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1.
Food Chem ; 352: 129456, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711727

RESUMO

Release of bioelements and phenolic compounds from edible mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Cantharellus cibarius, and Lentinula edodes) enriched with zinc, selenium, l-phenylalanine, alone and as a mixture was examined using a simulated human gastrointestinal digestion method. Due to the extensive amount of data obtained, in order to interpret them more precisely in the work, the methods of chemometric analysis (Cluster Analysis-CA and Principal Compenent Analysis-PCA) were additionally applied. The results showed mycelium of L. edodes has the best health-promoting properties and addition of mixture to the media increased significantly the synthesis of p-hydroxybenzoic and protocatechuic acid (267 and 16.3 mg/100 g d.w.). After extraction into artificial digestive juices, 97.4 mg/100 g d.w. p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 15.6 mg/100 g d.w. of protocatechuic acid were released. The greatest amounts of Se and Zn were extracted from enriched A. bisporus mycelium (32.3 and 342 mg/100 g d.w., respectively). This study confirmed that mycelium might prevent nutritional deficiencies in the diet through use of functional foods.


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Basidiomycota/química , Micélio/química , Fenóis/análise , Cogumelos Shiitake/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Digestão , Humanos , Fenóis/metabolismo
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111090, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378984

RESUMO

Cancer incidence rates are on the increase worldwide. The most common brain cancer in adults is glioblastoma. Currently available treatment modalities are limited and natural products such as mushrooms could enhance them. Apart from nutritional value, mushrooms are an excellent source of bioactive compounds and therefore could be used to treat various disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the anti-glioma potential of selected mushrooms on U87MG, LN-18 glioblastoma and SVGp12 normal human astroglial cell lines. The materials were Cantharellus cibarius, Coprinus comatus, Lycoperdon perlatum and Lactarius delicious. Aqueous, 70 % ethanol or 95 % ethanol extracts from mushrooms were used for analysis including assessment of antioxidant activity by DPPH assay, cell viability by MTT assay, DNA biosynthesis by thymidine incorporation assay, activity of metalloproteinase by gelatin zymography and cell cycle assay by flow cytometry. Mushroom extracts influenced the viability and DNA biosynthesis of cancer cells. Activity of ethanol mushroom extracts was stronger than that of aqueous extracts. Anti-glioma mechanism consisted in inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis associated with arrest of cells in subG1 or G2/M phase of cell cycle, and inhibition of metalloproteinases activity. Among investigated mushrooms, L. deliciosus and C. comatus showed the greatest anti-glioma potential.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Agaricales/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Basidiomycota/química , Neoplasias Encefálicas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Coprinus/química , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/enzimologia , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Food Chem ; 339: 127884, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858387

RESUMO

The differences in Dictyophora indusiata fruiting bodies between peach-shaped and mature stage during the postharvest were systematically investigated through quantitative proteomic and metabolomic analyses. A total of 951 differentially expressed proteins were identified, 571 upregulated and 380 downregulated in the mature fruiting body; additionally, 173 upregulated and 165 downregulated differential abundance metabolites were screened. Integrated proteome and metabolome analyses showed that, during the maturation of D. indusiata fruiting bodies, glycerophospholipids were hydrolyzed and drastically decreased, the degradation of glucan was upregulated, the degradation and synthesis of chitin were simultaneously enhanced, and proteins were dominated via catabolism. Along with vigorous material metabolism, energy production was enhanced through the upregulated TCA-cycles and oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, the synthesis of antioxidant substances and the decomposition of peroxides were enhanced in mature fruiting bodies. These omics analyses of D. indusiata provide high-throughput data and reveal the changes in the post-harvest morphological development.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/química , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Regulação para Baixo , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Regulação para Cima
4.
Molecules ; 25(24)2020 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352794

RESUMO

Value-added chemicals, including phenolic compounds, can be generated through lignocellulosic biomass conversion via either biological or chemical pretreatment. Currently vanillin is one of the most valuable of these products that has been shown to be extractable on an industrial scale. This study demonstrates the potential of using rice straw inoculated with Serpula lacrymans, which produced a mixture of high value bio-based compounds including vanillin. Key extraction conditions were identified to be the volume of solvent used and extraction time, which were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The vanillin compounds extracted from rice straw solid state fermentation (SSF) was confirmed through LC-ESI MS/MS in selective ion mode. The optimum concentration and yield differed depending on the solvent, which was predicted using 60 mL ethyl acetate for 160 min were 0.408% and 3.957 µg g-1 respectively. In comparison, when ethanol was used, the highest concentration and yields of vanillin were 0.165% and 2.596 µg g-1. These were achieved using 40 mL of solvent, and extraction time increased to 248 min. The results confirm that fungal conversion of rice straw to vanillin could consequently offer a cost-effect alternative to other modes of production.


Assuntos
Benzaldeídos/química , Oryza/química , Basidiomycota/química , Biomassa , Etanol/química , Fermentação/fisiologia , Solventes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
5.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854262

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, producing the disease COVID-19 is a pathogenic virus that targets mostly the human respiratory system and also other organs. SARS-CoV-2 is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans, however there have been previous outbreaks of different versions of the beta coronavirus including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV1) from 2002 to 2003 and the most recent Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) which was first identified in 2012. All of the above have been recognised as major pathogens that are a great threat to public health and global economies. Currently, no specific treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection has been identified; however, certain drugs have shown apparent efficacy in viral inhibition of the disease. Natural substances such as herbs and mushrooms have previously demonstrated both great antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity. Thus, the possibilities of natural substances as effective treatments against COVID-19 may seem promising. One of the potential candidates against the SARS-CoV-2 virus may be Inonotus obliquus (IO), also known as chaga mushroom. IO commonly grows in Asia, Europe and North America and is widely used as a raw material in various medical conditions. In this review, we have evaluated the most effective herbs and mushrooms, in terms of the antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects which have been assessed in laboratory conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Fungos/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Agaricales/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Basidiomycota/química , Betacoronavirus , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Chlorella/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
6.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2943-2951, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702186

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal disease, which was commonly found in westerners whereas is increasingly prevalent in Asia because of the changing eating habits. In previous research, we found that a water-soluble polysaccharide isolated from Auricularia auricular-judae (Bull.)-a kind of edible mushroom (Aap)-is composed of ß-1,3 glycosidic bonds, which is regarded as therapeutic or protective substance in enteritis. We therefore aimed to find the preventing effect of Aap on IBD. Here, we reported that pre-administration of Aap not only ameliorated weight loss, colon damage, and mucosal inflammation in colitis mice, but also prevented the damage of intestinal barrier by reducing the D-lactic acid and diamine oxidase level in plasma. Through high-throughput sequencing, we found that Aap changed gut microbiota composition. Furthermore, the preventing effect was transmissible via horizontal feces transfer from Aap-treated mice to normal mice. Our results indicated that oral administration of Aap is a promising protective substance of IBD. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Our study proved that Auricularia auricula polysaccharide had substantial preventing effect on DSS-induced colitis in mice. This research might lay the theoretical foundation and technical support for the development of related functional foods. People could also enhance their gut immunity by eating Auricularia auricular in their daily life. Auricularia auricular as a highly nutritious agricultural product showed the broad significance in nutrition and food function.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
7.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1872-1890, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460371

RESUMO

Cancer represents a major disease burden worldwide. Despite continuous advances obtained in medical therapies recently, resistance to standard drugs and adverse effects still represent important causes of therapeutic failure. There is growing evidence that the gut microbiota can affect the response to chemo- and immunotherapeutic drugs by modulating efficacy and/or toxicity, and diet is the most important factor affecting the gut microbiota. In this study, we assessed the auxiliary antitumor effects of immunomodulatory fungal proteins from Hericium erinaceus (HEP) administered with the chemotherapy drug 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu), and we attempted to identify new potential prebiotic bacteria for auxiliary antitumor treatment. There were 1,455 proteins identified from H. erinaceus. In a xenografted mouse model of cancer, HEP with 5-Fu significantly suppressed tumor growth, inhibited inflammatory markers such as interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and regulated the expression of Akt, CCDN1, CKD4, FOXM1, MMP7, MYC, PPAR-α, and PPAR-γ. 16S rRNA sequencing showed that HEP ameliorated the dysbacteriosis induced by 5-Fu, as it inhibited certain aerobic and microaerobic bacteria including Parabacteroides, Flavobacteriaceae, Christensenellaceae, Anoxybacillus, Aggregatibacter, Comamonadaceae, Planococcaceae, Desulfovibrionaceae, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus, Aerococcaceae, and Bilophila in the xenografted mice, and increase some probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, Gemellales, Blautia, Sutterella, Anaerostipes, Roseburia, Lachnobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Desulfovibrio. This demonstrates that HEP could promote the antitumor efficacy of 5-Fu by improving the microbiota composition, the immune inflammatory response, and homeostasis.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Disbiose/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/microbiologia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Disbiose/imunologia , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231948, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369483

RESUMO

In our search for bioactive mushrooms native to British Columbia, we determined that the ethanol extracts from fruiting bodies of the terrestrial polypore Albatrellus flettii had potent anti-cell viability activity. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we successfully isolated three known compounds (grifolin, neogrifolin and confluentin). These compounds represent the major anti-cell viability components from the ethanol extracts of A. flettii. We also identified a novel biological activity for these compounds, specifically in down-regulating KRAS expression in two human colon cancer cell lines. Relatively little is known about the anti-cell viability activity and mechanism of action of confluentin. For the first time, we show the ability of confluentin to induce apoptosis and arrest the cell cycle at the G2/M phase in SW480 human colon cancer cells. The oncogenic insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IMP1) has been previously shown to regulate KRAS mRNA expression in colon cancer cells, possibly through its ability to bind to the KRAS transcript. Using a fluorescence polarization assay, we show that confluentin dose-dependently inhibits the physical interaction between KRAS RNA and full-length IMP1. The inhibition also occurs with truncated IMP1 containing the KH1 to KH4 domain (KH1to4 IMP1), but not with the di-domain KH3 and KH4 (KH3&4 IMP1). In addition, unlike the control antibiotic neomycin, grifolin, neogrifolin and confluentin do not bind to KRAS RNA. These results suggest that confluentin inhibits IMP1-KRAS RNA interaction by binding to the KH1&2 di-domains of IMP1. Since the molecular interaction between IMP1 and its target RNAs is a pre-requisite for the oncogenic function of IMP1, confluentin should be further explored as a potential inhibitor of IMP1 in vivo.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Fenóis/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Resorcinóis/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HT29 , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Terpenos/farmacologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229925, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251434

RESUMO

Basidiomycete fungi are a rich source of natural products with a diverse array of potentially exploitable bioactivities. Two dimeric sesquiterpenes, bovistol B (1) and D (2), and one monomeric sesquiterpene, strossmayerin (7), were isolated from the culture filtrate of the basidiomycete fungus Coprinopsis strossmayeri. The structures were determined through a combination of MS and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. Likely monomeric precursors, identified on the basis of HRMS analysis, allow a plausible biosynthetic pathway to be proposed for the biosynthesis of 1 and 2, involving the dimerisation of the monomer through a hetero-Diels-Alder mechanism. A gene cluster, including a putative sesquiterpene 1-11 cyclase, was identified through phylogenetic and RNA-seq analysis, and is proposed to be responsible for the biosynthesis of 1 and 2.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Basidiomycota/química , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Sesquiterpenos/química , Agaricales/ultraestrutura , Basidiomycota/ultraestrutura , Produtos Biológicos/química , Filtração , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145640

RESUMO

Wild edible macro fungi Floccularia luteovirens proved to be a valuable source for the identification of novel lead molecules with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, the chemical constituents of Floccularia luteovirens are rarely reported due to absence of efficient purification methods. In this study, a hydrophilic interaction chromatography directed by on-line HPLC-DPPH assay has been developed and successfully applied for the isolation of free radical inhibitor from the methanolic extract of Floccularia luteovirens. Using a hydrophilic interaction chromatographic column coupled with the HPLC-DPPH assay for screening the potential radical scavengers, the mid-pressure hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) proved to be more efficient in the pretreatment stage, yielding the fraction rich in free radical scavengers in good yield (5.9% recovery from 130.0 g of fresh F. luteovirens). From highly potent fraction, the target compound was isolated using the Click XION preparative chromatography with 17.2% recovery. The isolated compound was L-(+)-ergothioneine, where the purity (>95%) and antioxidant activity of were confirmed by chromatography and HPLC-DPPH assay, while the structure of this compound was elucidated from HR ESI-MS and NMR data. This method proved to be very efficient for the recognition and isolation of highly polar free radical inhibitors from fungi extracts, and is also applicable for the purification of highly polar compounds from other sources.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Ergotioneína/isolamento & purificação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Radicais Livres/química , Bioensaio , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ergotioneína/análise , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Estrutura Molecular
11.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1060-1069, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147838

RESUMO

Inonotus obliquus is a traditional mushroom well known for its therapeutic value. In this study, various solvent fractions of I. obliquus were preliminarily screened for their antioxidant, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition properties. To improve the drug delivery, the active fraction (ethyl acetate fraction) of I. obliquus was synthesized into fungisome (ethyl acetate phophotidyl choline complex, EAPC) and its physical parameters were assessed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and ς potential analysis. Then normal human hepatic L02 cells was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of EAPC. The results showed that EA fraction possesses significant free radical scavenging, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition properties. FTIR, SEM, and HPLC analysis confirmed the fungisome formation. The particle size of EAPC was 102.80 ± 0.42 nm and the ς potential was -54.30 ± 0.61 mV. The percentage of drug entrapment efficiency was 97.13% and the drug release rates of EAPC in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid were 75.04 ± 0.29% and 93.03 ± 0.36%, respectively. EAPC was nontoxic to L02 cells, however it could selectively fight against the H2 O2 induced oxidative damage in L02 cells. This is the first study to provide scientific information to utilize the active fraction of I. obliquus as fungisome. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Inonotus obliquus (IO) is a traditional medicinal fungus. The extracts of IO have obvious antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities. Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of IO was encapsulated in liposomes to form EAPC. EAPC has a sustained-release effect. It has nontoxic to L02 cells and could protect L02 cells from oxidative damage caused by hydrogen peroxide. This study could provide new ideas for the treatment of diabetes.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Basidiomycota/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/química
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 195: 110439, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182528

RESUMO

The ability of P. laurentii strain RY1 to remediate lead (Pb2+) from water was investigated in batch and column studies. The lead removal ability of non-viable biomass, non-viable biomass immobilised on agar-agar (biobeads) and agar-agar at different pH was compared in batch studies. It was found that among the three, biobeads have maximum ability to remove Pb2+ followed by biomass and agar-agar beads. Maximum and almost equal lead removal by biobeads was observed at both neutral and alkaline pH making it a novel and more applicable bioremediator as all other reported bioremediators have a single pH for optimum activity. Studies were performed to determine the optimum conditions for lead removal from aqueous solutions for biobeads. The physical and chemical characterization of the biobeads before and after Pb2+ biosorption was done by using S.E.M. and F.T.I.R. respectively. The adsorption of Pb2+ on biobeads obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo first order kinetics. These mean that the Pb2+ binding sites are identical, located on the surface of the adsorbant and the rate of Pb2+ removal from aqueous solution is directly proportional to the number of Pb2+ binding sites on the biobeads. The thermodynamics of the biosorption process is also investigated. The binding capacity of the biobeads in batch study was found to be 52.91mg/gm which is higher in comparison to other reported yeast bioremediators. The used biobeads can be desorbed using 0.1(M) CaCl2. The desorbed biobeads can be used subsequently for several cycles of lead removal making it cost-effective. Column studies were also performed for biobeads with the help of Thomas model for examining its suitability for industrial application. Maximum specific lead uptake of the biobeads when applied in the column was found to be 58.26mg/gm which being promising makes it suitable for application in industries involved in the treatment of wastewater contaminated with high amounts of lead. The high mass transfer co-efficient indicate that small sized column can be used effectively to remove high amounts of lead which makes the bioremediation process by the biobeads more economical and advantageous for industrial application. Several factors like effectiveness of the biobeads in Pb2+removal at both neutral and alkaline pH, reusability, high mass transfer co-efficient, regenerability and high binding capacity makes it a novel versatile, cost-effective and high utility bioremediator.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Chumbo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Ágar/química , Sítios de Ligação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Modelos Teóricos , Termodinâmica , Águas Residuárias/química
13.
Food Chem ; 319: 126596, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199145

RESUMO

The collection of wild edible mushrooms for use is an ancient practice. In this study, the elemental concentrations in five mushrooms were compared as a function of species and geographical location. The accumulation of metals from the substrate was found to be species dependent. Mushrooms excluded As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Si, and accumulated elements in the following order: Amanita pantherina (K > Na > Zn > Cu > Mg); Boletus edulis (edible) (K > Cu > Zn > Se > Na > Mg); Boletus mirabilis (edible) (K > Cu > Zn > Na > Mg); Lactarius deliciosus (edible) (K > Zn > Mg); and Russula sardonia (K > Na > Zn > Cu > Mg). Statistical analysis showed soil parameters to affect elemental accumulation by edible mushrooms more than inedible ones, especially for uptake of Se by B. edulis, which was antagonistic with As and Pb in the soil. The results also showed the edible mushrooms to contain proteins (25 - 55%), carbohydrates (34 - 69%), ash (3-6.5%) and lipids (0.8-5.3%).


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Metais/análise , Minerais/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Solo/química , Basidiomycota/química , Bioacumulação , Análise de Alimentos , África do Sul
14.
Cell Biochem Biophys ; 78(1): 111-119, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062829

RESUMO

There are different varieties of mushrooms not yet studied spread all over the planet. The objective of this study was to evaluate biochemical properties and effects on mitochondrial respiration of eight Basidiomycete mushrooms: Flaviporus venustus EF30, Hydnopolyporus fimbriatus EF41 and EF44, Inonotus splitgerberi EF46, Oudemansiella canarii EF72, Perenniporia sp. EF79, Phellinus linteus EF81, and Pleurotus albidus EF84. Total phenols, ABTS, TEAC, FRAP, and ORAC were measured in order to determine the antioxidant capacity. Antimicrobial potential was studied by disc-diffusion and microdilution method. Cytotoxicity was determined in murine peritoneal macrophages. The bioenergetic aspects were evaluated by the uncoupling of the oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondrias. The H. fimbriatus mushroom was the one that presented the most significant results for the antioxidant assays. Three mushrooms presented antimicrobial activity, indicating a potential for formulation of drugs. The results suggest that I. spligerberi has an uncoupling activity, even at the lowest concentration tested, dissipating the mitochondrial electrochemical gradient. On the other hand, P. albidus has effect only on succinate-oxidase activity without influencing mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Therefore, both interfere negatively in mitochondrial respiration. In relation with the cytotoxicity in peritoneal macrophages, O. canarii and F. venustus were cytotoxic in this type of cells.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Macrófagos Peritoneais/citologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fosforilação Oxidativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Succínico/química
15.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023961

RESUMO

Astaxanthin from different sources possesses different biological activities and optical isomers. The ingredients of astaxanthin mixtures from different sources on the market have often been mislabeled. Therefore, it is important to determine the sources of astaxanthin and their respective concentrations in a mixture. To solve this problem, a quantitative analysis model was established and further verified. The results showed that the deviation between the calculated concentration and the actual concentration ranged from 0 to 7 µg/mL, and the recovery rate was between 88.90% and 103.56%. This indicates that the quantitative analysis model of astaxanthin was feasible and reliable. This study not only has important applications in the astaxanthin mixture component determination but may also shed light on the quantitative analysis of other sample mixtures with stereoisomers from different sources.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Clorofíceas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estudos de Viabilidade , Modelos Químicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estereoisomerismo , Xantofilas/análise , Xantofilas/química
16.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012990

RESUMO

Exploration of the effect of soil bacteria on growth and metabolism of beneficial root endophytic fungi is relevant to promote favorable associations between microorganisms of the plant rhizosphere. Hence, the interaction between the plant-growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica and different soil bacteria was investigated. The parameters studied were fungal growth and its amino acid composition during the interaction. Fungus and bacteria were confronted in dual cultures in Petri dishes, either through agar or separated by a Perspex wall that only allowed the bacterial volatiles to be effective. Fungal growth was stimulated by Azotobacter chroococcum, whereas Streptomyces anulatus AcH 1003 inhibited it and Streptomyces sp. Nov AcH 505 had no effect. To analyze amino acid concentration data, targeted metabolomics was implemented under supervised analysis according to fungal-bacteria interaction and time. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model clearly discriminated P. indica-A. chroococcum and P. indica-S. anulatus interactions, according to the respective score plot in comparison to the control. The most observable responses were in the glutamine and alanine size groups: While Streptomyces AcH 1003 increased the amount of glutamine, A. chroococcum decreased it. The fungal growth and the increase of alanine content might be associated with the assimilation of nitrogen in the presence of glucose as a carbon source. The N-fixing bacterium A. chroococcum should stimulate fungal amino acid metabolism via glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GS-GOGAT). The data pointed to a stimulated glycolytic activity in the fungus observed by the accumulation of alanine, possibly via alanine aminotransferase. The responses toward the growth-inhibiting Streptomyces AcH 1003 suggest an (oxidative) stress response of the fungus.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Azotobacter/patogenicidade , Basidiomycota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptomyces/patogenicidade , Basidiomycota/química , Glicólise , Metabolômica , Estresse Oxidativo , Microbiologia do Solo , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013255

RESUMO

The tropical basidiomycete fungus Phellinus linteus (Mesima) exhibits anti-tumor, anti-angiogenic, and immunomodulatory properties in various cancers including prostate, colon, and lung cancer along with melanoma by, for example, inducing apoptosis or cell cycle arrest. However, whether medina also facilitates treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the third global cause of cancer deaths, remains unknown. Here, we examined its potential as a radiosensitizer in HCC radiotherapy using human HCC Hep3B and HepG2 cell lines and xenograft tumors. Mesima pretreatment significantly enhanced HCC cell radiosensitivity in vitro and the combination of mesima + radiation treatment significantly reduced xenograft tumor growth and size in vivo compared to those with single treatments. Mechanistically, mesima significantly enhanced radiotherapy efficiency by inhibiting tumor cell survival through inducing apoptosis (assessed via annexin V), impairing cell cycle regulation (shown by flow cytometry), and reducing radiation-induced DNA damage repair (measured via γ-H2AX foci). Combination treatment also facilitated autophagic cell death beyond that from single treatments (assessed by quantifying stained acidic vesicular organelles), and diminished tumor cell metastatic potentials (shown by wound and Transwell assays). These findings support the synergistic anti-tumor effects of mesima combined with radiation and suggest scientific evidence for mesima as a radiosensitizer in HCC.


Assuntos
Morte Celular Autofágica , Basidiomycota/química , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Animais , Morte Celular Autofágica/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular Autofágica/efeitos da radiação , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Radiossensibilizantes/química , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(8): 8467-8480, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902077

RESUMO

The native state of lignocellulosic biomass is highly resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis and the fermentation process of biofuel production. Brown-rot fungi use an extracellular Fenton system to degrade lignocellulosic biomass in the initial stages of decay. In this work, the combined effects of Mn2+, Fe2+, and NO3- inducers were evaluated based on the activities of hydrolytic enzymes and Fe3+ reduction as well as the catechol-type compound production during wheat straw pretreatment by the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. Weight loss and chemical changes were evaluated to establish the culture conditions for stimulating wheat straw degradation using a central composite design. The results showed that weight loss and the Fe3+-reducing activity were promoted at the highest concentrations of Fe2+. A positive effect on catechol compound production by the addition of Mn2+ and NO3- was observed. Cellulase activity was increased at the highest concentration of NO3-. The multiple optimizations of G. trabeum culture conditions in wheat straw resulted in 11.3% weight loss and 0.47 total crystallinity index at 0.24 M NO3-, 0.95 mM Fe2+, and 0.85 mM Mn2+ after 40 days. The wheat straw pretreatment by G. trabeum for 10 days increased glucose recovery. The results indicated that the wheat straw pretreatment using G. trabeum with biodegradation inducers could be a complementary step to physicochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for production of second-generation ethanol.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Etanol/química , Triticum , Basidiomycota/química , Hidrólise , Lignina , Triticum/química
19.
Mol Med Rep ; 21(3): 1107-1114, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894337

RESUMO

Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) is considered to be the main phenolic component of Phellinus gilvus responsible for its anticancer properties. Previous studies have demonstrated that PCA can have an anticancer effect on multiple cancer types, but little is known about the effect of PCA on melanoma cells. The present study investigated the inhibitory abilities and potential anticancer mechanisms of PCA on B16­F10 cells using MTT assay. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle were assessed by flow cytometry using Annexin V­FITC and propidium iodide staining. Whole­transcriptome analysis was used to investigate the effects of PCA on gene expression. PCA significantly decreased cell viability, induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and promoted apoptosis of B16­F10 cells, suggesting that PCA could have anticancer effects against melanoma cells. Whole­transcriptome analysis indicated that PCA treatment upregulated genes involved in histone modification and decreased the transcription of genes involved in DNA repair and replication. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis showed that PCA treatment enhanced the complement and coagulation cascades, and the p53 signaling pathway. The present results indicated that PCA could act as an antitumor agent in melanoma cells, which may provide experimental support for the development of novel therapies to treat melanoma.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Basidiomycota/química , Benzaldeídos/farmacologia , Catecóis/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fase G1/efeitos dos fármacos , Fase de Repouso do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Benzaldeídos/química , Catecóis/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
20.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(4): 319-328, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793393

RESUMO

The content of Al, As, Be, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn in fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms Calocybe gambosa, Entoloma clypeatum, Entoloma saepium, Xerocomellus chrysenteron, and Amanita rubescens growing in an orchard planted with fruit trees and situated close to a high-grown forest was studied during years 2016-2018. A. rubescens showed the highest potential of the element accumulation with bioconcentration factors of 48.5, 16.2, 7.80, 6.53, 1.75, and 1.68 obtained for Rb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Sr, and Mg, respectively. Both Entoloma species accumulated the elements similarly with bioconcentration factors >1.0 obtained for Rb, Cu, Cd, and Mg. Bioconcentration factors <0.05 were obtained for Al, Cr, Fe, and Pb in all studied species. The contents of beryllium (<0.1 mg/kg dry matter) were always the lowest among the studied elements. The contents of some elements of studied mushroom species significantly fluctuated over the years. Despite the fact that some studied elements (As, Be, Cd, Pb, Ni) are considerably toxic for humans, the pronounced effect on health is not expected if the studied mushroom species are consumed occasionally and do not represent the main component of the diet.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Metais/análise , Agaricales/química , República Tcheca , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
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