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1.
Clin Oral Investig ; 25(1): 55-65, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367991

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The German Society of Craniomandibular Function and Disorders recommends that patients suffering from temporomandibular dysfunctions should practice sports in order to compensate for everyday stress. This raises the question as to what extent competitive athletes develop temporomandibular dysfunctions or whether their athletic activities protect them. With the present literature review, the authors intend to give an overview of the currently available publications on this topic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature research in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases was performed to filter out the currently available publications on the topic 'sports, and temporomandibular dysfunction. RESULTS: Out of 114 available articles, seven met the inclusion criteria. Two other relevant articles were found in the list of references, so that in total, nine publications were picked for the review. In case numbers ranging from eight to 347 subjects, a temporomandibular dysfunction was detected with a prevalence between 11.7% and 100% for athletes and between 11.11% and 14.3% for non-athletes. Different kinds of sports were evaluated, all of them contact sports: basketball, handball, wrestling, boxing, karate, mixed martial arts, field hockey, water polo, and soccer. One study compared athletes with and without consumption of anabolic steroids, regardless of the type of sport. The level of athletic performance varied across the different studies. CONCLUSIONS: Currently, studies dealing with the effect of competitive sports on temporomandibular dysfunction are scarce. Inconsistent methodological procedures permit only limited comparability. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A general trend, however, can already be discerned: professional athletes suffer from temporomandibular dysfunctions more frequently than non-athletes.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Basquetebol , Hóquei , Artes Marciais , Futebol , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Humanos
2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21827, 2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311539

RESUMO

On March 11th, 2020, the National Basketball Association (NBA) paused its season after ~ 64 games due to the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, only to resume ~ 5 months later with the top 22 teams isolated together (known as the "bubble") in Orlando, Florida to play eight games each as an end to the regular season. This restart, with no new travel by teams, provided a natural experiment whereby the impact of travel and home-court advantage could be systematically examined. We show here that in the pre-COVID-19 regular season, traveling across time zones reduces winning percentage, team shooting accuracy, and turnover percentage, whereas traveling in general reduces offensive rebounding and increases the number of points the opposing (home) team scores. Moreover, we demonstrate that competition in a scenario where no teams travel (restart bubble) reduces the typical effects of travel and home-court advantage on winning percentage, shooting accuracy, and rebounding. Thus, home-court advantage in professional basketball appears to be linked with the away team's impaired shooting accuracy (i.e., movement precision) and rebounding, which may be separately influenced by either circadian disruption or the general effect of travel, as these differences manifest differently when teams travel within or across multiple time zones.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Basquetebol , Ritmo Circadiano , Meio Social , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143006

RESUMO

This study evaluates the anatomical profiles, jump, sprint, power outputs, endurance, and peak blood lactate levels ([LA]peak) of handball players of two age groups-U17 (n = 77) and U19 (n = 46)-and analyses the role of training in their physical abilities. Vertical jump performance was determined by counter movement jump (CMJ) and counter movement jump with free arms (CMJFA) tests. A running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) determined the relative power output (watts/kg body weight) and absolute power output (watts) of the players. Sprint performance over 5 m, 10 m, and 30 m distances was evaluated. An incremental shuttle run test (40 m) was designed to determine aerobic threshold (AeT), anaerobic threshold (AnT), and [LA]peak. All parameters were measured for pivots, wingers, backs, and goalkeepers of each group. The U19 players were significantly heavier than the U17 group, but both the groups were nearly equal in height. The U19 group jumped higher than the U17 members, although the only significant difference (p = 0.032) was observed between the wingers of the groups in CMJ. Sprint performance varied marginally between the groups and only U19 pivots were found to be significantly (for distances of 5, 10, and 30 m: p = 0.047, p = 0.018, and p = 0.021, respectively) faster than U17 pivots. No difference in relative power output between the groups was noted, although the U19 players recorded higher absolute power outputs. Maximal velocity and velocities at the AeT and AnT were almost similar in the groups. Distance covered by the groups at the intensities of AeT and AnT varied only little. Higher [LA]peak was observed in the U19 players. U19 players failed to convert their superior power into speed and jump. The training pattern of the handball players needs to be revised so that U19 players may develop faster and be more enduring than the U17 group.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Basquetebol/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Limiar Anaeróbio , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Movimento , Instituições Acadêmicas
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143120

RESUMO

Basketball is a sport in which, beyond the physical and technical skills, the psychological aspects are a decisive factor and could negatively affect the well-being of the player. The present study analyzes how 11 items belonging to two stakeholders (coach and player) could negatively affect the well-being of the athlete. A sample of elite young basketball players (n = 121) consisting of 55 males and 66 females, ranging in age from 16 to 23 (M = 20.12 ± 1.71), completed the Negative Factors Affecting Players' Well-being (NFAPW) Questionnaire. This questionnaire was designed ad hoc and demonstrated good psychometric properties that confirmed that it is a valid and reliable instrument to measure how those factors negatively affect their well-being. The results showed that females have a greater perception of the factors that negatively affect their well-being, especially those related to the actions of the coach. However, no differences were found regarding the experience. Although this research provides an initial tool for measuring the well-being of the player during competition, future studies are encouraged to provide guidance to the coaches and players in dealing with the psychological variables in a better way.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Basquetebol/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057347

RESUMO

In invasion team sports, scoring efficiency depends on the ability to create scoring opportunities and to convert them into goals or points. Scoring performance varies across sports and comparisons among them are little. In this paper we compare creation and conversion of scoring opportunities in different team sports and genders. Box-score data from six sports [basketball, handball, water polo, field hockey, football, ice hockey] (328 teams, 5723 games, both genders) were standardized by "per ball possession". We applied Bayesian methods to compute the posterior distributions of shots per possession (SHTpPOS), points per shot (PTSpSHT) and points per possession (PTSpPOS). We evaluated differences for these three variables among sports, between genders and the correlation between every pair of them. Inter-sports evaluation evidenced basketball, handball, ice hockey and water polo are sports with a high probability of creating shots (SHTpPOS-p(robability) > 0.65). Complementary, ice hockey, field hockey and football are sports with a low probability of converting shots (PTSpSHT-0.05 < p < 0.26). Despite the distinct results among sports for creating and converting opportunities, all sports in both genders, converged to a scoring efficiency (PTSpPOS) below 0.5. In the genders' comparison, men are more efficient in creating opportunities than women, except in water polo. For scoring efficiency, differences between men and women are fewer. Results prevent generalization about differences in scoring efficiency between genders. Finally, creation and conversion have low correlation in sports with high shot creation probabilities (basketball and ice hockey). In these sports, scoring is not limited by the number of shots taken but rather by their accuracy. For sports with low shot creation probabilities (soccer and men field hockey), creation and conversion presented higher correlation. Evidences contribute to increase coaches' understanding about scoring tactics' challenges in team sports and design practices accordingly.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Esportes , Adulto , Basquetebol , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Hóquei , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947980

RESUMO

There are about 466 million people with hearing impairments in the world. The scientific literature does not provide sufficient data on the actual nutrition and other variables of professional deaf athletes. The objectives of this study were to investigate and evaluate the body composition, the physical working capacity, the nutrition intake, and the blood parameters of iron and vitamin D in the Lithuanian high-performance deaf women's basketball team players. The female athletes (n = 14) of the Lithuanian deaf basketball team aged 26.4 ± 4.5 years were recruited for an observational cross-sectional study. A 7-day food recall survey method was used to investigate their actual diet. The measurements of the body composition were performed using the BIA (bioelectrical impedance analysis) tetra-polar electrodes. In order to assess the cardiorespiratory and aerobic fitness levels of athletes, ergo-spirometry (on a cycle ergometer) was used to measure the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and the physical working capacity at a heart rate of 170 beats per minute (PWC170). The athletes' blood tests were taken to investigate the red blood cells, hemoglobin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ferritin, transferrin, iron concentrations, and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC). The consideration of the VO2peak (55.9 ± 6.1 mL/min/kg of body weight, 95% CI: 51.8, 58.9) and the low VO2peak (56-60 mL/min/kg of body weight) (p = 0.966) in the deaf women's basketball team players revealed no differences. For the deaf female athletes, the PWC170 was equal to 20.3 ± 2.0 kgm/min/kg of body weight and represented only the average aerobic fitness level. The carbohydrate and protein intakes (5.0 ± 1.3 and 1.3 ± 0.3 g/kg of body weight, respectively) met only the minimum levels recommended for athletes. The fat content of the diet (38.1 ± 4.1% of energy intake) exceeded the maximum recommended content (35% of energy intake) (p = 0.012). The mean blood serum concentrations of 25(OH)D and ferritin (24.1 ± 6.6 nmol/L and 11.0 ± 4.1 µg/L, respectively) predicted vitamin D and iron deficits in athletes. Female athletes had an increased risk of vitamin D and iron deficiencies. Regardless of iron deficiency in the body, the better cardiorespiratory fitness of the deaf female athletes was essentially correlated with the higher skeletal muscle mass (in terms of size) (r = 0.61, p = 0.023), the lower percentage of body fat mass (r = -0.53, p = 0.049), and the reduced intake of fat (r = -0.57, p = 0.040).


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Dieta , Adulto , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887399

RESUMO

Previous research has demonstrated large amounts of inter-subject variability in downward (unweighting & braking) phase strategies in the countermovement jump (CMJ). The purpose of this study was to characterize downward phase strategies and associated temporal, kinematic and kinetic CMJ variables. One hundred and seventy-eight NBA (National Basketball Association) players (23.6 ± 3.7 years, 200.3 ± 8.0 cm; 99.4 ± 11.7 kg; CMJ height 68.7 ± 7.4 cm) performed three maximal CMJs. Force plate and 3D motion capture data were integrated to obtain kinematic and kinetic outputs. Afterwards, athletes were split into clusters based on downward phase characteristics (k-means cluster analysis). Lower limb joint angular displacement (i.e., delta flexion) explained the highest portion of point variability (89.3%), and three clusters were recommended (Ball Hall Index). Delta flexion was significantly different between clusters and players were characterized as "stiff flexors", "hyper flexors", or "hip flexors". There were no significant differences in jump height between clusters (p > 0.05). Multiple regression analyses indicated that most of the jumping height variance was explained by the same four variables, (i.e., sum concentric relative force, knee extension velocity, knee extension acceleration, and height) regardless of the cluster (p < 0.05). However, each cluster had its own unique set of secondary predictor variables.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Articulação do Joelho , Movimento , Adulto , Basquetebol/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899368

RESUMO

The present study examined the influence of a customized mouthguard on body alignment and balance performance in professional basketball players. Twenty-three professional male basketball players, aged 25.8 ± 8.6 years old, were voluntarily assigned to participate in three treatments, including no treatment (no mouthguard), acute treatment (wearing a mouthguard), and repeated treatments (8 weeks follow-up). Body alignment status, such as spinal and pelvic posture and balance performance, were measured at each time point using a 3D Formetric III (Germany) and a postural control device (Posturomed 202, Germany), respectively. A repeated MANOVA analysis with a Bonferroni post hoc test was applied, and the adjusted p-value was set at 0.02. No significant treatment effect was observed in body alignment (p = 0.302). However, univariate analysis showed a significant difference in pelvic torsion, where it was decreased after acute and repeated mouthguard treatments compared to no treatment (p < 0.001). Kyphotic angle also increased significantly following 8 weeks of treatment compared to no treatment (p < 0.001) and acute treatment (p < 0.002). There was a significant treatment effect on balance performance (p < 0.001). Both static and dynamic balance performance improved following 8 weeks of treatment (p < 0.001). Our study revealed that a customized mouthguard provides a benefit to balance performance. Notably, repeated treatment impacts on balance performance more than acute treatment. Although our findings did not show a significant effect on body alignment, some positive results, such as pelvic torsion and kyphotic angle, may provide substantial information for developing future longitudinal studies with large sample sizes.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Protetores Bucais , Equilíbrio Postural , Adolescente , Adulto , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Coluna Vertebral , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927841

RESUMO

A study was made to initially evaluate whether the age category directly could influence anthropometric measurements, functional movement tests, linear sprint (30 m) and strength. Moreover, and as the main purpose, this study aimed to examine the relationship between the time execution and angles in different changes of direction (COD) test with the analyzed sport performance variables. A total sample of 23 basketball players (age: 17.5 ± 2.42 years; height: 184.6 ± 6.68 cm; body weight: 78.09 ± 11.9 kg). Between-groups' comparison explored the differences between basketball categories (Junior, n = 12; Senior, n = 11). The COD variables were divided by the time execution into low responders (LR) and high responders (HR) to establish comparisons between groups related to COD time execution. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to establish correlations between different CODs and sport performance variables. The results showed a greater influence of age category upon COD performance, especially when the cutting angle was sharper (7.05% [Confidence limits (CL) 90%: 2.33; 11.99]; Quantitative chances (QC) 0/2/98), in which athletes need greater application of strength. Moreover, the sharper the angle or the larger the number of cuts made, the greater the relationship with the vertical force-velocity profile (-42.39 [CL 90%: -57.37; -22.16]; QC 100/0/0%). Thus, the usefulness of the f-v profile to implement training programs that optimize the f-v imbalance and the improvement of the COD performance in basketball players is suggested.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético , Basquetebol , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238318, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881901

RESUMO

Knowledge on neural processing during complex non-stationary motion sequences of sport-specific movements still remains elusive. Hence, we aimed at investigating hemodynamic response alterations during a basketball slalom dribbling task (BSDT) using multi-distance functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in 23 participants (12 females). Additionally, we quantified how the brain adapts its processing as a function of altered hand use (dominant right hand (DH) vs. non-dominant left hand (NDH) vs. alternating hands (AH)) and pace of execution (slow vs. fast) in BSDT. We found that BSDT activated bilateral premotor cortex (PMC), supplementary motor cortex (SMA), primary motor cortex (M1) as well as inferior parietal cortex and somatosensory association cortex. Slow dominant hand dribbling (DHslow) evoked lower contralateral hemodynamic responses in sensorimotor regions compared to fast dribbling (DHfast). Furthermore, during DHslow dribbling, we found lower hemodynamic responses in ipsilateral M1 as compared to dribbling with alternating hands (AHslow). Hence, altered task complexity during BSDT induced differential hemodynamic response patterns. Furthermore, a correlation analysis revealed that lower levels of perceived task complexity are associated with lower hemodynamic responses in ipsilateral PMC-SMA, which is an indicator for neuronal efficiency in participants with better basketball dribbling skills. The present study extends previous findings by showing that varying levels of task complexity are reflected by specific hemodynamic response alterations even during sports-relevant motor behavior. Taken together, we suggest that quantifying brain activation during complex movements is a prerequisite for assessing brain-behavior relations and optimizing motor performance.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica , Adulto , Basquetebol , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Hemoglobinas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 857-862, Aug. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124866

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The aim of this research was to determine the differences among the female basketball players of the National team of Ukraine and the National team of Montenegro, in terms of their anthropometric characteristics and body composition. A sample of 27 subjects was divided into two sub-samples. The first sub-sample of the subjects consisted of 13 players of the National team of Ukraine, of the average age 24.92±4.09, while the other sub-sample consisted of 14 players of National team of Montenegro, based on the average age of 22.36±4.14. All players were tested in Podgorica, in lasting period of two days, while they held preparations for the European Championship, one month before the start of the Championship. Anthropometric characteristics in the body composition were evaluated by a battery of eleven variables: body height (cm), body weight (kg), triceps skinfold, back skinfold, biceps skinfold, abdominal skinfold, thighs skinfold, calf skinfold, body mass index (BMI), percentage of fat and muscle mass (kg). Differences in anthropometric characteristic and composition of the body of the female basketball players of two national teams, Ukraine and Montenegro, were determined by using a discriminatory parametric procedure with t-test for small independent samples. It was found that the basketball players of Montenegro are slightly lower and have more body mass. Also, there are significant statistical differences by 3 variables that estimate the abdominal skinfold, calf skinfold and fat percentage, in favor of the National team of Ukraine.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar las diferencias entre las jugadoras de baloncesto del equipo nacional de Ucrania y el equipo nacional de Montenegro, en términos de sus características antropométricas y composición corporal. Una muestra de 27 sujetos se dividió en dos submuestras. La primera submuestra de las jugadoras consistió en 13 miembros del equipo nacional de Ucrania, con una edad promedio de 24,92 ± 4,09, mientras que la segunda submuestra consistió en 14 jugadoras del equipo nacional de Montenegro, con una edad promedio de 22,36 ± 4,14. Todas las jugadoras fueron evaluadas en Podgorica, durante dos días, mientras realizaban los preparativos para el Campeonato de Europa, un mes antes de su comienzo. Las características antropométricas en la composición corporal se evaluaron mediante once variables: altura corporal (cm), peso corporal (kg), pliegue de tríceps, pliegue de espalda, pliegue de bíceps, pliegue abdominal, pliegue de muslos, pliegue de pantorrilla, índice de masa corporal (IMC) porcentaje de grasa y masa muscular (kg). Las diferencias en las características antropométricas y la composición del cuerpo de las jugadoras de baloncesto de dos equipos nacionales, Ucrania y Montenegro, se determinaron mediante el uso de un procedimiento paramétrico discriminatorio con prueba t para pequeñas muestras independientes. Se descubrió que las jugadoras de baloncesto de Montenegro son ligeramente más bajas y tienen más masa corporal. Además, existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre 3 variables que analizan el pliegue cutáneo abdominal, el pliegue cutáneo de la pantorrilla y el porcentaje de grasa, a favor del equipo nacional de Ucrania.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Composição Corporal , Basquetebol , Antropometria
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841258

RESUMO

Adjusted plus minus (APM) measures have redefined our understanding of player value in basketball and hockey, where both are team games featuring player productivity spillovers. APM measures use seasonal play-by-play data to estimate individual player contributions. If a team's overall score margin success is figuratively represented by a pie, APM measures are well-designed to slice the pie and attribute individual contributions accordingly. However, they do not account for the possibility that better players can increase the overall size of the pie and thus increase the size of the slice (overall APM value) for teammates. Herein, we use data from NBA player-season Real Plus Minus (RPM)-a leading APM measure-for all recorded player-seasons from 2013-19 and player lineup data to test whether RPM is related to teammate quality. We run sets of linear fixed effect regression models to explain variation in RPM across player-seasons. We also employ a two-stage least square (2-SLS) method for robustness check. Both empirical approaches address potential endogeneity in the relationship of interest. We find strong evidence that RPM is related to on-court teammate quality. Despite adjusting for teammate and opponent quality, RPM does not control for complementarity effects. As such, RPM is not suited for out-of-sample prediction.


Assuntos
Atletas , Basquetebol , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806539

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify regional differences based on playing position in terms of the technical performances among FIBA Female Continental Basketball Championships by controlling the influence of situational variables including the game outcome, game type, teams and opponent quality. The samples comprised of 9208 performance records from 471 games in the America, Africa, Asia and Europe Championships during 2013-2017 and were collected and analyzed by generalized mixed linear modeling. Our study highlighted that, although positional differences were clear among different continental championships, it is worth noting that African guards, forwards, and centers made more turnovers (TOV) compared with the corresponding positional players from other continental championships. In addition, European guards presented the lowest number of steals (STL) compared with African (ES = 0.28), Asian (ES = 0.21), and American guards (ES = 0.24). The results provide coaches to have a better understanding of game-play styles among FIBA Female Continental Basketball Competitions, which could optimize the development of female basketball and the selection and recruitment of female players at the international level.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Basquetebol , África , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825414

RESUMO

Acute or intense exercise is sometimes related to infections of the urinary tract. It can also lead to incorrect hydration as well as incorrect glomerular filtration due to the presence of high-molecular-weight proteins that cause damage to the kidneys. In this context, our study lays the foundations for the use of a urine test in a team of twelve male basketball players as a means of monitoring numerous biochemical parameters, including pH, specific weight, color, appearance, presence of bacterial cells, presence of squamous cells, leukocytes, erythrocytes, proteins, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, hemoglobin, nitrite, and leukocyte esterase, to prevent and/or treat the onset of pathologies, prescribe personalized treatments for each athlete, and monitor the athletes' health status.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Biomarcadores , Nível de Saúde , Atletas , Biomarcadores/urina , Humanos , Masculino
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236643, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841239

RESUMO

Accelerometry is a recent method used to quantify workload in team sports. A rapidly increasing number of studies supports the practical implementation of accelerometry monitoring to regulate and optimize training schemes. Therefore, the purposes of this study were: (1) to reflect the current state of knowledge about accelerometry as a method of workload monitoring in invasion team sports according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and (2) to conclude recommendations for application and scientific investigations. The Web of Science, PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for relevant published studies according to the following keywords: "accelerometry" or "accelerometer" or "microtechnology" or "inertial devices", and "load" or "workload", and "sport". Of the 1383 studies initially identified, 118 were selected for a full review. The main results indicate that the most frequent findings were (i) devices' body location: scapulae; (b) devices brand: Catapult Sports; (iii) variables: PlayerLoadTM and its variations; (iv) sports: rugby, Australian football, soccer and basketball; (v) sex: male; (vi) competition level: professional and elite; and (vii) context: separate training or competition. A great number of variables and devices from various companies make the comparability between findings difficult; unification is required. Although the most common location is at scapulae because of its optimal signal reception for time-motion analysis, new methods for multi-location skills and locomotion assessment without losing tracking accuracy should be developed.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Desempenho Atlético , Basquetebol , Futebol Americano , Futebol , Carga de Trabalho , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Microtecnologia
16.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 123, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761271

RESUMO

Basketball athletes possess a higher bone mineral density (BMD) than matched non-athletes and swimming, soccer, and volleyball athletes. Differences appear to be exacerbated with continued training and competition beyond adolescence. The greater BMD in basketball athletes compared to non-athletes, swimming, and soccer athletes is more pronounced in males than females. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine differences in total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) between basketball athletes, non-athletes, and athletes competing in swimming, soccer, and volleyball, considering age and sex. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, Google Scholar, and Science Direct were searched. Included studies consisted of basketball players and at least one group of non-athletes, swimming, soccer, or volleyball athletes. BMD data were meta-analyzed. Cohen's d effect sizes [95% confidence intervals (CI)] were interpreted as: trivial ≤ 0.20, small = 0.20-0.59, moderate = 0.60-1.19, large = 1.20-1.99, and very large ≥ 2.00. RESULTS: Basketball athletes exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher BMD compared to non-athletes (small-moderate effect in total-body: d = 1.06, CI 0.55, 1.56; spine: d = 0.67, CI 0.40, 0.93; lumbar spine: d = 0.96, CI 0.57, 1.35; upper limbs: d = 0.70, CI 0.29, 1.10; lower limbs: d = 1.14, CI 0.60, 1.68; pelvis: d = 1.16, CI 0.05, 2.26; trunk: d = 1.00, CI 0.65, 1.35; and femoral neck: d = 0.57, CI 0.16, 0.99), swimming athletes (moderate-very large effect in total-body: d = 1.33, CI 0.59, 2.08; spine: d = 1.04, CI 0.60, 1.48; upper limbs: d = 1.19, CI 0.16, 2.22; lower limbs: d = 2.76, CI 1.45, 4.06; pelvis d = 1.72, CI 0.63, 2.81; and trunk: d = 1.61, CI 1.19, 2.04), soccer athletes (small effect in total-body: d = 0.58, CI 0.18, 0.97), and volleyball athletes (small effect in total-body: d = 0.32, CI 0.00, 0.65; and pelvis: d = 0.48, CI 0.07, 0.88). Differences in total and regional BMD between groups increased with age and appeared greater in males than in females. CONCLUSION: Basketball athletes exhibit a greater BMD compared to non-athletes, as well as athletes involved in swimming, soccer, and volleyball.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Densidade Óssea , Futebol , Voleibol , Adolescente , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Natação
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784740

RESUMO

The FIBA Basketball World Cup is one of the most prominent sporting competitions for men's basketball, with coaches interested in key performance indicators (KPIs) that give a better understanding of basketball competitions. The aims of the study were to (1) examine the relationship between match KPIs and outcome in elite men's basketball; and (2) identify the most suitable analysis (multiple linear regression (MLR) vs. quantile regression (QR)) to model this relationship during the men's basketball tournament. A total of 184 performance records from 92 games were selected and analyzed via MLR and QR, using 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th quantiles. Several offensive (Paint Score, Mid-Range Score, Three-Point Score, Offensive Rebounds and Turnovers) and defensive (Defensive Rebounds, Steals and Personal Fouls) KPIs were associated with match outcome. The QR model identified additional KPIs that influenced match outcome than the MLR model, with these being Mid-Range Score at the 10th quantile and Offensive Rebounds at the 90th quantile. In terms of contextual variables, the quality of opponent had no impact on match outcome across the entire range of quantiles. Our results highlight QR modelling as a potentially superior tool for performance analysts and coaches to design and monitor technical-tactical plans during match-play. Our study has identified the KPIs contributing to match success at the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup with QR modelling assisting with a more detailed performance analysis, to support coaches with the optimization of training and match-play styles.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Basquetebol , Futebol , Logro , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751559

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to examine the differences in game-related statistics between national and foreign female basketball players in the Women's EuroLeague, according to playing positions and team ability. The official box-scores of 112 games from the 2016-2017 season of the Women's EuroLeague (FIBA) were examined. Players were categorised based upon country of nationality versus competition (i.e., foreign or national), playing positions (i.e., Guards, Forwards, Centers), and team ability (i.e., four groups using a cluster of k-means analysis according to the winning percentage of each team during the competition). A structural coefficient (SC) above |0.30| was used to identify the variables that best differentiated the national and foreign players. Results showed that foreign players had a better performance according to team ability and playing position for most of the performance indicators, with higher values for minutes played, percentage of successful 2-point field-goals, percentage of successful free-throws, and percentage of assists. Moreover, foreign players performed better in variables associated with offensive situations, while national players were prevailing with indicators associated with defensive actions. These results have highlighted the unique contributions of foreign and national players, based upon playing position and team ability, to team success in the Euroleague. This information will assist the recruitment process of national and foreign athletes for coaches to develop successful elite female basketball teams.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Basquetebol , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade
19.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 20(3): 82-94, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193543

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify short-term effects in basketball players' physical responses, technical performance, and tactical behaviour when the court dimension is increased 1-m wide to each side. Fourteen youth players participated in 5 vs. 5 simulated basketball games, under two different conditions: regular court (28x15m) and wider court (28x17m, 1-m wider for each side). Besides the assessment of physical and technical indicators, positional data were also used to compute the following variables: distance to the nearest opponent, distance to the nearest teammate, stretch-index and distance between centroids. Results indicated that in the wider court condition, the dispersion of player's displacement trajectories during the offensive phase increased, which had slight repercussions on their physical responses and in the teams' playing patterns. Conversely, during the defensive phase, players tended to move within the regular spatial references, regardless of court width manipulation. Overall, this study emphasizes that short-term effects of changing the court dimensions are relatively negligible, suggesting that informational constraints might require longer time-scales to yield robust changes in players' performance


El propósito de este estudio fue identificar los efectos a corto plazo en las respuestas físicas, técnicas y tácticas de jóvenes jugadores de baloncesto cuando la dimensión de la cancha aumenta 1-m de ancho en cada lado. Catorce jugadores jóvenes participaron en juegos simulados de baloncesto de 5 vs. 5, en dos condiciones diferentes: cancha regular (28x15m) y cancha más amplia (28x17m, 1-m de ancho a cada lado). Además de la evaluación de los indicadores físicos y técnicos, también se utilizaron datos de posición para calcular las siguientes variables: distancia al oponente más cercano, distancia al compañero de equipo más cercano, coeficiente de dispersión del equipo y distancia entre los centroides de los equipos. Los resultados indicaron que, en la condición de cancha más amplia, la dispersión de las trayectorias de movimiento de los jugadores durante la fase ofensiva aumentó, lo que tuvo ligeras repercusiones en sus respuestas físicas y en los patrones de juego de los equipos. En contrapartida, durante la fase defensiva, los jugadores tienden a moverse dentro de las referencias espaciales regulares, independientemente de la manipulación del ancho de la cancha. En general, este estudio enfatiza que los efectos a corto plazo de cambiar las dimensiones de la cancha son relativamente ligeros, lo que sugiere que las restricciones informativas pueden requerir bastante más tiempo para producir cambios concretos en el rendimiento de los jugadores


Este estudo teve como objectivo identificar os efeitos a curto prazo na performance física, técnica e tática de jovens jogadores de basquetebol, quando a largura do campo é aumentada 1-m para cada lado. Catorze jovens jogadores participaram em jogos simulados de 5 vs. 5, em dois contextos distintos: campo regular (28x17m) e campo amplo (28x17m, 1-m mais largo para ambos os lados). Paralelamente à avaliação de indicadores físicos e técnicos, foram também recolhidos dados posicionais, com o intuito de calcular as seguintes variáveis: distância ao oponente mais próximo, distância ao companheiro de equipa mais próximo, coeficiente de dispersão da equipa e distancia entre os centroides das equipas. Os resultados demonstraram que no contexto de campo amplo, a dispersão das trajetórias de movimento dos jogadores aumentou durante a fase ofensiva, o que acarretou ligeiras repercussões nos perfis físicos e nos padrões de jogo das equipas. Em contrapartida, durante a fase defensiva, os jogadores tendem a mover-se dentro dos referenciais espaciais, independentemente da manipulação do tamanho do campo. No geral, este estudo realçou que os efeitos a curto prazo de alterar as dimensões do campo são pouco expressivos, o que sugere que os constrangimentos de informação podem requerer substancialmente mais tempo para produzir alterações concretas no rendimento dos jogadores


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Basquetebol/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/estatística & dados numéricos , Provas de Rendimento/métodos , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
20.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 20(3): 95-108, jul. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193544

RESUMO

El objetivo fue determinar si la técnica de tiro libre ejecutada por jugadores de baloncesto de entre 9 y 11 años no participantes en ninguna selección autonómica y nacional coincidió con la técnica reportada por la literatura y estudios previos. El trabajo se realizó diferenciando la técnica de tiro antes de la salida y a la salida del balón. Participaron 12 jugadores varones de entre 9 y 11 años (M = 10,43, DT = ,63) que nunca habían participado en ninguna selección autonómica ni nacional. Se utilizó la metodología observacional a través de un diseño puntual/nomotético/multidimensional. Se grabó a los jugadores realizando un test que constaba de 10 tiros libres. Posteriormente, dos observadores observaron la ejecución técnica de cada uno de los tiros realizados por los jugadores. Se realizó la detección de t-patterns mediante el software Theme V.6 EDU. No se detectó ningún t-pattern antes de la salida del balón ni a la salida debido a que los tiros se realizaron siguiendo conductas muy dispares, que no se repitieron de forma regular en el tiempo. En el presente trabajo se utilizó un instrumento de observación que permitió la obtención de información directamente aplicable a la realidad diferenciando lo que ocurre antes de la salida del balón y a la salida del mismo. Se comprobó que los jugadores analizados, los cuales no jugaban en ninguna selección, ejecutaron una técnica de tiro que contrastaba en varios criterios con las recomendaciones propuestas por la literatura y estudios previos


The purpose was to determine whether the free throw technique of under-12 basketball players, who did not participated in any regional and national team, was similar to the technique reported by the literature and previous studies. The analysis differentiated prior to shoot and at ball release moments. Participant were 12 male players between 9 and 11 years old (M = 10.43, SD =, 63) who had never participated in any regional and national team. The observational methodology was used through a point/nomothetic/multidimensional design. The players were recorded performing a test consisting of 10 free throws. Two observers observed the technical execution of each of the shots made by the players. T-patterns were detected using Theme V.6 EDU software. Neither prior to ball release nor at ball release t-patterns were detected because the free throws followed very different behaviours, which were not repeated regularly over time. In the present work, an observation instrument was used that allowed obtaining information directly applicable to reality, differentiating between the free throw technique prior to shoot and at ball release moments. The analysed players, who did not play in any regional and national team, executed a free throw technique that contrasted in several criteria with the literature and previous studies recommendations


O objetivo foi determinar se a técnica do tiro livre executada por jogadores de basquete entre 9 e 11 anos de idade que não participavam de nenhuma seleção regional e nacional coincidia com a técnica relatada na literatura e em estudos anteriores. O trabalho foi realizado diferenciando a técnica do chute antes do início e do início da bola. Participaram 12 jogadores do sexo masculino entre 9 e 11 anos (M = 10,43, DT =, 63) que nunca haviam participado de nenhuma equipe regional ou nacional. A metodologia observacional foi utilizada através de um desenho pontual/nomotético/multidimensional. Os jogadores foram gravados realizando um teste composto por 10 chutes da linha de lance livre. Posteriormente, dois observadores observaram a execução técnica de cada um dos tiros feitos pelos jogadores. Os t-patterns foram detectados usando o software Theme V.6 EDU. Nenhum t-patterns foi detectado antes do início da bola ou no início, porque os chutes foram feitos seguindo comportamentos muito diferentes, que não foram repetidos regularmente ao longo do tempo. No presente trabalho, foi utilizado um instrumento de observação que permitiu obter informações diretamente aplicáveis à realidade, diferenciando o que ocorre antes da saída da bola e da saída da bola. Verificou-se que os jogadores analisados, que não jogaram em nenhuma seleção, executaram uma técnica de chute que contrasta em vários critérios com as recomendações propostas pela literatura e estudos anteriores


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Basquetebol/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Atlético/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Esportes Juvenis/estatística & dados numéricos
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