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1.
Gene ; 741: 144547, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165299

RESUMO

Acclimation to low salinities is a vital physiological challenge for euryhaline fish as the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. This species undertakes seasonal migrations towards lagoons and estuaries where a wide range of salinity variations occur along the year. We have previously reported intraspecific differences in freshwater tolerance, with an average 30% mortality rate. In this study, we bring new evidence of mechanisms underlying freshwater tolerance in sea bass at gill and kidney levels. In fresh water (FW), intraspecific differences in mRNA expression levels of several ion transporters and prolactin receptors were measured. We showed that the branchial Cl-/HCO3- anion transporter (slc26a6c) was over-expressed in freshwater intolerant fish, probably as a compensatory response to low blood chloride levels and potential metabolic alkalosis. Moreover, prolactin receptor a (prlra) and Na+/Cl- cotransporter (ncc1) but not ncc-2a expression seemed to be slightly increased and highly variable between individuals in freshwater intolerant fish. In the posterior kidney, freshwater intolerant fish exhibited differential expression levels of slc26 anion transporters and Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter 1b (nkcc1b). Lower expression levels of prolactin receptors (prlra, prlrb) were measured in posterior kidney which probably contributes to the failure in ion reuptake at the kidney level. Freshwater intolerance seems to be a consequence of renal failure of ion reabsorption, which is not sufficiently compensated at the branchial level.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Brânquias/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/genética , Aclimatação/genética , Animais , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água Doce , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Brânquias/fisiologia , Transporte de Íons/genética , Rim/fisiologia , Osmorregulação/genética , Salinidade , Água do Mar , Sódio/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017989

RESUMO

Steroid hormones have been proven as a key drive of sex change in sequentially hermaphroditic organisms. However, the upstream mechanism of sex steroid hormones regulation that affect sex change remain unknown. The main glucocorticoid in teleost fish is cortisol, which both regulates steroidogenesis and has antistress action. Thus, cortisol might be one of the prime factors in sex change. In this study, the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) gene, was proven to have a dramatic effect in orange-spotted groupers (Epinephelus coioides) during sex change at the early stage of gonadal transition. The specific action of the GILZ protein is at the pouch-shaped proliferative spermatogonia instead of the degenerative oocyte at the onset of sex change. Immunohistochemical (IHC) evidence revealed that GILZ performs intensively at undifferentiated spermatogonia in the early testis stage. These results imply that cortisol provokes a rise of GILZ through regulation caused by steroid hormones leading to sex change.


Assuntos
Bass/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Zíper de Leucina/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bass/genética , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/biossíntese , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Gônadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gônadas/metabolismo , Organismos Hermafroditas , Masculino , Filogenia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Diferenciação Sexual/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
3.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 880-888, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562894

RESUMO

The humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis) is a commercially valuable species of the family Epinephelidae; however, its marketization suffers from slow growth speed, low survival rate, and various pathogenic diseases. Lactococcus lactis and Schizochytrium limacinum are commonly used as immunostimulants due to their health benefits for the aquatic organisms. In the present study, we assessed the effects of dietary supplementation with L. lactis HNL12 combined with S. limacinum algal meal on the growth performances, innate immune response, and disease resistance of C. altivelis against Vibrio harveyi. The results showed that fish fed with a combination diet of L. lactis and S. limacinum exhibited significantly higher final weight, percent weight gain, and specific growth rate compared with groups fed with them alone. A bacterial challenge experiment indicated that the group fed with the L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet achieved the highest relative percent of survival value (68.63%), suggesting that L. lactis and S. limacinum significantly improved the disease resistance against V. harveyi after a 4-week feeding trial. Moreover, the respiratory burst activity of macrophages of fish fed with a L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet was significantly higher than that of fish fed the control diet after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of feeding. The serum superoxide dismutase of fish fed with a L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet significantly increased compared to those fed the control diet after 1 and 2 weeks of feeding, while the serum alkaline phosphatase of fish fed with a L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet after 2 and 4 weeks was significantly increased, compared to the control group. The serum lysozyme activities of fish fed with a L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet significantly increased compared to the control group after 2 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, transcriptome sequencing of the C. altivelis head kidney was conducted to explore the immune-regulating effects of the L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet on C. altivelis. A total of 86,919 unigenes, annotated by at least one of the reference databases (Nr, Swiss-Prot, GO, COG, and KEGG), were assembly yielded by de novo transcriptome. In addition, 157 putative differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the L. lactis combined with S. limacinum group and the control group. For pathway enrichment, the DEGs were categorized into nine KEGG pathways, which were mainly related to infective diseases, antigen processing and presentation, digestive system, and other immune system responses. The findings of this study suggest that the L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet can induce positive effects on the growth, immunity, and disease resistance of C. altivelis against V. harveyi. This study expands our understanding of the synergistic combinations of probiotics and prebiotics in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactococcus lactis/química , Prebióticos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Estramenópilas/química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Vibrio/fisiologia , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária
4.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 548-557, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539573

RESUMO

A 56-day growth trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary yeast hydrolysate on the growth performance, antioxidation, immune response and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in largemouth bass. Four experimental diets were prepared with yeast hydrolysate levels of 0% (Y0), 1.5% (Y1.5), 3.0% (Y3.0) and 4.5% (Y4.5). Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate 150-L tanks and each tank was stocked with 30 largemouth bass (initial body weight, IBW = 7.71 ±â€¯0.02 g). A challenge test was carried out after the feeding trial by injecting A. hydrophila intraperitoneally for 4-day observation. The results showed that the FBW and WGR in Y1.5 group were significantly higher than those in Y0 group (P < 0.05) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) got the lowest value in Y1.5 group. And the hydrolysate supplement significantly increased the 4-day cumulative survival rate after the bacterial challenge (P < 0.05). The plasma malondialdehyde was lower in the yeast hydrolysate supplement groups in both pre- and post-challenge test (P < 0.05), while the plasma C3 increased (P < 0.05). In post-challenge test, the plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased in the Y1.5 and Y3.0 groups respectively (P < 0.05), and plasma lysozyme in Y1.5 group and the plasma IgM in Y3.0 group were higher than those in others respectively (P < 0.05). For the q-PCR results, in post-challenge test, the hepatic hep2 expression level in Y1.5 and Y4.5 groups were both significantly higher than those in others (P < 0.05), as well as il-8 in Y3.0 group. The spleen hif-1alpha and tgf-beta1 expression levels in Y4.5 group were all significantly lower than those in others (P < 0.05), while the gilt was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the post-challenge test. And the expression levels of spleen tnf-alpah1 in Y1.5 and Y3.0 groups and il-8 in Y3.0 group were all significantly higher than those in other groups (P < 0.05) in the post-challenge test. The head kidney gilt expression level was significantly higher in the yeast hydrolysate supplement groups compared with the Y0 group (P < 0.05), and the head kidney il-8 expression level in Y1.5 group was significant higher than those in other groups in post-challenge test (P < 0.05). The present results indicated dietary yeast hydrolysate improved the antioxidant ability and enhanced the immune response of largemouth bass without negative effect on growth. And 1.5% or 3.0% of dietary yeast hydrolysate was recommended for largemouth bass based on the present results.


Assuntos
Bass , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Fermento Seco/metabolismo , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Fermento Seco/administração & dosagem
5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 1047-1055, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425831

RESUMO

Nowadays, there is no suitable treatment for vibriosis in groupers. So an eco-efficient and environmentally friendly treatment is necessary for the grouper industry. Probiotic-feeding has been a promising strategy to control the bacterial pathogens in aquaculture. A new Bacillus velezensis strain named K2 was isolated from the intestinal tract of healthy grouper, and exhibited wide antimicrobial spectrum of against fish pathogens, including Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii, Aeromonas caviae, Enterococcus casseliflavus and Lactococcus garvieae. Moreover, results of the safety of B. velezensis K2 showed that intraperitoneal injection of K2 in healthy grouper did not cause any pathological abnormality or death, indicating this bacteria could be considered as a candidate probiotic in aquaculture. Groupers were fed with the diets containing 1 × 107 cfu/g of B. velezensis K2 for 4 weeks. Various immune parameters were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of post-feeding. Results showed that diets supplemented with K2 significantly increased serum acid phosphatase (ACP) activity (P < 0.05). Results of the mRNA expression of immune-related genes in the head kidney of hybrid grouper showed that the expression of lysozyme gene was significantly upregulated after 1 and 2 weeks of feeding (P < 0.05). A significant up-regulation of the expression of piscidin, IgM and MyD88 were detected at day 21, whereas the TLR3 and TLR5 showed lower expression compared to the controls during 21 days, and a significant decrease of TLR3 gene was found at day 28 (P < 0.05). After challenge with V. harveyi, the survival rate of fish administrated with the strain K2 for 28 days was signifiacantly higher than the controls without this strain (P < 0.05). These results collectively suggest that B. velezensis K2 is a potential probiotic species to improve health status and disease resistance and can be developed as a probiotic agent in grouper industry.


Assuntos
Bacillus/química , Bass/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Vibrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Vibrio/fisiologia , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária
6.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 21(5): 643-654, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273567

RESUMO

Asian seabass is an important food fish species. While improving growth, increasing the nutritional value is important, omega-3 fatty acids are indispensable to human health. Identifying and validating DNA markers associated with traits is the first step towards marker-assisted selection (MAS). We quantified 13 different fatty acids and three growth traits in 213 F2 Asian seabass from a family at the age 270 days post hatch, and screened QTL for these traits. The content of total fatty acids in 100 g flesh was 2.57 ± 0.80 g, while the proportions of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were 16.96 ± 2.20% and 5.42 ± 0.90%, respectively. A linkage map with 2424 SNPs was constructed and used for QTL mapping. For fatty acid compositions, 14 significant QTL were identified on three linkage groups (LG5, LG11 and LG14), with phenotypic variance explained (PVE) from 12.8 to 24.6%. Thirty-nine suggestive QTL were detected on 16 LGs. Two significant QTL for EPA were identified on LG5 and LG14, with PVE of 15.2% and 15.1%, respectively. No significant QTL was identified for DHA. For growth traits, six significant and 13 suggestive QTL were identified on two and seven LGs, respectively. Only a few significant QTL for fatty acids overlapped with previously mapped QTL for these traits, suggesting that most QTL detected in a family are family-specific and could only be used in MAS in the family per se. To facilitate population-wide molecular breeding, more powerful methods (e.g. GWAS) should be used to identify SNPs for genomic selection.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/genética , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/genética , Genoma , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bass/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/biossíntese , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/biossíntese , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Ácidos Graxos/classificação , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Músculos/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 19(5): 1322-1332, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230418

RESUMO

The giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is the largest coral reef teleost, with a native range that spans temperate and tropical waters in the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. It is cultured artificially and used as a breeding species in aquaculture due to its rapid growth rate. Here we report a giant grouper genome assembled at the chromosome scale from sequences generated using Illumina and high-throughput chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) technology. The assembly comprised 1.086 Gb, with 98.4% of the scaffold sequences anchored into 24 chromosomes. The contig and scaffold N50 values were 119.9 kb and 46.2 Mb, respectively. The assembly is of high integrity, including 96.4% universal single-copy orthologues based on BUSCO analysis. Through chromosome-scale evolution analysis, we identified alignments of six giant grouper chromosomes to three stickleback chromosomes and some of the genes located within the breakpoints of reshuffling events may related to development and growth. From the 24,718 protein-coding genes, we found that several gene families related to innate immunity and glycan biosynthesis were significantly expanded in the giant grouper genome compared to other teleost genomes. In addition, we identified several genes related to the hormone signalling pathway and innate immunity that have experienced positive selection or accelerated evolution, implicating their roles in immune defence and fast growth of the species. The high-quality genome assembly will provide a valuable genomic resource for further biological and evolutionary studies, and useful genomic tools for breeding of the giant grouper.


Assuntos
Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bass/genética , Cromossomos , Genoma , Imunidade Inata , Animais , Bass/imunologia , Biologia Computacional , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 141-149, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055020

RESUMO

Metamorphosis is a transformation process in larval development associated with changes in morphological and physiological features, including the immune system. The gastrointestinal tract harbors a plethora of bacteria, which might affect the digestion and absorption of nutrients, immunity, and gut-brain crosstalk in the host. In this study, we have performed metagenomic and transcriptomic analyses on the intestines of grouper at the pre-, mid- and post-metamorphosis stages. The sequencing data of 16S rRNA gene showed drastic changes in the microbial communities at different developmental stages. The transcriptomic data revealed that the leukocyte transendothelial migration and the phagosome pathways might play important roles in mediating immunity in grouper at the three developmental stages. This information will increase our understanding of the metamorphosis process in grouper larvae, and shed light on the development of antimicrobial strategy during larval development.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Bass/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Animais , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bass/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Metagenômica , Metamorfose Biológica/genética , Metamorfose Biológica/imunologia
9.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 91: 293-305, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100441

RESUMO

Excessive lipid accumulation and chemical abuse can induce fatty liver diseases in fish, but the underlying mechanism and therapies are unknown. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of Xiaochaihu Decoction (XCHD) on the growth performance, lipid metabolism and antioxidant function of hybrid grouper in vitro and in vivo, and provide evidence as to whether it can be potentially used as a medicine for liver diseases in aquaculture. In vitro, steatosis model of hybrid grouper primary hepatocytes were incubated for 48 h in control or lipid emulsion (LE)-containing medium with or without 24 h post-treatment with XCHD. XCHD treatment reversed the LE-induced intracellular lipid accumulation, cell viability and hepatocytes morphological structure. In vivo, a total of 300 hybrid grouper with an average initial weight of 25.43 ±â€¯0.18 g were fed diets containing five graded levels of XCHD at 150-1200 mg/kg diet for 8 weeks. After that, a challenge trial was conducted by injection of D-GalN/LPS to induce liver injury. As a result, dietary supplementation with 150-300 mg/kg XCHD diets can significant improve growth performance and feed utilization (P < 0.05). Dietary XCHD down-regulated the expression of lipogenic-related genes (G6PD, DGAT2 and ME1) and up-regulated lipolysis-related genes (ATGL, PPARα and LPL) expression in the liver of hybrid grouper. Livers challenged with D-GalN/LPS exhibited extensive areas of vacuolization with the disappearance of nuclei and the loss of hepatic architecture. These pathological alterations were ameliorated by XCHD treatment. XCHD significantly down-regulated the D-GalN/LPS induced apoptosis-related genes caspase-3, caspase-9 and p53 mRNA expression and up-regulated the antioxidant-related genes CAT and MnSOD mRNA expression in dose dependent manner, respectively. XCHD potently reduced hepatic lipid accumulation and enhanced antioxidant capability in hybrid grouper and may be a potential fish-feed additive to prevent fatty liver diseases onset and progression.


Assuntos
Bass , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bass/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Galactosamina/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino
10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 223-234, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029777

RESUMO

A 10-week growth trial was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing dietary fishmeal with plant proteins on nutrition metabolism, immunity, inflammation and apoptosis responses in liver tissues of Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicas (initial body weight = 10.42 ±â€¯0.01 g). Two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated. A basal diet containing 54% fishmeal (FM), whereas another diet was prepared by totally replacing FM with a plant protein blend (PP) composed with soybean protein concentrate and cottonseed protein concentrate. Although essential amino acids, fatty acids, and available phosphorus had been balanced according to the FM diet profile, the significantly lower growth performance, metabolic disorder, and fatty liver symptom were observed in the PP group. Compared with the FM group, fish in the PP group showed significantly lower plasma free EAA level and PPV. Glucose metabolism disorder was expressed as the uncontrollable fasting glycolysis and pyruvate aerobic oxidation at postprandial 24 h with significantly up-regulated GK, PK and PDH genes expression, which potentially over-produced acetyl-CoA as the substrate for protein and lipid synthesis. Significantly reduced plasma GLU, but increased GC level, along with very significantly reduced liver GLY storage could be observed in the PP group. Plasma TG and hepatic NEFA contents were significantly decreased, but the hepatic TC content was very significantly increased in the PP group, in addition, hepatocyte vacuolation appeared. The significantly up-regulated cholesterol synthesis gene (HMGCR) expression but down-regulated bile acid synthesis gene (CYP7A1) expression could be the main reason for the fatty liver induced by cholesterol accumulation. The reduced plasma IgM content accompanied by the up-regulated mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL1ß) and activated apoptosis signals of liver tissues were found in the PP group. The hyperthyroidism (higher plasma T3 and T4) and the accelerated energy metabolism rate decreased the growth performance in the PP group. The activated p65NF-kB may promote the hepatocytes apoptosis via the extrinsic pathway (caspase8/caspase3). Simultaneously, a "self-saving" response could be observed that activated cAMP promoted the lipolysis/ß-oxidation process and up-regulated gene expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 via promoting CREB expression, further inhibited the over-phosphorylation of JNK protein, which might impede the intrinsic apoptosis pathway (caspase9/caspase3). In conclusion, the nutrient and energy metabolic disorder induced fatty liver related to the cholesterol accumulation in Japanese seabass fed full PP diet, which was under the regulation by cAMP-JNK/NF-kB-caspase signaling pathway. The hemostasis phosphorylation of JNK protein protected the liver tissues from more serious damage.


Assuntos
Bass , Dieta/veterinária , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Doenças Metabólicas/veterinária , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/classificação , Animais , Metabolismo Basal , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/classificação , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Fígado Gorduroso/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Fígado/fisiologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Doenças Metabólicas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/administração & dosagem , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 21(3): 359-373, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919121

RESUMO

The European sea bass is one of the most important cultured fish in Europe and has a marked sexual growth dimorphism in favor of females. It is a gonochoristic species with polygenic sex determination, where a combination between still undifferentiated genetic factors and environmental temperature determines sex ratios. The molecular mechanisms responsible for gonadal sex differentiation are still unknown. Here, we sampled fish during the gonadal developmental period (110 to 350 days post fertilization, dpf), and performed a comprehensive transcriptomic study by using a species-specific microarray. This analysis uncovered sex-specific gonadal transcriptomic profiles at each stage of development, identifying larger number of differentially expressed genes in ovaries when compared to testis. The expression patterns of 54 reproduction-related genes were analyzed. We found that hsd17ß10 is a reliable marker of early ovarian differentiation. Further, three genes, pdgfb, snx1, and nfy, not previously related to fish sex differentiation, were tightly associated with testis development in the sea bass. Regarding signaling pathways, lysine degradation, bladder cancer, and NOD-like receptor signaling were enriched for ovarian development while eight pathways including basal transcription factors and steroid biosynthesis were enriched for testis development. Analysis of the transcription factor abundance showed an earlier increase in females than in males. Our results show that, although many players in the sex differentiation pathways are conserved among species, there are peculiarities in gene expression worth exploring. The genes identified in this study illustrate the diversity of players involved in fish sex differentiation and can become potential biomarkers for the management of sex ratios in the European sea bass and perhaps other cultured species.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Gônadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Masculino
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 88: 496-507, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826414

RESUMO

In this study, two experiments were performed to explore the effect of Radix Bupleuri extracts (RBE) on growth, lipid deposition and metabolism and immune response of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus♂ × Epinephelus fuscoguttatus♀) using in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro, we used 2 ml/L 20% lipid emulsion (LE)-induced steatosis in hybrid grouper primary hepatocytes, then RBE (200, 400 and 800 µg/ml) was added to the hepatocytes after (post-treatment) the incubation with 20% LE (2 ml/L) in the culture medium. We found that RBE markedly increased cell viability, which were consistent with hepatocytes morphological structure examination and lipid metabolism and immune related genes study. The above result suggested that RBE has a protective effect on this model of hepatocytes damage. In vivo, five graded levels of RBE at 0, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg diet were supplemented to a basal diet with 15% lipid levels (high lipid), and fed to a total of 300 hybrid grouper with an average initial weight of 25.58 ±â€¯0.05 g for 8 weeks. Growth performance, liver histology, plasma biochemical parameters, and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and immune-related were measured. The study indicated that dietary RBE significantly improved growth performance and feed utilization and reduced hepatosomatic index. Dietary supplementation with 200-800 mg/kg RBE diets effectively decreased serum ALP, ALT, AST and LDH contents in fish. Furthermore, adipogenesis relative mRNA levels of DGAT2, G6PD, ME1 and DGKα in fish fed 200-400 mg/kg RBE diets were lower (P < 0.05) than in those fed RBE0 diets, while dietary supplementation with 200-800 mg/kg RBE diets up-regulated lipolysis-related genes (CPT1, LPL and PPARα) expression in the liver of hybrid grouper. Moreover, dietary RBE down-regulated the expression of apoptosis-related genes (caspase-9), up-regulated the expression of antioxidant genes (CAT) and immune-related genes (MHC2, IKKα and TGF-ß1). Thus, our data suggest that RBE suppressed lipid accumulation and enhanced immune capability in hybrid grouper both in vitro and in vivo. These results offer new insight into RBE as a hepatoprotective in fish.


Assuntos
Bass/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Apoptose , Bass/genética , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caspase 9/genética , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Hibridização Genética , Lipólise , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Raízes de Plantas/química , RNA Mensageiro
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 88: 126-134, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779997

RESUMO

The study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with dandelion extracts (DE) on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition, serum biochemical, liver histology, immune-related gene expression and CCl4 resistance of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus♂ × Epinephelus fuscoguttatus♀). A basal diet supplemented with DE at 0% (diet 0%), 0.1% (diet 0.1%), 0.2% (diet 0.2%), 0.4% (diet 0.4%) and 0.8% (diet 0.8%) were fed to hybrid grouper for 8 weeks. The results revealed that dietary DE had not a significant impact on growth performance and feed utilization (P > 0.05), but it could decrease the percent of crude lipids in whole body and increase the percent of crude protein in muscle (P < 0.05). Dietary DE increased the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and reduced inflammatory factor in the spleen and head-kidney of fish (P < 0.05), but reduced the expression of the liver antioxidant gene except for glutathione reductase (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 0.2%-0.4% DE could effectively improve liver health. After injection of CCL4 by 72 h, fish fed Diet0.2% and Diet0.4% showed regular hepatocyte morphology while fish fed Diet 0%, Diet 0.1% and Diet 0.8% showed hepatocyte damage. Higher survival rate and total blood cell count was observed in fish fed 0.1%-0.4% dietary DE (P < 0.05). In conclusion, DE could be used as a functional feed additive to enhance liver function of farmed fish. The best level of it should be between 0.2% and 0.4%.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Taraxacum , Animais , Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Bass/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/análise , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Músculos/química
14.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 275: 82-93, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738863

RESUMO

This study evaluated the impact of continuous light (LL) within the photolabile period on advanced puberty in juvenile male European sea bass. The exposure to an LL regime for 1 month, from August 15 to September 15 (LLa/s), was compared to a constant simulated natural photoperiod (NP) and constant continuous light conditions year-round (LLy). Somatic growth, hormone plasma levels, rates of testicular maturation and spermiation, as well as the mRNA levels of some reproductive genes were analyzed. Our results demonstrated that both LLa/s and LLy treatments, which include LL exposure during the photolabile period, were highly effective in inhibiting the gametogenesis process that affects testicular development, and clearly reduced the early sexual maturation of males. Exposure to an LL photoperiod affected body weight and length of juvenile fish during early gametogenesis and throughout the first year of life. Interestingly, LL induced bi-weekly changes in some reproductive factors affecting Gnrh1 and Gnrh2 content in the brain, and also reduced pituitary fshß expression and plasmatic levels of 11-KT, E2, Fsh throughout early gametogenesis. We suggest that low levels of E2 in early September in the LL groups, which would be concomitant with the reduced number of spermatogonial mitoses in these groups, might indicate a putative role for estrogens in spermatogonial proliferation during the early gonadal development of this species. Furthermore, a significant decrease in amh expression was observed, coinciding with low plasma levels of 11-KT under LL regimes, which is consistent with the idea that this growth factor may be crucial for the progress of spermatogenesis in male sea bass.


Assuntos
Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Iluminação , Fotoperíodo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Animais , Bass/sangue , Subunidade beta do Hormônio Folículoestimulante/sangue , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/análogos & derivados , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/sangue , Masculino , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Diferenciação Sexual/fisiologia , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 87: 847-852, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790662

RESUMO

Growth performance, hepatic morphology and antioxidant ability, and expressions of antioxidant, inflammatory and apoptosis related genes were investigated in hybrid grouper fed high lipid diets containing 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 10 g kg-1Lycium barbarum extract (LBE) for 8-week feeding. The study showed that dietary LBE significantly increased weight gain rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) of fish (P < 0.05), the highest WGR and SGR were observed in fish fed 10.00 g kg-1 LBE diet. Dietary LBE improved liver morphology by decreasing hepatocyte necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration induced by high lipid diets. Meanwhile, high lipid diets supplemented with 0.5-2 g kg-1 LBE improved hepatic antioxidant ability by increasing the expression of antioxidant genes (GPx and CAT) and decreasing Keap1 mRNA levels. Moreover, dietary supplementation with 0.50-2.00 g kg -1 LBE significantly decreased IL-8, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 mRNA levels and significantly increased IL-10 and TGF-ß1 mRNA levels in the liver of fish fed high lipid diets. In conclusion, high lipid diets supplemented with LBE improved growth performance, feed utilization and liver health in hybrid groupers by increasing hepatic antioxidant enzymes activity and its genes expression, as well as inhibition of hepatic inflammatory response and apoptosis.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Lycium/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Hibridização Genética , Fígado/imunologia
16.
Food Chem ; 280: 321-327, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642503

RESUMO

Chemometric analysis of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) data was applied to investigate the possibility to rapidly authenticate European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) according to production method (wild or farmed), rearing system (extensive, semi-intensive or intensive), and geographical origin (Western, Central or Eastern Mediterranean Sea). NIR spectra from 1100 to 2500 nm were subjected to an exploratory principal component analysis (PCA) followed by orthogonal partial last square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to develop classifiers able to distinguish samples according to the various conditions under study. Models provided a correct classification rate of 100% for both wild and farmed sea bass, and of 67%, 80%, 100% for extensively, semi-intensively, and intensively-reared subjects, respectively. As for geographical provenance, 100% of Eastern, 88% of Central and 85% of Western Mediterranean Sea samples were correctly discriminated. The successful results obtained confirmed suitability of chemometric analysis applied to NIRS data for fast authentication of European sea bass origin.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Bass/metabolismo , Animais , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise Discriminante , Pesqueiros , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Mar Mediterrâneo , Análise de Componente Principal , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
17.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 38(2): 329-339, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488984

RESUMO

In the upper Hudson River, New York, USA, fish were exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the 1940s to 1977, and PCBs still persist in this environment. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens), brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and largemouth bass (M. salmoides) were collected annually from 2003 to 2009 from 1 control site upstream of the PCB discharge locations and from 2 sites downstream from where PCBs were released. Fish PCB concentrations were estimated, and 3 population metrics were examined: 1) relative abundance, 2) weight-to-length ratio, and 3) growth. Normalized lipid-based PCB concentrations at the 2 PCB exposure pools averaged approximately 100 to 600 µg/g. Estimated relative abundances with electrofishing were higher for largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, and brown bullhead at PCB exposure sites compared to the control site; but yellow perch were more abundant at the control site. Weight to length ratios varied among sites and species, but no consistent pattern was evident in relation to PCBs at the population level or for individual fish. Growth rates for yellow perch and brown bullhead were similar among sites. Largemouth bass growth was slightly higher at the control site compared to the 2 PCB sites, but smallmouth bass growth was much higher at the PCB sites compared to the control site. We could not detect any relation or influence of PCBs on the 3 population metrics that we examined. the present results corroborated those of previous investigations concerning the effects of PCBs on fishes. We recommend stronger consideration of the biological impacts of PCBs at the population level when conducting risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;38:329-339. © 2018 SETAC.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ictaluridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , New York , Percas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinâmica Populacional
18.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 84: 987-997, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403972

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of replacing fish meal (FM) with three different types of soybean meal (SM) including untreated SM, Bacillus pumillus SE5 (BP) fermented SM (BPFSM) and Pseudozyma aphidis ZR1 (PA) fermented SM (PAFSM) in diets for Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus). A basal diet was formulated using FM (FM diet), and six other diets were produced by substituting 40 or 80% of FM with SM, BPFSM or PAFSM (SM40, SM80, BPFSM40, BPFSM80, PAFSM40 and PAFSM80 diets). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (7.14 ±â€¯0.05 g) twice daily for eight weeks. Replacing 40% of FM with SM sources did not significantly influence growth (P > 0.05), while increasing the substitution level to 80% led to reduced growth rates (P < 0.05). The groups received SM80 and PAFSM80 diets showed significantly higher feed conversion ratio and lower protein digestibility than FM group. Furthermore, notably lower dry matter digestibility was detected in SM80 group. Remarkably lower serum total antioxidant capacity was found in the SM80 group, and catalase activity did not significantly differ between FM and BPFSM40 groups. Serum malondialdehyde concentration was enhanced by increasing FM replacement level and the highest value was observed in the SM80 fed fish. FM and PAFSM40 groups showed significantly higher lysozyme activity than the SM80 group. Fish fed the BPFSM40 diet exhibited the highest complement C3 activity and the lowest value was observed in the SM80 group. Expression of lysozyme gene in spleen was down-regulated in the SM80 group, and no significant difference in expression of C3 gene was found among FM, BPFSM40 and PAFSM40 groups. Digestive enzymes activity and gut morphology were significantly influenced by FM replacement. Expression of HSP70 and pro-inflammatory genes including TNF-α and IL-1ß were up-regulated by FM replacement and relatively lower expression levels were found by using fermented SM. An opposite trend was observed for the anti-inflammatory TGF-ß gene expression. Serum d-lactate concentration was significantly increased by replacing 80% of FM with any of the SM sources. These findings indicated that using fermented SM, particularly BPFSM, beneficially influences feed utilization, antioxidant capacity, innate immunity and gut health in juvenile Japanese seabass.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bacillus/química , Bass/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Ustilaginales/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bass/genética , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bass/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/enzimologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Soja
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414915

RESUMO

Many teleost fishes exhibit sequential hermaphroditism, where male or female gonads develop first and later undergo sex change. Model sex change species are characterized by social hierarchies and coloration changes, which enable experimental manipulations to better understand these processes. However, other species such as the protogynous black sea bass (Centropristis striata) do not exhibit these characteristics and instead receive research attention due to their importance in fisheries or aquaculture. Black sea bass social structure is unknown, which makes sex change sampling difficult, and few molecular resources are available. The purpose of the present study was to induce sex change using exemestane, an aromatase inhibitor, and assess gonadal gene expression using sex markers (amh, zpc2) and genes involved in steroidogenesis (cyp19a1a, cyp11b), estrogen signaling (esr1, esr2b), and apoptosis or atresia (aen, casp9, fabp11, parg, pdcd4, rif1). Overall, dietary exemestane treatment was effective, and most exposed females exhibited early histological signs of sex change and significantly higher rates of ovarian atresia relative to control females. Genes associated with atresia did not reflect this, however, as expression patterns in sex changing gonads were overall similar to those of ovaries, likely due to a whole ovary dilution effect of the RNA. Still, small but insignificant expression decreases during early sex change were detected for ovary-related genes (aen, casp9, fabp11, zpc2) and anti-apoptotic factors (parg, rif1). Exemestane treatment did not impact spermatogenesis or testicular gene expression, but testes were generally characterized by elevated steroidogenic enzyme and estrogen receptor mRNAs. Further research will be needed to understand these processes in black sea bass, using isolated ovarian follicles and multiple stages of sex change.


Assuntos
Androstadienos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Aromatase/farmacologia , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Ovário/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414953

RESUMO

This study explored the impact of fishmeal replacement by commercial soybean meal (SM) and EnzoMeal (EZM) on Asian seabass Lates calcarifer growth performance using six diets. The six diets comprised two sources of plant proteins with three levels each, including 300 g kg-1 soybean meal (SM30), 300 g kg-1 EnzoMeal (EZM30), 400 g kg-1 soybean meal (SM40), 400 g kg-1 EnzoMeal (EZM40), 500 g kg-1 soybean meal (SM50), and 500 g kg-1 EnzoMeal (EZM50). The soybean level was shown to significantly affect the final fish weight, weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), survival, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC). Further, the plant meal type significantly affected the final weight, weight gain, feed intake, ADC, and body lipid content. The highest final weight was observed in the SM30 group, and the lowest final weight was in the EZM50 group. Fish fed EZM had lower body weight than those fed soybean meal at the same inclusion level. However, once the fish had adapted to the EZM diet the fish weight variation was low. At the 300 g kg-1 and 400 g kg-1 inclusion levels the fish fed EZM showed significantly higher ADC than those fed soybean. The pepsin activity of fish fed EZM at 300 g kg-1 and 400 g kg-1 was higher than those fed soybean meal at the same levels. The enterocyte height in the hindgut of fish fed SM40 and SM50 was significantly higher than those fed EZM40 and EZM50, respectively. This study indicates that EZM could be a potential source of plant protein to replace fishmeal in fish feed as it contains high protein and low anti-nutritional factors. However, the major endpoint measurements on fish performance suggest that low feed intake constrains further EZM inclusion beyond 300 g kg-1 in the diet.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Bass/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Peixes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/metabolismo
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