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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246440, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339395

RESUMO

Abstract Utilization of modern breeding techniques for developing high yielding and uniform plant types ultimately narrowing the genetic makeup of most crops. Narrowed genetic makeup of these crops has made them vulnerable towards disease and insect epidemics. For sustainable crop production, genetic variability of these crops must be broadened against various biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the ways to widen genetic configuration of these crops is to identify novel additional sources of durable resistance. In this regard crops wild relatives are providing valuable sources of allelic diversity towards various biotic, abiotic stress tolerance and quality components. For incorporating novel variability from wild relative's wide hybridization technique has become a promising breeding method. For this purpose, wheat-Th. bessarabicum amphiploid, addition and translocation lines have been screened in field and screen house conditions to get novel sources of yellow rust and Karnal bunt resistant. Stripe rust screening under field conditions has revealed addition lines 4JJ and 6JJ as resistant to moderately resistant while addition lines 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ and translocation lines Tr-3, Tr-6 as moderately resistant wheat-Thinopyrum-bessarabicum genetic stock. Karnal bunt screening depicted addition lines 5JJ and 4JJ as highly resistant genetic stock. These genetic stocks may be used to introgression novel stripe rust and Karnal bunt resistance from the tertiary gene pool into susceptible wheat backgrounds.


Resumo A utilização de técnicas modernas de melhoramento para o desenvolvimento de tipos de plantas uniformes e de alto rendimento, em última análise, estreitando a composição genética da maioria das culturas. A composição genética restrita dessas plantações tornou-as vulneráveis a doenças e epidemias de insetos. Para uma produção agrícola sustentável, a variabilidade genética dessas culturas deve ser ampliada contra vários estresses bióticos e abióticos. Uma das maneiras de ampliar a configuração genética dessas culturas é identificar novas fontes adicionais de resistência durável. A esse respeito, os parentes selvagens das culturas estão fornecendo fontes valiosas de diversidade alélica para vários componentes de qualidade e tolerância ao estresse abiótico e biótico. Para incorporar a nova variabilidade da ampla técnica de hibridização de parente selvagem tornou-se um método de reprodução promissor. Para esse efeito, trigo-Th. As linhas anfiploides, de adição e translocação de bessarabicum foram selecionadas em condições de campo e de casa de tela para obter novas fontes de ferrugem amarela e resistência ao bunt de Karnal. A triagem de ferrugem em faixas em condições de campo revelou as linhas de adição 4JJ e 6JJ como resistentes a moderadamente resistentes, enquanto as linhas de adição 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ e as linhas de translocação Tr-3, Tr-6 como estoque genético de trigo-Thinopyrum bessarabicum moderadamente resistente. A triagem Karnal bunt descreveu as linhas de adição 5JJ e 4JJ como estoque genético altamente resistente. Esses estoques genéticos podem ser usados para introgressão da nova ferrugem e resistência ao bunt de Karnal do pool genético terciário em origens de trigo suscetíveis.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/genética , Triticum/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Resistência à Doença/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247840, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278531

RESUMO

Abstract Calvatia is a genus of gasteroid fungi, comprising about 47 species worldwide. In this paper we report the second worldwide occurrence of two poorly known species of Calvatia, recorded in the Cerrado biome of Brazil: C. oblongispora and C. nodulata. Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations, including scanning electron micrographs of hyphae and basidiospores are provided, as well a discussion on their taxonomy and geographic distribution.


Resumo Calvatia é um gênero de fungos gasteroides que compreende cerca de 47 espécies em todo o mundo. Neste artigo relatamos a segunda ocorrência de duas espécies pouco conhecidas de Calvatia, registradas no bioma Cerrado do Brasil: C. oblongispora e C. nodulata. Descrições morfológicas detalhadas e ilustrações são fornecidas, incluindo micrografias eletrônicas de varredura de hifas e basidiósporos, bem como uma discussão sobre sua taxonomia e distribuição geográfica.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Agaricales , Esporos Fúngicos , Brasil , Ecossistema
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(9): 2309-2314, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531677

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the resource utilization of used fungus-growing materials produced in the cultivation of Gastrodia elata. To be specific, based on the production practice, this study investigated the recycling mechanism of used fungus-growing materials of G. elata by Phallus inpudicus. To screen edible fungi with wide adaptability, this study examined the allelopathic effects of Armillaria mellea secretions on P. impudicus and 6 kinds of large edible fungi and the activities of enzymes related to degradation of the used fungus-growing materials of G. elata. The results showed that P. impudicus can effectively degrade cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in used fungus-growing materials of G. elata. The cellulase activity of A. mellea was significantly higher than that of P. impudicus, and the activities of lignin peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and xylanase of P. impudicus were significantly higher than those of A. mellea, which was the important reason why A. mellea and P. impudicus used different parts and components of the used fungus-growing materials to absorb carbon sources and develop ecological niche differences. The growth of P. impudicus was significantly inhibited on the used fungus-growing materials of G. elata. The secretions of A. mellea had allelopathic effects on P. impudicus and other edible fungi, and the allelopathic effects were related to the concentration of allelopathy substances. The screening result showed that the growth and development of L. edodes and A. auricular were not significantly affected by 30% of A. mellea liquid, indicating that they had high resistance to the allelopathy of A. mellea. The results showed that the activities of extracellular lignin peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and xylanase of the two edible fungi were similar to those of P. impudicus, and the cellulase activity was higher than that of P. impudicus. This experiment can be further verified by small-scale production tests.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Ascomicetos , Basidiomycota , Celulases , Gastrodia , Catecol Oxidase
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7571, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534655

RESUMO

Current methods in measuring maize (Zea mays L.) southern rust (Puccinia polyspora Underw.) and subsequent crop senescence require expert observation and are resource-intensive and prone to subjectivity. In this study, unoccupied aerial system (UAS) field-based high-throughput phenotyping (HTP) was employed to collect high-resolution aerial imagery of elite maize hybrids planted in the 2020 and 2021 growing seasons, with 13 UAS flights obtained from 2020 and 17 from 2021. In total, 36 vegetation indices (VIs) were extracted from mosaicked aerial images that served as temporal phenomic predictors for southern rust scored in the field and senescence as scored using UAS-acquired mosaic images. Temporal best linear unbiased predictors (TBLUPs) were calculated using a nested model that treated hybrid performance as nested within flights in terms of rust and senescence. All eight machine learning regressions tested (ridge, lasso, elastic net, random forest, support vector machine with radial and linear kernels, partial least squares, and k-nearest neighbors) outperformed a general linear model with both higher prediction accuracies (92-98%) and lower root mean squared error (RMSE) for rust and senescence scores (linear model RMSE ranged from 65.8 to 2396.5 across all traits, machine learning regressions RMSE ranged from 0.3 to 17.0). UAS-acquired VIs enabled the discovery of novel early quantitative phenotypic indicators of maize senescence and southern rust before being detectable by expert annotation and revealed positive correlations between grain filling time and yield (0.22 and 0.44 in 2020 and 2021), with practical implications for precision agricultural practices.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Zea mays , Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Fenômica , Zea mays/genética
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 235, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sheath blight is an important disease caused by Rhizoctonia cerealis that affects wheat yields worldwide. No wheat varieties have been identified with high resistance or immunity to sheath blight. Understanding the sheath blight resistance mechanism is essential for controlling this disease. In this study, we investigated the response of wheat to Rhizoctonia cerealis infection by analyzing the cytological changes and transcriptomes of common wheat 7182 with moderate sensitivity to sheath blight and H83 with moderate resistance. RESULTS: The cytological observation showed that the growth of Rhizoctonia cerealis on the surface and its expansion inside the leaf sheath tissue were more rapid in the susceptible material. According to the transcriptome sequencing results, a total of 88685 genes were identified in both materials, including 20156 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of which 12087 was upregulated genes and 8069 was downregulated genes. At 36 h post-inoculation, compared with the uninfected control, 11498 DEGs were identified in resistant materials, with 5064 downregulated genes and 6434 upregulated genes, and 13058 genes were detected in susceptible materials, with 6759 downregulated genes and 6299 upregulated genes. At 72 h post-inoculation, compared with the uninfected control, 6578 DEGs were detected in resistant materials, with 2991 downregulated genes and 3587 upregulated genes, and 7324 genes were detected in susceptible materials, with 4119 downregulated genes and 3205 upregulated genes. Functional annotation and enrichment analysis showed that the main pathways enriched for the DEGs included biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, carbon metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, and plant-pathogen interaction. In particular, phenylpropane biosynthesis pathway is specifically activated in resistant variety H83 after infection. Many DEGs also belonged to the MYB, AP2, NAC, and WRKY transcription factor families. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, we suggest that the normal functioning of plant signaling pathways and differences in the expression of key genes and transcription factors in some important metabolic pathways may be important for defending wheat against sheath blight. These findings may facilitate further exploration of the sheath blight resistance mechanism in wheat and the cloning of related genes.


Assuntos
Transcriptoma , Triticum , Basidiomycota , Resistência à Doença/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Rhizoctonia/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2386, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501307

RESUMO

Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei, is an economically significant disease of barley, but only a few major resistance genes to P. hordei (Rph) have been cloned. In this study, gene Rph3 was isolated by positional cloning and confirmed by mutational analysis and transgenic complementation. The Rph3 gene, which originated from wild barley and was first introgressed into cultivated Egyptian germplasm, encodes a unique predicted transmembrane resistance protein that differs from all known plant disease resistance proteins at the amino acid sequence level. Genetic profiles of diverse accessions indicated limited genetic diversity in Rph3 in domesticated germplasm, and higher diversity in wild barley from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The Rph3 gene was expressed only in interactions with Rph3-avirulent P. hordei isolates, a phenomenon also observed for transcription activator-like effector-dependent genes known as executors conferring resistance to Xanthomonas spp. Like known transmembrane executors such as Bs3 and Xa7, heterologous expression of Rph3 in N. benthamiana induced a cell death response. The isolation of Rph3 highlights convergent evolutionary processes in diverse plant-pathogen interaction systems, where similar defence mechanisms evolved independently in monocots and dicots.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Hordeum , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Hordeum/genética , Proteínas de Membrana , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Puccinia
7.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0266695, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507582

RESUMO

341 entries comprising of 250 genotypes/lines and 91 gene differentials were tested for leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Erik) in different ecological zones of Punjab during 2016-17 and 2017-18. Each entry was planted in a single 1 m long row and Morocco was used as a spreader. Data on leaf rust severity was recorded once in 3rd week of March during both study years at all locations by following Modified Cobb Scale while the data was recorded three times on 2nd, 22nd and 29th March during 2018 at Faisalabad location to study rust development pattern. The disease severity ranged from 0-100S during 2016-17 and from 0-80S during 2017-18. The genotype HYT 60-5 and the genes Lr-19, Lr-26 and Lr 27+31 showed no disease symptoms at any location during both the study years. These genes can be used for future breeding material development. Area under disease progressive curve (AUDPC), calculated on the basis of periodical readings from Faisalabad, ranged from 0-550 and the susceptible check Morocco has AUDPC value of 600. 120 entries including HYT 60-5 have disease progression 0, which showed that there may be a major gene based resistance in these entries. Area under disease progressive curve/Day (AUDPC/DAY) was calculated for the rest of 130 genotypes to have an understanding of the disease progression pattern and out of which 43 entries have AUDPC/Day value ranging from 1-2 and 28 entries have AUDPC/Day value ranging from 2-3 which revealed that these entries are very useful for use in breeding for durable rust resistance and can be utilized as a parent in back cross and top cross breeding schemes. Material with AUDPC value less than 10 is the best source of resistance against the leaf rust. Varieties/advanced lines, Ujala-16, V-14154, and V-14124 have shown slow rust development and are very good sources of resistance. Similarly, HYT 60-5 has proven an excellent source of resistance. The advance line V-14154 has been approved as a commercial cultivar by the name "Akbar-19".


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum , Basidiomycota/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Progressão da Doença , Resistência à Doença/genética , Paquistão , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(2): e20201210, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507977

RESUMO

A bibliographic analysis was carried out to update the state of knowledge about aquatic fungi belonging to the subkingdom Dikarya in the Southern Cone of South America. The exhaustive search resulted in 38 articles reported. These papers correspond to those on taxonomic, ecological and biogeographic topics and include studies from lotic environments of the temperate ecoregions of Chile and Argentina. A total of 325 aquatic fungal taxa were reported, of which 318 belong to the phylum Ascomycota and 7 to the phylum Basidiomycota. According to the subgroups of these aquatic fungi 17 taxa were aero-aquatic, 199 facultative and 109 Ingoldian fungi. Regarding the methodologies, in these studies the information was obtained mainly by using lignocellulosic substrates such as leaf litter and wood as fungal source and wet chamber traditional working technique. However, more studies are still needed using other few-reported perspectives for the region such as ecological and molecular approaches as well as analyses of water environments belonging to unexplored biomes. This information can contribute to a better understanding of aquatic fungal communities and their role in ecosystems of the Southern Cone of South America.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Basidiomycota , Ecossistema , Fungos , Filogenia , Madeira/microbiologia
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(4)2022 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456370

RESUMO

Some studies have investigated the potential of genomic selection (GS) on stripe rust, leaf rust, Fusarium head blight (FHB), and leaf spot in wheat, but none of them have assessed the effect of the reaction norm model that incorporated GE interactions. In addition, the prediction accuracy on common bunt has not previously been studied. Here, we investigated within-population prediction accuracies using the baseline M1 model and two reaction norm models (M2 and M3) with three random cross-validation (CV1, CV2, and CV0) schemes. Three Canadian spring wheat populations were evaluated in up to eight field environments and genotyped with 3158, 5732, and 23,795 polymorphic markers. The M3 model that incorporated GE interactions reduced residual variance by an average of 10.2% as compared with the main effect M2 model and increased prediction accuracies on average by 2-6%. In some traits, the M3 model increased prediction accuracies up to 54% as compared with the M2 model. The average prediction accuracies of the M3 model with CV1, CV2, and CV0 schemes varied from 0.02 to 0.48, from 0.25 to 0.84, and from 0.14 to 0.87, respectively. In both CV2 and CV0 schemes, stripe rust in all three populations, common bunt and leaf rust in two populations, as well as FHB severity, FHB index, and leaf spot in one population had high to very high (0.54-0.87) prediction accuracies. This is the first comprehensive genomic selection study on five major diseases in spring wheat.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Fusarium , Basidiomycota/genética , Canadá , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fusarium/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética
10.
J Microbiol ; 60(5): 511-525, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362898

RESUMO

Infection by Sclerotium rolfsii will cause serious disease and lead to significant economic losses in chili pepper. In this study, the response of pepper during S. rolfsii infection was explored by electron microscopy, physiological determination and integrated proteome and metabolome analyses. Our results showed that the stomata of pepper stems were important portals for S. rolfsii infection. The plant cell morphology was significantly changed at the time of the fungal hyphae just contacting (T1) or surrounding (T2) the pepper. The chlorophyll, carotenoid, and MDA contents and the activities of POD, SOD, and CAT were markedly upregulated at T1 and T2. Approximately 4129 proteins and 823 metabolites were clearly identified in proteome and metabolome analyses, respectively. A change in 396 proteins and 54 metabolites in pepper stem tissues was observed at T1 compared with 438 proteins and 53 metabolites at T2. The proteins and metabolites related to photosynthesis and antioxidant systems in chloroplasts and mitochondria were disproportionally affected by S. rolfsii infection, impacting carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. This study provided new insights into the response mechanism in pepper stems during S. rolfsii infection, which can guide future work on fungal disease resistance breeding in pepper.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Basidiomycota , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos
11.
Elife ; 112022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441591

RESUMO

Generally, sexual organisms contain two haploid genomes, one from each parent, united in a single diploid nucleus of the zygote which links their fate during growth. A fascinating exception to this is Basidiomycete fungi, where the two haploid genomes remain separate in a dikaryon, retaining the option to fertilize subsequent monokaryons encountered. How the ensuing nuclear competition influences the balance of selection within and between individuals is largely unexplored. We test the consequences of the dikaryotic life cycle for mating success and mycelium-level fitness components. We assume a trade-off between mating fitness at the level of the haploid nucleus and fitness of the fungal mycelium. We show that the maintenance of fertilization potential by dikaryons leads to a higher proportion of fertilized monokaryons, but that the ensuing intradikaryon selection for increased nuclear mating fitness leads to reduced mycelium fitness relative to a diploid life cycle. However, this fitness reduction is lower compared to a hypothetical life cycle where dikaryons can also exchange nuclei. Prohibition of fusion between dikaryons therefore reduces the level of nuclear parasitism. The number of loci influencing fitness is an important determinant of the degree to which average mycelium-level fitness is reduced. The results of this study crucially hinge upon a trade-off between nucleus and mycelium-level fitness. We discuss the evidence for this assumption and the implications of an alternative that there is a positive relationship between nucleus and mycelium-level fitness.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Basidiomycota , Agaricales/genética , Animais , Basidiomycota/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Reprodução
12.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 24(1): 53-66, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442595

RESUMO

This study evaluates the nutritional quality and in vivo biological activity of a peach palm by-product food ingredient processed via solid-state fermentation by shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom, Lentinula edodes. The group of Wistar rats that consumed this diet had higher total dietary fiber content, digestibility, rate of protein quality, and protein efficiency. They also presented a late and softer insulinemic peak with an increase in the glycemic index, demonstrating amino acid limitation but with a feasible matrix as a complement protein. Discrete variation on total cholesterol and triglycerides was observed with a reduction in lipid profile, attributed to its high dietary fiber content. Lipids from within the liver and stool revealed that the fermented diet contained the lowest rates of fat in the liver and, consequently, the highest elimination compared to the other control diets. The serum lipid profile suggests a positive modulation of this diet, and that it has good nutritional quality with the potential to positively influence glycemic and lipid profiles.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Cogumelos Shiitake , Animais , Fibras na Dieta , Fermentação , Valor Nutritivo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Cogumelos Shiitake/química , Triglicerídeos
13.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 24(1): 67-82, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442596

RESUMO

In this study, melanin from wild Auricularia auricula (WAA) was isolated using an ultra-high pressure (UHP)-assisted extraction method, and the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of WAA melanin were investigated. Under the optimized extraction conditions of a solid/liquid ratio of 1:30, a UHP of 450 MPa, a 22-min pressure holding time, a 1-mol/L NaOH concentration, and acid precipitation for 8 h, the WAA melanin extraction yield was 7.9 ± 0.16%. Moreover, the results showed that the surface of WAA melanin lacked structural order. Most melanin showed an average diameter of 1000 nm. WAA melanin had strong absorption at a wavelength of 210 nm and displayed typical characteristic absorption peaks. Moreover, WAA melanin contained 48.51% C, 6.88% H, 5.26% N, 0.45% S, and 38.90% O and may be a 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine melanin. An analysis of physicochemical properties showed that WAA melanin had good stability toward heat, light, and low concentrations of reducing agents and oxidizing agents. Furthermore, WAA melanin presented certain free radical scavenging activity. This study demonstrates that wild A. auricula melanin may have potential applications in the cosmetic or food industries as a natural antioxidant.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Basidiomycota , Agaricales/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Auricularia , Basidiomycota/química , Melaninas/química
14.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 24(1): 41-52, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442594

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is becoming the most common cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in developed countries. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of NASH due to steatosis; hence, novel therapeutic approaches might include natural antioxidants. Ceraceomyces tessulatus strain Basidiomycetes-X (BDM-X), a novel edible mushroom, possesses potent antioxidant activity. This study aimed to investigate the hepato-protective effect of C. tessulatus BDM-X in a novel NASH-HCC mouse model. To prepare this animal model, 2-day-old C57BL/6J male pups were exposed to low-dose streptozotocin (STZ); at 4 weeks of age, they were randomly divided into two groups. The NASH group (NASH) received a high-fat diet (HFD32) up to 14 weeks of age; the C. tessulatus BDM-X group (BDM-X) received HFD32 up to age 10 weeks, followed by HFD32 + 20% BDM-X (percent weight per weight in the diet) up to age 14 weeks. Mice not treated with STZ and fed a normal diet served as a control group. We found that C. tessulatus BDM-X improved serum aminotransferase levels as well as histopathological features such as steatosis, inflammatory foci, and pericellular fibrosis in NASH mice. Hepatic protein expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein isoform SREBP-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARα was significantly increased in NASH mice. C. tessulatus BDM-X treatment normalized the expression of both proteins. Our data suggest that C. tessulatus BDM-X may protect the liver against lipogenesis in NASH-HCC mice.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fígado , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle
15.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 24(2): 23-30, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446519

RESUMO

The antiviral properties of water extracts from pharmaceutical raw materials of the chaga mushroom, Inonotus obliquus, were studied against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). All studies with infectious materials were carried out in an isolated virological laboratory of the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology Vector of Rospotrebnadzor, which has a sanitary and epidemiological conclusion for the right to work with pathogenic biological agents of I-II pathogenicity groups. Antiviral activity was determined by the ability of I. obliquus water extracts to inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2 (nCoV/Victoria /1/2020 strain) in Vero E6 and Vero cell cultures. The results of these studies showed that water extracts of I. obliquus are characterized by low toxicity in Vero and Vero E6 cell cultures and have antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. The 50% inhibitory concentration ranged from 0.75 to 11.6 µg/mL. A patent for the invention was received (Patent RU, 2741714 C 1, 2021).


Assuntos
Agaricales , Basidiomycota , COVID-19 , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Chlorocebus aethiops , Inonotus , SARS-CoV-2 , Células Vero , Água
16.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 24(2): 49-62, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446522

RESUMO

An effective method of polysaccharide extraction from Auricularia auricula (AAPs) by mannanase was developed and optimized by response surface methodology in which the ABTS+ [diammonium 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylben-zothiazoline-6-sulfonate radical] scavenging rate was the response. AAPs were graded by stepwise ethanol precipitation with concentrations of 5, 10, 15, and 20% ethanol successively. The fractions with a strong radical scavenging rate were obtained, and then their antioxidant stress effect was studied using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. The ABTS+ scavenging rate of AAPs could reach 37.95 ± 0.53% at a temperature of 55°C, a time of 4 h, a liquid-to-material ratio of 58 mL/1 g, and an enzyme-to-substrate ratio of 2.97%. AAP-20 obtained by 20% ethanol with a strong radical scavenging rate was a heteropolysaccharide composed of mannose, glucose, galactose, xylose, and glucuronic acid. AAP-20 could significantly prolong the lifespan of C. elegans under oxidative stress conditions induced by methyl viologen or hydrogen peroxide, and it could also enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase at 0.50 mg/mL (P < 0.05). These studies showed that AAPs prepared with mannanase had a significant protective effect against damage induced by intracellular radical generating agents.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Basidiomycota , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Auricularia , Basidiomycota/química , Caenorhabditis elegans , Etanol/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456934

RESUMO

Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is a destructive disease that occurs throughout the major wheat-growing regions of the world. This pathogen is highly variable due to the capacity of virulent races to undergo rapid changes in order to circumvent resistance in wheat cultivars and genotypes and to adapt to different environments. Intensive efforts have been made to study the genetics of wheat resistance to this disease; however, no known avirulence genes have been molecularly identified in Pst so far. To identify molecular markers for avirulence genes, a Pst panel of 157 selected isolates representing 126 races with diverse virulence spectra was genotyped using 209 secreted protein gene-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SP-SNP) markers via association analysis. Nineteen SP-SNP markers were identified for significant associations with 12 avirulence genes: AvYr1, AvYr6, AvYr7, AvYr9, AvYr10, AvYr24, AvYr27, AvYr32, AvYr43, AvYr44, AvYrSP, and AvYr76. Some SP-SNPs were associated with two or more avirulence genes. These results further confirmed that association analysis in combination with SP-SNP markers is a powerful tool for identifying markers for avirulence genes. This study provides genomic resources for further studies on the cloning of avirulence genes, understanding the mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions, and developing functional markers for tagging specific virulence genes and race groups.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum , Marcadores Genéticos , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Puccinia , Triticum/genética , Virulência/genética
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457004

RESUMO

Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica) is a popular turfgrass species and is widely used for sport turf and urban landscape. Zoysiagrass is often infected by Puccinia zoysiae, which causes a loss in turf quality. The physiological and molecular mechanisms of rust resistance are poorly understood in this species. In this study, the rust-resistant and susceptible lines of zoysiagrass were inoculated with P. zoysiae, and alterations of leaf cell structure, physiological indicators and transcriptomic response were investigated at the various stages of inoculation. After inoculation, the cell membranes, nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplast were all impaired, followed by abnormal physiological metabolism. The damage occurred earlier and more severely in the susceptible line. Changes in electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll content varied with the genotype and the inoculation stages. The transcriptome analysis showed that plant hormones, MAPK signal transduction pathway, photosynthesis and energy generation pathways were significantly enriched in the early response, in both the resistant and susceptible lines. The results provided insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rust disease resistance and would benefit the breeding of rust-resistant varieties in zoysiagrass and related turfgrass species.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Melhoramento Vegetal , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Poaceae/genética
19.
Mycologia ; 114(2): 319-336, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363583

RESUMO

Rust fungi are important plant pathogens and have been extensively studied on crops and other host plants worldwide. This study describes the heterecious life cycle of a rust fungus on Digitaria eriantha (finger grass) and the Solanum species S. lichtensteinii (large yellow bitter apple), S. campylacanthum (bitter apple), and S. melongena (eggplant) in South Africa. Following field observations, inoculation studies involving telial isolates collected from Digitaria plants produced spermogonia and aecia on S. lichtensteinii, S. campylacanthum, and S. melongena. Likewise, inoculation of finger grass with aeciospores collected from the aforementioned Solanum species produced uredinia on D. eriantha. Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet varieties Milkstar and Okashana, as well as 17 experimental lines) and S. elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade or bitter apple) were resistant to the rust isolates. Morphological descriptions and molecular phylogenetic data confirmed the identity of the rust on Digitaria as P. digitariae, herein reinstated as a species and closely related to P. penicillariae the pearl millet rust, also reinstated. Puccinia digitariae has a macrocyclic, heterecious life cycle in which teliospores overwinter on dormant D. eriantha plants. Aecia sporulate on species of Solanum during spring and early summer to provide inocula that infect new growth of Digitaria.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Solanum , Animais , Digitaria , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas , Puccinia , África do Sul
20.
Mycologia ; 114(2): 413-452, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394899

RESUMO

Hydnum (Hydnaceae, Basidiomycota) exhibits endemic species diversity in East Asia; however, few comprehensive systematic studies have been conducted to date. Here, we performed morphological, ecological, phylogenetic, and biological evaluations of the taxonomy of Hydnum species in Japan. In total, 186 Japanese Hydnum specimens were used for morphological observations. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using sequence data of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS) region and a portion of translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1). Intra- and interspecific mating tests using 78 monokaryotic strains of 13 species did not conflict with species delimitation inferred from their ITS and tef1 phylogenetic relationships. This study provides detailed morphological descriptions of 15 rigorously identified species from Japan, nine of which are described as new: H. alboluteum, H. albopallidum, H. pinicola, H. itachiharitake, H. minospororufescens, H. orientalbidum, H. subberkeleyanum, H. tomaense, and H. tottoriense. Three species documented in this work are new to Japan: H. boreorepandum, H. mulsicolor, and H. umbilicatum. The remaining three species (H. cremeoalbum, H. minus, and H. repando-orientale), previously reported from Japan, are redescribed using data from newly collected materials. We also transferred two old species (Hericium fimbrillatum and Sarcodon nauseofoetidus) from East Asian Hydnum into other genera.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Basidiomycota/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Japão , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 5,8S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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