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1.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 880-888, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562894

RESUMO

The humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis) is a commercially valuable species of the family Epinephelidae; however, its marketization suffers from slow growth speed, low survival rate, and various pathogenic diseases. Lactococcus lactis and Schizochytrium limacinum are commonly used as immunostimulants due to their health benefits for the aquatic organisms. In the present study, we assessed the effects of dietary supplementation with L. lactis HNL12 combined with S. limacinum algal meal on the growth performances, innate immune response, and disease resistance of C. altivelis against Vibrio harveyi. The results showed that fish fed with a combination diet of L. lactis and S. limacinum exhibited significantly higher final weight, percent weight gain, and specific growth rate compared with groups fed with them alone. A bacterial challenge experiment indicated that the group fed with the L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet achieved the highest relative percent of survival value (68.63%), suggesting that L. lactis and S. limacinum significantly improved the disease resistance against V. harveyi after a 4-week feeding trial. Moreover, the respiratory burst activity of macrophages of fish fed with a L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet was significantly higher than that of fish fed the control diet after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of feeding. The serum superoxide dismutase of fish fed with a L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet significantly increased compared to those fed the control diet after 1 and 2 weeks of feeding, while the serum alkaline phosphatase of fish fed with a L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet after 2 and 4 weeks was significantly increased, compared to the control group. The serum lysozyme activities of fish fed with a L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet significantly increased compared to the control group after 2 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, transcriptome sequencing of the C. altivelis head kidney was conducted to explore the immune-regulating effects of the L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet on C. altivelis. A total of 86,919 unigenes, annotated by at least one of the reference databases (Nr, Swiss-Prot, GO, COG, and KEGG), were assembly yielded by de novo transcriptome. In addition, 157 putative differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the L. lactis combined with S. limacinum group and the control group. For pathway enrichment, the DEGs were categorized into nine KEGG pathways, which were mainly related to infective diseases, antigen processing and presentation, digestive system, and other immune system responses. The findings of this study suggest that the L. lactis combined with S. limacinum diet can induce positive effects on the growth, immunity, and disease resistance of C. altivelis against V. harveyi. This study expands our understanding of the synergistic combinations of probiotics and prebiotics in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactococcus lactis/química , Prebióticos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Estramenópilas/química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Vibrio/fisiologia , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária
2.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 113-121, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491526

RESUMO

Autophagy related gene 16 (Atg16), which encodes a core protein for autophagosome formation, participates in autophagy activity, the ubiquitin proteasome system and inflammatory response in mammals. In this study, we cloned and characterized an Atg16 homolog from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (EcAtg16L1). EcAtg16L1 encodes a 656-amino acid polypeptide, which shares 94.22% and 72.65% homology with large yellow croakers (Larimichthys crocea) and humans (Homo sapiens), respectively. EcAtg16L1 contains a conserved Atg16 domain and a WD-repeat-containing domain. Subcellular localization showed that EcAtg16L1 was distributed in the cytoplasm of grouper cells with a dot-like pattern. EcAtg16L1 overexpression promoted Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) replication, as evidenced by the increase in viral gene transcription and viral coat protein. Furthermore, EcAtg16L1 overexpression negatively regulated interferon (IFN)-related molecules and proinflammatory cytokines, and decreased IFN, IFN-stimulated response element, and nuclear factor κB promoter activities. Taken together, aside from its function in autophagosome formation, EcAtg16L1 also plays role in promoting SGIV and RGNNV replication and the pro-viral effect might involve its down regulation to interferon and inflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/imunologia , Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/química , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Nodaviridae/fisiologia , Filogenia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Ranavirus/fisiologia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
3.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 81-89, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476389

RESUMO

Interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1 (IFIT1), one of the interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), is strongly induced by type I interferon (IFN), double-stranded RNAs and virus infection. To investigate the actions of fish IFIT1 in response to virus infection, we cloned an IFIT1 homolog from orange spotted grouper (EcIFIT1) and clarified its function in this study. The full-length cDNA of EcIFIT1 is 1839 bp, which is composed of 436 amino acid (aa) residues, with 77.8% and 22.8% identity to IFIT1 homolog of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and humans (homo sapiens), respectively. Sequence alignment analysis showed that EcIFIT1 contained three tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs). Tissue distribution analysis indicated that EcIFIT1 was abundant in intestine, spleen, liver, and heart. Moreover, EcIFIT1 was significantly up-regulated by Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) or red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection, and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment in vitro. Under fluorescence microscopy, EcIFIT1 was found to localize throughout the cytoplasm in transfected cells. EcIFIT1 overexpression significantly suppressed the replication of SGIV and RGNNV, demonstrated by decreasing the cytopathic effect (CPE) severity, viral gene transcription and the virus titers. Further studies showed that the ectopic expression of EcIFIT1 increased the transcription level of IFN related molecules, including IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 3, IRF7, IFN stimulated gene (ISG) 15 and myxovirus resistance gene (MX) I. Meanwhile, the expression levels of pro-inflammation cytokines were differently regulated by the ectopic expression of EcIFIT1. In addition, flow cytometry analysis suggested that EcIFIT1 overexpression affected cell cycle progression by mediating S/G2 transition. Taken together, our results indicated that EcIFIT1 might exert antiviral function against fish virus by up-regulating interferon response or affecting cell cycle.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Nodaviridae/fisiologia , Filogenia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Ranavirus/fisiologia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
4.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 336-345, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521781

RESUMO

Beclin-1 is an essential autophagic regulator that plays diverse roles in physiology and disease. However, reports about the function of fish Beclin-1 during pathogen infection are still very limited. In this study, a Beclin-1 homolog (EcBeclin-1) from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was identified and its roles in viral infection were investigated. EcBeclin-1 encoded 447amino acids protein with a BH3 domain, a CCD domain and an ECD domain, which shared high identities (97%-82%) with reported Beclin-1 proteins from mammal to fish. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that EcBeclin-1 was predominantly expressed in brain and muscle of healthy grouper. Using fluorescence microscopy, we found that EcBeclin-1 was co-localized with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in grouper spleen cells (EAGS). After red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection in vitro, EcBeclin-1 transcript was significantly up-regulated, implying that EcBeclin-1 might be involved in viral infection. Furthermore, the in vitro studies of EcBeclin-1 overexpression promoted RGNNV induced autophagy, as well as the expression of coat protein (CP) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The overexpression of EcBeclin-1 suppressed the expressions of interferon pathway-related factors, inflammatory-related factors and activities of NF-κB and ISRE. Additionally, EcBeclin-1 could interact with EcBcl-xL in vitro. These data suggest that EcBeclin-1 affect viral replication through modulating IFN and inflammatory responses, as well as virus-induced cell death, which will help us to further explore the immune response of fish during viral infection.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteína Beclina-1/química , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 702-710, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421242

RESUMO

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved, multi-step lysosomal degradation process used to maintain cell survival and homeostasis. A series of autophagy-related genes (Atgs) are involved in the autophagic pathway. In mammals, a growing number of studies have attributed functions to some Atgs that are distinct from their classical role in autophagosome biogenesis, such as resistance to pathogens. However, little is known about the functions of fish Atgs. In this study, we cloned and characterized an atg12 homolog from orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (Ecatg12). Ecatg12 encodes a 117 amino acid protein that shares 94.0% and 76.8% identity with gourami (Anabas_testudineus) and humans (Homo sapiens), respectively. The transcription level of Ecatg12 was lower in cells infected with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) than in non-infected cells. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that EcAtg12 localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus in grouper spleen cells. Overexpression of EcAtg12 significantly increased the replication of SGIV, as evidenced by increased severity of the cytopathic effect, transcription levels of viral genes, levels of viral proteins, and progeny virus yield. Further studies showed that EcAtg12 overexpression decreased the expression levels of interferon (IFN) related molecules and pro-inflammatory factors and inhibited the promoter activity of IFN-3, interferon-stimulated response element, and nuclear factor-κB. Together, these results demonstrate that EcAtg12 plays crucial roles in SGIV replication by downregulating antiviral immune responses.


Assuntos
Proteína 12 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteína 12 Relacionada à Autofagia/imunologia , Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteína 12 Relacionada à Autofagia/química , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Filogenia , Ranavirus/fisiologia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 720-725, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404634

RESUMO

Nectin-4/PVRL4 belonging to the family of immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules was identified as a potential cellular receptor for several animal viruses. Here we show that nervous necrosis virus that causes viral nervous necrosis in teleosts uses the same receptor in its life cycle. Transfection of SSN-1 cell lines with an expression vector encoding Nectin-4 rendered them to be more susceptible to NNV. Immunofluorescence microscopy on Nectin-4 expressing cells revealed that the protein interacted with NNV specifically. A virus binding assay indicated that Nectin-4 was a bonafide receptor that supported virus attachment to the host cell whereas siRNA directed against Nectin-4 blocked NNV infections in grouper primary brain cells. Results of the present study will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of NNV infection and provide a target for the development of novel antiviral interventions in marine finfish aquaculture.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Nectinas/genética , Nectinas/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Nodaviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária
7.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 38-49, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470135

RESUMO

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPAR-δ), also called PPAR-ß or PPAR-ß/δ, is a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family, which belongs to the nuclear steroid receptor superfamily. Activated PPARs participate in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism and also affect cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and the immune responses. To investigate the roles of PPAR-δ in Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) infection, we cloned and characterized the gene encoding a PPAR-δ homologue from the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides (EcPPAR-δ). EcPPAR-δ encodes a 514-amino-acid polypeptide, with 95.29% and 74.76% homologue to the Seriola dumerili and human proteins, respectively. EcPPAR-δ contains a typical DNA-binding domain and a ligand-binding domain. Its expression was induced by SGIV infection in vitro. A subcellular localization analysis showed that EcPPAR-δ localizes throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus, with a diffuse intracellular expression pattern. SGIV replication was reduced by EcPPAR-δ overexpression, which was evident in the reduced severity of the cytopathic effect, reduced viral gene transcription, and the reduced expression of the viral capsid protein. The replication of SGIV increased with the knockdown of EcPPAR-δ. The overexpression and silencing of EcPPAR-δ in grouper spleen cells showed that EcPPAR-δ plays a positive role in the regulation of the interferon signaling pathway, but has an anti-inflammatory effect on the inflammatory response. The anti-inflammatory effect of EcPPAR-δ may be related to its function in maintaining cell homeostasis. Because the interferon signaling pathway plays an important role in antiviral immune responses, we speculate that the activation of the interferon signaling pathway by EcPPAR-δ overexpression underlies its inhibitory effect on SGIV replication. Together, our data greatly extend our understanding of the roles of the EcPPAR-δ family members in the pathogenesis of fish viruses.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , PPAR delta/genética , PPAR delta/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , PPAR delta/química , Ranavirus/fisiologia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
8.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 1047-1055, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425831

RESUMO

Nowadays, there is no suitable treatment for vibriosis in groupers. So an eco-efficient and environmentally friendly treatment is necessary for the grouper industry. Probiotic-feeding has been a promising strategy to control the bacterial pathogens in aquaculture. A new Bacillus velezensis strain named K2 was isolated from the intestinal tract of healthy grouper, and exhibited wide antimicrobial spectrum of against fish pathogens, including Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii, Aeromonas caviae, Enterococcus casseliflavus and Lactococcus garvieae. Moreover, results of the safety of B. velezensis K2 showed that intraperitoneal injection of K2 in healthy grouper did not cause any pathological abnormality or death, indicating this bacteria could be considered as a candidate probiotic in aquaculture. Groupers were fed with the diets containing 1 × 107 cfu/g of B. velezensis K2 for 4 weeks. Various immune parameters were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of post-feeding. Results showed that diets supplemented with K2 significantly increased serum acid phosphatase (ACP) activity (P < 0.05). Results of the mRNA expression of immune-related genes in the head kidney of hybrid grouper showed that the expression of lysozyme gene was significantly upregulated after 1 and 2 weeks of feeding (P < 0.05). A significant up-regulation of the expression of piscidin, IgM and MyD88 were detected at day 21, whereas the TLR3 and TLR5 showed lower expression compared to the controls during 21 days, and a significant decrease of TLR3 gene was found at day 28 (P < 0.05). After challenge with V. harveyi, the survival rate of fish administrated with the strain K2 for 28 days was signifiacantly higher than the controls without this strain (P < 0.05). These results collectively suggest that B. velezensis K2 is a potential probiotic species to improve health status and disease resistance and can be developed as a probiotic agent in grouper industry.


Assuntos
Bacillus/química , Bass/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Vibrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Vibrio/fisiologia , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária
9.
Amino Acids ; 51(9): 1307-1321, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428910

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of taurine (tau) supplementation to low fishmeal (FM) diets on growth performance, oxidative status, and immune response of European seabass juveniles. Four isoproteic (46% crude protein) and isolipidic (19% crude lipid) diets were formulated to contain either 25 or 12.5% FM and a mixture of plant feedstuffs, supplemented or not with 1% tau. Twelve groups of 20 fish (IBW = 9.4 g) were fed each diet for 9 weeks. Reduction of dietary FM from 25 to 12.5% impaired growth performance, feed efficiency, and protein efficiency ratio but had no effect on nitrogen retention (% N intake). Independently of FM level, dietary tau supplementation improved growth performance and nitrogen retention without affecting feed efficiency. Dietary FM level reduction increased liver G6PDH activity, but did not affect lipid peroxidation or activities of redox key enzymes. Contrarily, dietary tau supplementation decreased hepatic G6PDH and GPX activities and lipid peroxidation. Gene expression COX-2 was not affected either by FM or tau levels but TNF-α increased with the reduction of FM level but not with the tau level. Dietary tau supplementation decreased Casp3 and Casp9 expression regardless of dietary FM level. Overall, this study evidenced that dietary tau supplementation improved growth performance and antioxidant response and reduced intestine inflammatory and apoptosis processes.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bass/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Taurina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose , Bass/imunologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Inflamação , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 99-107, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323328

RESUMO

Epinephelus moara is an economically important fish in Southeast Asian countries but is suffering from nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection. A deeper understanding of the host-NNV interaction mechanisms makes sense for disease control, however, at present, the pathogenesis of natural NNV infection and the resistance mechanism in host remains poorly understood. In this study, asymptomatic and diseased E. moara with clinical symptoms of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) from a grouper farm were both detected with a positive RT-PCR signal of NNV, then transcriptome sequencing of their immune tissues (liver, spleen and kidney) were performed for comparation analysis. The de novo assemblies yielded 53,789 unigenes which had a length varied from 201 to 19,675 bp and a N50 length of 2115 bp, and 29,451 unigenes were functionally annotated, with 83, 250 and 5632 unigenes being differentially expressed in liver, spleen and kidney respectively. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs showed many DEGs were enriched in immune related pathways. Although the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) was significantly higher in three immune tissues of the diseased grouper, many immune related genes, including humoral immune molecules (such as antibodies), the cellular mediated cytotoxic molecules (such as perforin) and some adhesion related genes were down regulated in the diseased grouper. Our results provided many unigenes that might play important roles in NNV resistance for further research. Furthermore, a total of 8666 unigenes containing 11,623 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified, which provided useful information for screening molecular markers associated with NNV resistance in E. moara.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Nodaviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/genética , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/imunologia
11.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 746-755, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279081

RESUMO

Accumulated evidence suggests that some of the tripartite motif (TRIM) -family proteins function as critical regulators of carcinogenesis, immunity, and antiviral functions. TRIM44 is an atypical TRIM family protein that lacks the entire RING domain and has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in cancer and viral infection. To our knowledge, the role of TRIM44 in fish still remains largely unknown. Here, we cloned and characterized a novel TRIM44-like gene from orange spotted grouper (EcTRIM44L). Sequence analysis indicated that EcTRIM44L encoded a 393 amino acid peptide, which shared 81.44% and 51.02% identity with large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), respectively. However, EcTRIM44L only exhibited 24.69% identity with the TRIM44 protein of humans (Homo sapiens). Moreover, EcTRIM44L contained two conserved domains, including a B-Box domain and a coiled-coil domain, but not a RING domain. Using fluorescence microscopy, we observed green fluorescence in the cytoplasm of the EcTRIM44L-EGFP transfected grouper spleen (GS) cells. As the infection proceeded, EcTRIM44L transcription was significantly up-regulated in red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection, suggesting that EcTRIM44L might be involved in fish virus infections. The in vitro overexpression of EcTRIM44L significantly enhanced RGNNV replication, as demonstrated by the accelerated cytopathic effect (CPE) progression induced by RGNNV, as well as the increased expression of coat protein (CP) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The overexpression of EcTRIM44L significantly decreased the level of interferon (IFN) related signaling molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, suggesting that EcTRIM44L affected virus replication by negatively regulating the IFN response. In addition, the melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) and mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), but not mediator of IRF3 activation (MITA)-evoked IFN response was negatively regulated by EcTRIM44L. Together, for the first time, our results indicate that EcTRIM44L negatively regulates the interferon response against grouper RNA virus infection.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Nodaviridae/fisiologia , Filogenia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/química
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 649-654, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265911

RESUMO

Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is the main grouper-infecting virus in southern China that causes serious economic losses. However, there is no effective way to control this viral disease. In this study, SGIV ORF19R (SGIV-19R) encoding a viral membrane protein was constructed into pcDNA3.1-HA and then was used to evaluate the immune protective effects in grouper Epinephelus coioides. Subcellular localization showed that SGIV-19R distributed in the cytoplasm and co-localization analysis indicated the protein partially co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). RT-PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed the expression of the vaccine plasmids in grouper muscle tissues. Moreover, the transcription levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx1) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) genes were significantly up-regulated in the spleen, liver and kidney of vaccinated groupers. SGIV challenge experiments showed the relative percent survival (RPS) was significantly enhanced in fish with 49.9% at the DNA dose of 45 µg pcDNA3.1-19R, while 75.0% RPS when using 90 µg pcDNA3.1-19R. Meanwhile, vaccination with pcDNA3.1-19R significantly reduced the virus replication, evidenced by a low viral load in the spleen of survivals groupers after SGIV challenge. These results imply that pcDNA3.1-19R could induce protective immunity in grouper, and might be a potential vaccine candidate for controlling SGIV disease.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Inata , Ranavirus/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Iridovirus/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/imunologia
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 782-791, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288100

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes are the earliest reported pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) and have been extensively studied. These genes play pivotal roles in the innate immune defense against pathogen invasion. In this study, a total of 16 tlr genes were identified and characterized in spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus). The tlr genes of spotted sea bass were classified into five subfamilies (tlr1-subfamily, tlr3-subfamily, tlr5-subfamily, tlr7-subfamily, and tlr11-subfamily) according to the phylogenetic analysis, and their annotations were confirmed by a syntenic analysis. The protein domain analysis indicated that most tlr genes had the following three major TLR protein domains: a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, a transmembrane region (TM) and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The tlr genes in spotted sea bass were distributed in 11 of 24 chromosomes. The mRNA expression levels of 16 tlr genes in response to Vibrio harveyi infection were quantified in the head kidney. Most genes were downregulated following V. harveyi infection, while only 5 tlr genes, including tlr1-1, tlr1-2, tlr2-2, tlr5, and tlr7, were significantly upregulated. Collectively, these results help elucidate the crucial roles of tlr genes in the immune response of spotted sea bass and may supply valuable genomic resources for future studies investigating fish disease management.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Genoma/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Vibrio/fisiologia , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária
14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 690-697, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276788

RESUMO

Macrophage expressed gene 1 (Mpeg1) is a molecule that can form pores and destroy the cell membrane of invading pathogens. In this study, we identified two Mpeg1 isoforms from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and named them EcMpeg1a and EcMpeg1b. Predicted proteins of the two EcMpeg1s contained a signal peptide, a conserved membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domain, a transmembrane segment, and an intracellular region. Sequence alignment demonstrated that two EcMpeg1 proteins share a high sequence identity with that of other teleosts. Tissue distribution analysis showed that EcMpeg1s were expressed in all tissues tested in healthy grouper, with the highest expression in the head kidney and spleen. After infection with the ciliate parasite Cryptocaryon irritans, expression of the two EcMpeg1s was significantly upregulated in the spleen and gills. Furthermore, the recombinant EcMpeg1a showed antiparasitic and antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and -positive bacteria, whereas EcMpeg1b had an inhibitory effect only against Gram-positive bacteria. These results indicated that EcMpeg1s play an important role in the host response against invading pathogens.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cilióforos/fisiologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/imunologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/fisiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/fisiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 308-312, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352113

RESUMO

Initiation of the innate immune response requires recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by pathogen recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). MyD88 adaptor-like (Mal) is an adaptor that responds to TLR activation and acts as a bridging adaptor for MyD88. In the present study, the open reading frame of Mal was identified in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), and named EcMal. It contained 831 bp encoding 276 aa, and was encoded by a 1299 bp DNA sequence with three exons and two introns. EcMal and the Mal sequence of other species shared different degrees of sequence identity, and clustered into the same group. EcMal was distributed in all tissues tested in healthy grouper, with the highest expression level in the head kidney. After infection with Cryptocaryon irritans, the expression level of EcMal was up-regulated in the gill and spleen. In addition, EcMal exhibited global cytosolic and nucleus localization, and could significantly activate NF-κB activity in grouper spleen cells.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cilióforos/fisiologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/imunologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/química , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
16.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 111-118, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176005

RESUMO

Apolipoproteins (Apos), which are the protein components of plasma lipoproteins, play important roles in lipid transport in vertebrates. It has been demonstrated that in teleosts, several Apos display antimicrobial activity and play crucial roles in innate immunity. Despite their importance, apo genes have not been systematically characterized in many aquaculture fish species. In our study, a complete set of 23 apo genes was identified and annotated from spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus). Phylogenetic and homology analyses provided evidence for their annotation and evolutionary relationships. To investigate their potential roles in the immune response, the expression patterns of 23 apo genes were determined in the liver and intestine by qRT-PCR after Vibrio harveyi infection. After infection, a total of 20 differentially expressed apo genes were observed, and their expression profiles varied among the genes and tissues. 5 apo genes (apoA1, apoA4a.1, apoC2, apoF and apoO) were dramatically induced or suppressed (log2 fold change >4, P < 0.05), suggesting their involvement in the immune response of spotted sea bass. Our study provides a valuable foundation for future studies aimed at uncovering the specific roles of each apo gene during bacterial infection in spotted sea bass and other teleost species.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas/genética , Apolipoproteínas/imunologia , Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Animais , Apolipoproteínas/química , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Família Multigênica/imunologia , Filogenia , Transcriptoma , Vibrio/fisiologia , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 172-180, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176008

RESUMO

Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a ubiquitously expressed cellular protein and involves in diverse pathological conditions, including infection and inflammation. CypA acts as a key factor in the replication of several viruses. However, little is known about the role of CypA in the replication of the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV). In the present report, grouper CypA (GF-CypA) was cloned from the grouper fin cell line (GF-1) derived from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Sequence analysis found that GF-CypA open reading frame (ORF) of 495 bp encodes a polypeptide of 164 amino acids residues with a molecular weight of 17.4 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence shared highly conserved regions with CypA of other animal species, showing that GF-CypA is a new member of Cyclophilin A family. We observed that GF-CypA was up-regulated in the GF-1 cells infected with RGNNV. Additionally, overexpression of CypA could significantly inhibit the replication of RGNNV in GF-1 cells. By contrast, when the GF-CypA was knock-downed by siRNA in GF-1 cells, the replication of RGNNV was enhanced. Furthermore, the expressions of pro-inflammatory factors, such as TNF-2, TNF-α, IL-1b, and ISG-15, were increased in GF-CypA transfected GF-1 cells challenged with RGNNV, indicating that GF-CypA might be involved in the regulation of the host pro-inflammatory factors. Altogether, we conclude that GF-CypA plays a vital role in the inhibitory effect of RGNNV replication that might be modulating the cytokines secretion in GF-1 cells during RGNNV infection. These results will shed new light on the function of CypA in the replication of RGNNV and will pave a new way for the prevention of the infection of RGNNV in fish.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Ciclofilina A/genética , Ciclofilina A/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Ciclofilina A/química , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Nodaviridae/fisiologia , Filogenia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Replicação Viral
18.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 19(5): 1322-1332, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230418

RESUMO

The giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is the largest coral reef teleost, with a native range that spans temperate and tropical waters in the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. It is cultured artificially and used as a breeding species in aquaculture due to its rapid growth rate. Here we report a giant grouper genome assembled at the chromosome scale from sequences generated using Illumina and high-throughput chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) technology. The assembly comprised 1.086 Gb, with 98.4% of the scaffold sequences anchored into 24 chromosomes. The contig and scaffold N50 values were 119.9 kb and 46.2 Mb, respectively. The assembly is of high integrity, including 96.4% universal single-copy orthologues based on BUSCO analysis. Through chromosome-scale evolution analysis, we identified alignments of six giant grouper chromosomes to three stickleback chromosomes and some of the genes located within the breakpoints of reshuffling events may related to development and growth. From the 24,718 protein-coding genes, we found that several gene families related to innate immunity and glycan biosynthesis were significantly expanded in the giant grouper genome compared to other teleost genomes. In addition, we identified several genes related to the hormone signalling pathway and innate immunity that have experienced positive selection or accelerated evolution, implicating their roles in immune defence and fast growth of the species. The high-quality genome assembly will provide a valuable genomic resource for further biological and evolutionary studies, and useful genomic tools for breeding of the giant grouper.


Assuntos
Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bass/genética , Cromossomos , Genoma , Imunidade Inata , Animais , Bass/imunologia , Biologia Computacional , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 500-507, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247318

RESUMO

Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MKK6) is one of the major important central regulatory proteins response to environmental and physiological stimuli. In this study, a novel MKK6, EcMKK6, was isolated from Epinephelus coioides, an economically important cultured fish in China and Southeast Asian counties. The open reading frame (ORF) of EcMKK6 is 1077 bp encoding 358 amino acids. EcMKK6 contains a serine/threonine protein kinase (S_TKc) domain, a tyrosine kinase catalytic domain, a conserved dual phosphorylation site in the SVAKT motif and a conserved DVD domain. By in situ hybridization (ISH) with Digoxigenin-labeled probe, EcMKK6 mainly located at the cytoplasm of cells, and a little appears in the nucleus. EcMKK6 mRNA can be detected in all eleven tissues examined, but the expression level is different in these tissues. After challenge with Vibrio alginolyticus and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), the transcription level of EcMKK6 was apparently up-regulated in the tissues examined. The data demonstrated that the sequence and the characters of EcMKK6 were conserved, EcMKK6 showed tissue-specific expression profiles in healthy grouper, and the expression was significantly varied after pathogen infection, indicating that EcMKK6 may play important roles in E. coioides during pathogen-caused inflammation.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase 6/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase 6/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , MAP Quinase Quinase 6/química , Filogenia , Ranavirus/fisiologia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária , Vibrio alginolyticus/fisiologia
20.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 404-412, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077847

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a kind of small non-coding RNAs that have been reported to play a vital role in mediating host-pathogen interactions. High-throughput sequencing technology was applied to identify and illuminate mRNAs and miRNAs from grouper infected with Vibrio alginolyticus. The KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the most significate DEGs are associated with Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and NOD-like receptor signaling pathway. We obtained 374 known miRNAs and 116 novel miRNAs. During them, there are 31 up-regulated miRNAs and 93 down-regulated miRNAs. miRNA-mRNA GO and KEGG analysis show that there are 90 miRNAs associated with the immune system. The target genes of immune-related miRNAs (miR-142, miR-146, miR-150, miR-155, miR-203, miR-205, miR-24, miR-31) and genes (CD80, IL-2, AMPK, PI3K) in Epinephelus coioddes were predicted and validated. This study provides an opportunity to further understanding the molecular mechanisms especially the immune system of miRNA regulation in Epinephelus coioddes host-pathogen interactions.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Animais , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária , Vibrio alginolyticus/fisiologia
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