryon along with the pathogenecity related proteins of T. indica dikaryon during incidence of KB at different time points. The present study would be helpful to understand the role of dikaryon in plant-pathogen interaction during progression of KB, which would be helpful to manage KB in wheat, and to develop KB-resistant wheat varieties.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Doenças das Plantas , Transcriptoma , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Fúngico , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(28): 15601-15612, 2024 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38950526

RESUMO

Peanut southern blight, caused by the soil-borne pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii, is a widespread and devastating epidemic. Frequently, it is laborious to effectively control by labor-intensive foliar sprays of agrochemicals due to untimely find. In the present study, seed treatment with physcion (PHY) at doses of 0.08, 0.16, and 0.32 g AI kg-1 seed significantly improved the growth and photosynthetic activity of peanuts. Furthermore, PHY seed treatment resulted in an elevated enzymatic activity of key enzymes in peanut roots, including peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase, lipoxygenase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, as well as an increase in callus accumulation and lignin synthesis at the infection site, ultimately enhancing the root activity. This study revealed that PHY seed treatment could promote the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) in peanut roots, while also decreasing the content of malondialdehyde levels in response to S. rolfsii infection. The results were further confirmed by transcriptome data and metabolomics. These findings suggest that PHY seed treatment activates the plant defense pathways mediated by SA and JA/ET in peanut roots, enhancing the resistance of peanut plants to S. rolfsii. In short, PHY is expected to be developed into a new plant-derived immunostimulant or fungicide to increase the options and means for peanut disease control.


Assuntos
Arachis , Basidiomycota , Doenças das Plantas , Arachis/microbiologia , Arachis/metabolismo , Arachis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/microbiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética
14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 339: 122214, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823900

RESUMO

The polysaccharide, RGP2, was isolated from Russula griseocarnosa and its immunostimulatory effects were confirmed in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppressed mice. Following purification via chromatography, structural analysis revealed that RGP2 had a molecular weight of 11.82 kDa and consisted of glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), mannose, glucuronic acid and glucosamine. Bond structure analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance characterization confirmed that the main chain of RGP2 was formed by →6)-ß-D-Glcp-(1→, →3)-ß-D-Glcp-(1→ and →6)-α-D-Galp-(1→, which was substituted at O-3 of →6)-ß-D-Glcp-(1→ by ß-D-Glcp-(1→. RGP2 was found to ameliorate pathological damage in the spleen and enhance immune cell activity in immunosuppressed mice. Based on combined multiomics analysis, RGP2 altered the abundance of immune-related microbiota (such as Lactobacillus, Faecalibacterium, and Bacteroides) in the gut and metabolites (uridine, leucine, and tryptophan) in the serum. Compared with immunosuppressed mice, RGP2 also restored the function of antigen-presenting cells, promoted the polarization of macrophages into the M1 phenotype, positively affected the differentiation of helper T cells, and inhibited regulatory T cell differentiation through the protein kinase B (AKT)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, ultimately exerting an immune boosting function. Overall, our findings highlight therapeutic strategies to alleviate CTX-induced immunosuppression in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Diferenciação Celular , Glucanos , Animais , Camundongos , Basidiomycota/química , Glucanos/química , Glucanos/farmacologia , Glucanos/isolamento & purificação , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Agentes de Imunomodulação/farmacologia , Agentes de Imunomodulação/química , Masculino , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 708, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Groundnut is vulnerable to the major foliar fungal disease viz., late leaf spot (LLS) and rust in kharif season, which results in severe yield losses. Until now, LLS and rust resistance linked markers were developed based on GPBD 4 as a major donor source and were validated in its derivatives only, which restricted their use in marker assisted selection (MAS) involving other donors. METHODS AND RESULTS: The current study focused to validate LLS and rust resistance linked markers employing advanced breeding lines of F6 generation, derived from nine different crosses involving nine diverse parents, to identify potential markers for marker-assisted breeding of LLS and rust resistance in groundnut. Out of 28-trait linked markers used for validation, 8 were polymorphic (28.57%). Marker-trait association (MTA) and Single Marker Analysis (SMA) revealed that the SSR marker pPGPseq5D05 is significantly associated with both LLS (15.8% PVE) and rust (17.5% PVE) resistance, whereas, the marker IPAHM103 is tightly linked with rust resistance (26.8% PVE) alone. In silico analysis revealed that the marker gene for IPAHM103 is a zinc finger protein and the marker gene for pPGPseq5D05 is an ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein. Both these protein products impart resistance or tolerance to biotic stress in crop plants. Two other markers namely, GMLQ975 and pPGPseq13A10 were also found to be associated with LLS resistance explaining MTA up to 60%. CONCLUSION: These gene specific markers will enable us to screen more number of germplasm lines or newly developed lines in MAS schemes for LLS and rust resistance using a wide range of resistant sources.


Assuntos
Arachis , Resistência à Doença , Doenças das Plantas , Resistência à Doença/genética , Arachis/genética , Arachis/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos
16.
Molecules ; 29(12)2024 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38930924

RESUMO

A chemical and biological exploration of the European polypore Dentipellis fragilis afforded two previously undescribed natural products (1 and 2), together with three known derivatives (3-5). Chemical structures of the isolated compounds were confirmed through 1D/2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, mass spectrometry, and by comparison with the reported literature. The relative and absolute configurations of 1 were determined according to the ROESY spectrum and time-dependent density functional theory electronic circular dichroism (TDDFT-ECD), respectively. Furthermore, the absolute configuration of dentipellinol (3) was revisited and revealed to be of (R) configuration. All the isolated compounds were assessed for their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities, with some being revealed to have weak to moderate antimicrobial activity, particularly against Gram-positive bacteria.


Assuntos
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Basidiomycota/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Dicroísmo Circular , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
17.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(7): 210, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837067

RESUMO

The extensive use of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) has significantly advanced and transformed our comprehension of virus diversity, especially in intricate settings like soil and biological specimens. In this study, we delved into mycovirus sequence surveys within mycorrhizal fungus species Terfezia claveryi, through employing HTS with total double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) extracts. Our findings revealed the presence of four distinct members from the Alsuviricetes class, one flexivirus designated as Terfezia claveryi flexivirus 1 (TcFV1) and three endornaviruses (TcEV1, TcEV2, and TcEV3) in two different T. claveryi isolates. TcFV1, a member of the order Tymovirales, exhibits a unique genome structure and sequence features. Through in-depth analyses, we found that it shares sequence similarities with other deltaflexiviruses and challenges existing Deltaflexiviridae classification. The discovery of TcFV1 adds to the genomic plasticity of mycoviruses within the Tymovirales order, shedding light on their evolutionary adaptations. Additionally, the three newly discovered endornaviruses (TcEV1, TcEV2, and TcEV3) in T. claveryi exhibited limited sequence similarities with other endornaviruses and distinctive features, including conserved domains like DEAD-like helicase, ATPases Associated with Diverse Cellular Activities (AAA ATPase), and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), indicating their classification as members of new species within the Alphaendornavirus genus. In conclusion, this research emphasizes the importance of exploring viral diversity in uncultivated fungi, bridging knowledge gaps in mycovirus ecology. The discoveries of a novel flexivirus with unique genome organization and endornaviruses in T. claveryi broaden our comprehension of mycovirus diversity and evolution, highlighting the need for continued investigations into viral populations in wild fungi.


Assuntos
Micovírus , Genoma Viral , Micorrizas , Filogenia , Micovírus/genética , Micovírus/classificação , Micovírus/isolamento & purificação , Micorrizas/genética , Micorrizas/virologia , Micorrizas/classificação , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Basidiomycota/virologia , Basidiomycota/genética
18.
Mycologia ; 116(4): 601-620, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847769

RESUMO

Three novel species of the genus Leucocoprinus, named Lc. cinnamomeodiscus, Lc. dahranwalanus, and Lc. iqbalii, are described from unexplored regions of southern Punjab, Pakistan, based on comprehensive analyses of morphoanatomical characteristics and molecular phylogenetic data. We provide illustrations of freshly collected basidiomata and detailed line drawings highlighting key anatomical features. The molecular phylogenetic analyses, which are based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and combined ITS-28S sequences, consistently position these newly described species within the genus Leucocoprinus. Additionally, this study also introduces new taxonomic combinations for previously reported Leucoagaricus species.


Assuntos
DNA Fúngico , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico , Filogenia , Paquistão , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Esporos Fúngicos/citologia , Basidiomycota/genética , Basidiomycota/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Biodiversidade
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12816, 2024 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834653

RESUMO

Previous studies showed that Australian wheat cultivars Janz and Sunco carry leaf rust and stem rust resistance genes Lr24 and Sr24 derived from Thinopyrum ponticum chromosome arm 3AgL. However, the size of the alien segments carrying Lr24 and Sr24 in the lines were not determined. In this study, we used non-denaturing fluorescence in situ hybridization (ND-FISH), genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), and PCR-based landmark unique gene (PLUG) markers to visualize the alien segments in Janz and Sunco, and further compared them with the segments in US cultivars Agent and Amigo. The fraction length (FL) of the alien translocation in Agent was 0.70-1.00, whereas those in Janz, Sunco, and Amigo were smaller, at FL 0.85-1.00. It was deduced that the alien gene RAg encoding for red grain color and rust resistance genes Lr24 and Sr24 on chromosome arm 3AgL were in bins of FL 0.70-0.85 and 0.85-1.00, respectively. We retrieved and extracted nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) receptor genes corresponding to the region of Lr24 and Sr24 on chromosomes 3E, and 3J, 3Js and 3St from the reference genome sequences of Th. elongatum and Th. intermedium, respectively. A set of molecular markers developed for Lr24 and Sr24 from those extracted NBS-LRR genes will provide valuable information for fine mapping and cloning of these genes.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas , Resistência à Doença , Genes de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Basidiomycota , Mapeamento Cromossômico
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 520, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the most effective strategies to increase phytochemicals production in plant cultures is elicitation. In the present study, we studied the effect of abiotic and biotic elicitors on the growth, key biosynthetic genes expression, antioxidant capacity, and phenolic compounds content in Rhizobium (Agrobacterium) rhizogenes-induced hairy roots cultures of Ficus carica cv. Siah. METHODS: The elicitors included methyl jasmonate (MeJA) as abiotic elicitor, culture filtrate and cell extract of fungus Piriformospora indica as biotic elicitors were prepared to use. The cultures of F. carica hairy roots were exposed to elicitores at different time points. After elicitation treatments, hairy roots were collected, and evaluated for growth index, total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoids (TFC) content, antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, FRAP assays), expression level of key phenolic/flavonoid biosynthesis genes, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of some main phenolic compounds in comparison to control. RESULTS: Elicitation positively or negatively affected the growth, content of phenolic/flavonoid compounds and DPPH and FRAP antioxidant activities of hairy roots cultures in depending of elicitor concentration and exposure time. The maximum expression level of chalcone synthase (CHS: 55.1), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H: 34.33) genes and transcription factors MYB3 (32.22), Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH: 45.73) was induced by MeJA elicitation, whereas the maximum expression level of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL: 26.72) and UDP-glucose flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT: 27.57) genes was obtained after P. indica culture filtrate elicitation. The P. indica elicitation also caused greatest increase in the content of gallic acid (5848 µg/g), caffeic acid (508.2 µg/g), rutin (43.5 µg/g), quercetin (341 µg/g), and apigenin (1167 µg/g) phenolic compounds. CONCLUSIONS: This study support that elicitation of F. carica cv. Siah hairy roots can be considered as an effective biotechnological method for improved phenolic/flavonoid compounds production, and of course this approach requires further research.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Ciclopentanos , Ficus , Oxilipinas , Fenóis , Raízes de Plantas , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Basidiomycota , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Agrobacterium
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