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1.
J Econ Entomol ; 115(1): 56-64, 2022 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34875693

RESUMO

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vectors 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.', the causative agent of Citrus Greening Disease (CGD) or Huanglongbing (HLB). Managing populations of psyllids in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV), TX, United States is imperative given a continuous increase in HLB-positive trees. A component of integrated pest management (IPM) program is the use of strains of entomopathogenic fungi for the biological control of D. citri. In an attempt to find endemic strains of entomopathogenic fungi that grow favorably under LRGV environmental conditions and naturally infect D. citri, psyllids were collected from local residential areas, surface sterilized, and plated on a semi-selective agar medium. Collection of over 9,300 samples from 278 sites throughout the LRGV led to the positive identification of two Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivellii) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) isolates, ACP18001 and ACP18002. Chi-square analysis of primary and secondary acquisition bioassays revealed that both field isolated strains outperformed Cordyceps (Isaria) fumosorosea (Wize) (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) Apopka97 under both primary (direct spray) and secondary acquisition (adult exposure to sprayed foliage) bioassays with ACP18002 marginally outperforming ACP18001 under secondary acquisition. Slopes of the dose response regression lines for the three fungi were not significantly different. In addition, the thermal profiles for vegetative growth of each isolate indicated that the field isolates grew at higher rates than the standard at higher temperatures. The new isolates may prove to be good candidates for the management of D. citri populations in the LRGV.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Citrus , Hemípteros , Animais , Beauveria/fisiologia , Citrus/microbiologia , Hemípteros/patogenicidade
2.
Phytopathology ; 112(4): 784-793, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636647

RESUMO

Biocontrol agents can control pathogens by reenforcing systemic plant resistance through systemic acquired resistance (SAR) or induced systemic resistance (ISR). Trichoderma spp. can activate the plant immune system through ISR, priming molecular mechanisms of defense against pathogens. Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) can infect a wide range of arthropod pests and play an important role in reducing pests' population. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which EPF control plant diseases. We tested two well studied EPF, Metarhizium brunneum isolate Mb7 and Beauveria bassiana as the commercial product Velifer, for their ability to induce systemic immunity and disease resistance against several fungal and bacterial phytopathogens, and their ability to promote plant growth. We compared the activity of these EPF to an established biocontrol agent, Trichoderma harzianum T39, a known inducer of systemic plant immunity and broad disease resistance. The three fungal agents were effective against several fungal and bacterial plant pathogens and arthropod pests. Our results indicate that EPF induce systemic plant immunity and disease resistance by activating the plant host defense machinery, as evidenced by increases in reactive oxygen species production and defense gene expression, and that EPF promote plant growth. EPF should be considered as control means for Tuta absoluta. We demonstrate that, with some exceptions, biocontrol in tomato can be equally potent by the tested EPF and T. harzianum T39, against both insect pests and plant pathogens. Taken together, our findings suggest that EPF may find use in broad-spectrum pest and disease management and as plant growth promoting agents.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Lycopersicon esculentum , Beauveria/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença , Metarhizium , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Plantas
3.
Bull Entomol Res ; 112(1): 70-77, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429185

RESUMO

Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) is one of the most important pests of agricultural crops with worldwide distribution causing considerable damage to different products. Application of chemical acaricides is one of the most important strategies used for the control of this pest. Entomopathogenic fungi, however, have been proposed as alternative control agents. In this study, sub-lethal effects (LC10 = 6.76 × 102, LC20 = 8.74 × 103, and LC30 = 55.38 × 103 conidia ml-1) of Beauveria bassiana strain TV on the life table parameters of T. urticae were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The results demonstrated that by increasing the concentration, a significant decline was observed in adult longevity of both male and female individuals. Total fecundity of T. urticae was calculated as 45.16, 36.28, 23.98, and 18.21 eggs in control, LC10, LC20, and LC30 treatments, respectively. Sub-lethal concentrations drastically affected the population parameters of this mite pest. The intrinsic rate of increase (r) ranged from 0.1983 to 0.1688 day-1 for the mites treated with distilled water and LC20 treatments, respectively. The net reproductive rate (R0) was affected by the sub-lethal concentrations (lower value at LC30 concentration: 11.19 offspring/individual). Considering the detrimental effects of B. bassiana on some biological parameters of T. urticae, it can be concluded that this product can be used to develop targeted interventions aimed at integrated pest management of this pest.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Beauveria , Ácaros , Tetranychidae , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Beauveria/fisiologia , Tábuas de Vida , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21710, 2021 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741040

RESUMO

Pathogens can modify many aspects of host behavior or physiology with cascading impacts across trophic levels in terrestrial food webs. These changes include thermal tolerance of hosts, however the effects of fungal infections on thermal tolerances and behavioral responses to extreme temperatures (ET) across trophic levels have rarely been studied. We examined how a fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, affects upper and lower thermal tolerance, and behavior of an herbivorous insect, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and its predator beetle, Hippodamia convergens. We compared changes in thermal tolerance limits (CTMin and CTMax), thermal boldness (voluntary exposure to ET), energetic cost (ATP) posed by each response (thermal tolerance and boldness) between healthy insects and insects infected with two fungal loads. Fungal infection reduced CTMax of both aphids and beetles, as well as CTMin of beetles. Fungal infection modified the tendency, or boldness, of aphids and predator beetles to cross either warm or cold ET zones (ETZ). ATP levels increased with pathogen infection in both insect species, and the highest ATP levels were found in individuals that crossed cold ETZ. Fungal infection narrowed the thermal tolerance range and inhibited thermal boldness behaviors to cross ET. As environmental temperatures rise, response to thermal stress will be asymmetric among members of a food web at different trophic levels, which may have implications for predator-prey interactions, food web structures, and species distributions.


Assuntos
Afídeos/microbiologia , Beauveria/fisiologia , Besouros/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Termotolerância , Animais
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 741797, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603328

RESUMO

Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana can infect many species of insects and is used as a biological pesticide world-wide. Before reaching the hemocoel, B. bassiana has to penetrate the integument which is composed of a thick chitin layer and epidermal cells. Some chitinase, protease and lipase secreted by B. bassiana are probably involved in the fungal penetration of the integument. While microscopic proof is needed, it is difficult to locate the precise infection sites following the traditional method of immersion infection. Consequently, we developed a new method to inoculate conidia solution into a single fixed-site on the back of one segment. This fixed-site infection method is pathogenic but it is also dose dependent. Using the fixed-site infection protocol, it is also very convenient to track hyphae inside the cuticle layer by light and transmission electron microscopy. The fact that few hyphae were detected inside the chitin layer after fixed-site infection with mutant ΔBPS8, a protease secreted during fungi germination, indicates that this method is suitable for screening genes involved in penetrating the integument in large scale. We also found that melanization occurs before new hyphae penetrate the chitin layer. Most importantly, we discovered that fungal infection can induce epidermal cell proliferation through DNA duplication and cell division, which is essential for the host to defend against fungal infection. Taken together the fixed-site infection method may be helpful to determine the mechanism of fungal and host interaction in the integument so as to effectively exert fungal biological virulence.


Assuntos
Beauveria/fisiologia , Bombyx/imunologia , Quitina/metabolismo , Epiderme/metabolismo , Micoses/imunologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Quitinases/metabolismo , Epiderme/patologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Hifas , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Mutação/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Controle de Pragas , Esporos Fúngicos , Virulência
6.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 186: 107674, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606828

RESUMO

The insect cuticle is a composite structure that can further be divided into a few sub-structural layers. Its large moiety comprises a lattice of chitin fibrils and structural proteins, both of which are stabilized by covalent bonding among them. The cuticle covers the whole surface of insect body, and thus has long been suggested for the involvement in defense against entomopathogens, especially entomopathogenic fungi that infect percutaneously. We have been addressing this issue in the past few years and have so far demonstrated experimentally that chitin synthase 1, laccase2 as well as benzoquinone synthesis-related genes of Tribolium castaneum have indispensable roles in the antifungal host defense. In the present study we focused on another major component of the insect cuticular integument, structural cuticular proteins. We chose three genes coding for adult-specific cuticular proteins, namely CPR4, CPR18 and CPR27, and examined their roles in forming immunologically sound adult cuticular integuments. Analyses of developmental expression revealed that the three genes showed high level expression in the pupal stage. These results are consistent with their proposed roles in constructing cuticle of adult beetles. The RNA interference-mediated gene knockdown was employed to silence these genes, and the administration of double strand RNAs in pupae resulted in the adults with malformed elytra. The single knockdown of the three genes attenuated somewhat the defense of the resulting adult beetles against Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, but statistical analyses indicated no significant differences from controls. In contrast, the double or triple knockdown mutant beetles displayed a drastic disruption of the host defense against the two entomopathogenic fungal species irrespective of the combination of targeted cuticular protein genes, demonstrating the important roles of the three cuticular protein genes in conferring robust antifungal properties on the adult cuticle. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that the germination of conidia attached on the adult body surface was still suppressed after the gene knockdown as in the case of wild-type beetles, suggesting that the weakened antifungal phenotypes resulted from the combined knockdown of the adult-specific cuticular protein genes could not be accounted for by the disfunction of secretion/retention of fungistatic benzoquinone derivatives.


Assuntos
Beauveria/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Metarhizium/fisiologia , Tribolium/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Pupa/genética , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/metabolismo , Pupa/microbiologia , Tribolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tribolium/metabolismo , Tribolium/microbiologia
7.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 24(9): 944-952, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585547

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> The red palm weevil is a dangerous date palm pests that cannot be controlled with chemical pesticides only. As a result of the justified concerns of the negative use of synthetic insecticides on human health and the environment. So on, candidate eco-friendly micro-organisms isolated from KSA agri-ecosystems were evaluated in controlling RPW. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> Some indigenous entomopathogenic fungi and bacteria were isolated from naturally infected RPW larvae and adults and evaluated as alternative control methods. <b>Results:</b> The infection of RPW larvae with entomopathogenic fungi and bacteria under natural conditions was higher than in adults. <i>Beauveria bassiana </i>was the most prevalent followed by <i>Aspergillus </i>sp., <i>Metarhizium anisopliae</i>, <i>Mucor</i> sp., <i>Cladosporium chlorocephalum</i>. In contrast, both <i>Bacillus</i> <i>thuringiensis</i> and <i>Bacillus popilliae</i> formed 73.9 and 26.1%, respectively. From the 7th day, mortalities (%) increased gradually and recorded the highest mortalities with 21st days after treatment and recorded 93.33, 66.70, 53.36, 46.69 and 60.00% when treated with <i>B. bassiana</i>, <i>M. anisopliae</i>, <i>C. chlorosphalum</i>, <i>Mucor</i> sp. and <i>Aspergillus</i> sp., respectively. <b>Conclusion:</b> Although there was evidence indicating midgut damage and feeding inhibition among larvae that survived the treatments, instead of lower activity of <i>B. thuringiensis</i> against <i>R. ferrugineus</i> immature stages may refer to that, Both species of <i>Bacillus</i> were more virulent as the days 15-21 post-treatment.


Assuntos
Beauveria/patogenicidade , Gorgulhos/microbiologia , Animais , Beauveria/fisiologia , Bioensaio/instrumentação , Bioensaio/métodos , Arábia Saudita
8.
Vet Parasitol ; 298: 109553, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388422

RESUMO

The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been successfully used for the control of phytopathogenic arthropods and there are a growing number of studies suggesting that this kind of fungus could also be used for the control of ectoparasites in mammals. This study evaluated for the first time the efficacy of different Beauveria strains against the eggs of Sarcoptes scabiei collected from experimentally infected pigs. Eggs were exposed to fungal conidia and monitored for hatching over 10 days. The strongest effect (28.75 % of hatching inhibition) was obtained with a commercial B. bassiana strain. Furthermore, the detection of fungal genomic within the surface-cleaned eggs demonstrated the ability of B. bassiana to penetrate and proliferate in the egg-shell of S. scabiei. This study provides the first evidence, using molecular techniques, that the development of mycoacaricides may be of interest for the control of S. scabiei infection.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Sarcoptes scabiei , Animais , Beauveria/fisiologia , Óvulo/microbiologia , Sarcoptes scabiei/microbiologia , Escabiose/prevenção & controle , Esporos Fúngicos , Suínos
9.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 499(1): 260-265, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426924

RESUMO

Several ascomycetous entomopathogenic fungi, including species in the genera Beauveria, are plant symbionts/endophytes and are termed as endophytic insect-pathogenic fungi. It was shown that the fungus Beauveria bassiana (BBK-1 strain) successfully colonized Vicia faba bean plants in laboratory and field conditions of Western Siberia. The B. bassiana reisolate passed through the plants had significantly higher antagonistic activity against phytopathogens in comparison with the primary stem of entomopahogenic fungi. Pre-sowing faba bean seeds treatment reduced the level of infection of the seed material with phytopathogens, significantly decrease the development and prevalence of root rot disease. A decrease in the disease development index (chocolate spot, powdery mildew, fusariosis and other spots diseases) was found as a result of the use of B. bassiana. The effectiveness and prolonged action of B. bassiana on plants opens up new opportunities both in the creation of biological products and in molecular-genetic research and selection of certain pairs of plants and fungi based on the principle of the greatest synergy.


Assuntos
Beauveria/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Vicia faba/microbiologia , Endófitos , Sementes/microbiologia
10.
J Basic Microbiol ; 61(9): 814-824, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312885

RESUMO

Trichoderma is a well-known soil-borne fungus, highly efficient producer of extracellular enzymes including chitinases. The aim of this study was to recover a chitinase from fermentation waste after harvesting Trichoderma koningiopsis Th003 conidia and assess its potential as an enhancer of Beauveria bassiana insecticidal activity against Diatraea saccharalis. T. koningiopsis was produced by solid fermentation, conidia were harvested, and a crude extract (CE) was recovered by washing the residual substrate (rice:wheat bran). The partially purified chitinase (PPC) (75 kDa product) with N-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase activity was obtained by chromatography to 29.3-fold with optimal activity at pH 5 and 55°C. Both the CE and the PPC were mixed with B. bassiana Bv062 conidia and assessed in a bioassay against D. saccharalis larvae. The CE and PPC from T. koningiopsis Th003 did not affect the germination or viability of B. bassiana conidia and enhanced its insecticidal activity when used at 0.06 U/ml enzymatic activity with a 24.5% reduction in B. bassiana lethal time (LT90 ). This study demonstrated the potential of chitinases produced by T. koningiopsis in solid fermentation to be recovered from the waste substrate and used as an additive to enhance B. bassiana, adding value to the main waste from the Trichoderma biopesticide/biofertilizer industries.


Assuntos
Beauveria/fisiologia , Quitinases/farmacologia , Hypocreales/enzimologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/microbiologia , Animais , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Fermentação , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Esporos Fúngicos/enzimologia
11.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 184: 107647, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303711

RESUMO

Insect Apolipophorin-III is a multifunctional protein and also plays an important role in insect innate immunity. Early transcriptome and proteome studies indicated that the gene expression level of Bombyx mori Apolipophorin-III (BmApoLp-III) in silkworm larvae infected with Beauveria bassiana was significantly up-regulated. In this study, BmApoLp-III gene was cloned, its expression patterns in different larval tissues investigated, the BmApoLp-III protein was successfully expressed with prokaryotic expression system and its antifungal effect was verified. The results showed that the BmApoLp-III gene was expressed in all the tested tissues of the 5th instar larvae infected by B. bassiana, with the highest expression in fat body. The fungistatic zone test showed that the recombinant BmApoLp-III has a significant antifungal effect on B. bassiana. Injecting purified BmApoLp-III to the larvae delayed the onset and death of the infected larvae. Conversely, silencing BmApoLp-III gene by RNAi resulted in early morbidity and death of the infected larvae. At the same time, injecting BmApoLp-III up-regulated the expression of genes including BmßGRP4 and BmMyd88 in the Toll signaling pathway, BmCTL5 and BmHOP in the Jak/STAT signaling pathway, serine proteinase inhibitor BmSerpin5, and antimicrobial peptide BmCecA, but down-regulated the expression of BmTak1 of Imd signaling pathway; while silencing BmApoLp-III gene down-regulated the expression of BmßGRP1 and BmSpaetzle, BmCTL5 and BmHOP, BmSerpin2 and BmSerpin5, BmBAEE and BmPPO2 of relevant pathways and BmCecA, but up-regulated the expression of BmPGRP-Lc and BmTak1 of Imd pathway. These results indicate that the BmApoLp-III could not only directly inhibit B. bassiana, but also participate in regulation of the expression of immune signaling pathway related genes, promote the expression of immune effectors, and indirectly inhibit the reproduction of B. bassiana in the silkworm.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas/genética , Beauveria/fisiologia , Bombyx/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Imunidade Inata/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Regulação para Cima/imunologia , Animais , Apolipoproteínas/metabolismo , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bombyx/imunologia , Bombyx/microbiologia , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/imunologia , Larva/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais
12.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 184: 107620, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004164

RESUMO

Earthworms are ecological engineers that can contribute to the displacement of biological control agents such as the entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) and fungi (EPF). However, a previous study showed that the presence of cutaneous excreta (CEx) and feeding behavior of the earthworm species Eisenia fetida (Haplotaxida: Lumbricidae) compromise the biocontrol efficacy of certain EPN species by reducing, for example, their reproductive capability. Whether this phenomenon is a general pattern for the interaction of earthworms-entomopathogens is still unknown. We hypothesized that diverse earthworm species might differentially affect EPN and EPF infectivity and reproductive capability. Here we investigated the interaction of different earthworm species (Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus terrestris, and Perionyx excavatus) (Haplotaxida) and EPN species (Steinernema feltiae, S. riojaense, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) (Rhabditida) or EPF species (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae) (Hypocreales), in two independent experiments. First, we evaluated the application of each entomopathogen combined with earthworms or their CEx in autoclaved soil. Hereafter, we studied the impact of the earthworms' CEx on entomopathogens applied at two different concentrations in autoclaved sand. Overall, we found that the effect of earthworms on entomopathogens was species-specific. For example, E. fetida reduced the virulence of S. feltiae, resulted in neutral effects for S. riojaense, and increased H. bacteriophora virulence. However, the earthworm P. excavates increased the virulence of S. feltiae, reduced the activity of H. bacteriophora, at least at specific timings, while S. riojaense remained unaffected. Finally, none of the EPN species were affected by the presence of L. terrestris. Also, the exposure to earthworm CEx resulted in a positive, negative or neutral effect on the virulence and reproduction capability depending on the earthworm-EPN species interaction. Concerning EPF, the impact of earthworms was also differential among species. Thus, E. fetida was detrimental to M. anisopliae and B. bassiana after eight days post-exposure, whereas Lumbricus terrestris resulted only detrimental to B. bassiana. In addition, most of the CEx treatments of both earthworm species decreased B. bassiana virulence and growth. However, the EPF M. anisopliae was unaffected when exposed to L. terrestris CEx, while the exposure to E. fetida CEx produced contrasting results. We conclude that earthworms and their CEx can have positive, deleterious, or neutral impacts on entomopathogens that often coinhabit soils, and that we must consider the species specificity of these interactions for mutual uses in biological control programs. Additional studies are needed to verify these interactions under natural conditions.


Assuntos
Beauveria/fisiologia , Metarhizium/fisiologia , Oligoquetos/química , Rabditídios/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Beauveria/patogenicidade , Metarhizium/patogenicidade , Reprodução , Rabditídios/patogenicidade , Especificidade da Espécie , Virulência
13.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 183: 107618, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992641

RESUMO

The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is becoming a serious problem on Bt cotton. It causes enormous crop loss through its direct feeding and as a vector of cotton leaf curl virus. Chemical-dependent management is harming the environment and increased insecticide resistance is often observed in the fields. Identification of most virulent strains of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) is essential to serve as an important component of an IPM program for management of B. tabaci. Compared to B. tabaci adults, the nymphal stage is reported to be more susceptible to entomopathogens, and targeting nymphs also helps vector management. We evaluated the bioefficacy of EPF and chemical pesticides against nymphs of B. tabaci on Bt cotton under polyhouse and field conditions. The bioefficacy index (BI) was considered as a mechanism to select the most effective EPF strains for field evaluation. The highest nymphal mortality under polyhouse conditions was recorded for Metarhizium anisopliae NA-01299 (86.7%), Beauveria bassiana MT-4511 (85.1%), Cordyceps javanica IT-10498 (81.1%), IT-10499 (81%), and B. bassiana NA-0409 (78.2%) relative to other EPF strains, spiromesifen (69.6%), buprofezin (62.2%) and pyriproxyfen (52.7%) at 7-days-post-spray treatment (DAS). However, among all the EPF, the highest BI was recorded in C. javanica IT-10499 (77%), IT-10495 (75.4%), Fusarium verticillioides IT-10493 (74.6%), and B. bassiana MT-4511 (73.1%). The pooled data of two-year field trials (2017-18 & 2018-19) revealed that the highest nymphal mortality was recorded for MT-4511 (85%), IT-10499 (83.2%), and pyriproxyfen 10% EC (78.6%) at 7-DAS. The BI-based selection of EPF proved to be a useful predictor of field efficacy. A sequential spray of the selected EPF would be a vital approach for resilient and sustainable integrated management of the B. tabaci nymphal population under field conditions.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Controle de Insetos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Animais , Beauveria/fisiologia , Cordyceps/fisiologia , Fusarium/fisiologia , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metarhizium/fisiologia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/microbiologia
14.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 181: 107588, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862054

RESUMO

Fungal polyketide synthases play important and differential roles in synthesizing secondary metabolites and regulating several cell events, including asexual development, environmental adaptation, and pathogenicity. This study shows the important functions of a highly reducing polyketide synthase, Pks11, in Beauveria bassiana, a filamentous fungal insect pathogen used worldwide for pest biocontrol. The deletion of pks11 led to severe defects in conidial yields on different media and a decrease of 36.27% in the mean thickness of conidial cell wall under normal conditions. Compared with the wild-type, Δpks11 showed higher tolerance to oxidation and increased sensitivity to high temperature during colony growth. Moreover, the lack of pks11 caused a decrease in conidial germination after exposure to UV radiation but did not affect the virulence of B. bassiana against Galleria mellonella larvae via typical cuticle infection. These findings concurred with the alteration in the transcript levels of some phenotype-related genes. These data suggested that pks11 played vital roles in the asexual development, cell wall integrity, and fungal responses to oxidation, high temperature, and UV irradiation of B. bassiana.


Assuntos
Beauveria/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Esporos Fúngicos/genética , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Beauveria/enzimologia , Beauveria/fisiologia , Beauveria/efeitos da radiação , Parede Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Policetídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos da radiação
15.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 24(1): 158-164, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The Taify cultivar of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the second important economical fruit after pomegranate at high altitudes of the Taif region in Saudi Arabia. The grapevine trees are infested with different piercing-sucking insect pests especially aphids, whiteflies and thrips. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of an indigenous endophytic entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana to control the important piercing-sucking insect pests on grapevines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This investigation was carried out through 5, 10 and 15 day intervals between sprays for controlling Aphis illinoisensis, Bemisia tabaci and Frankliniella occidentalis with a concentration of 6×106 conidia mL-1 under field conditions. RESULTS: The higher infestation in the untreated control was by aphids followed by whitefly and thrips. At the end of the experiment in the treated trees, aphid and whitefly reduction percentages with 5 day intervals of sprays (98.5 and 96.12%, respectively) were not significantly different from 10 day intervals (95.17 and 91.81%, respectively) while these reductions were significantly higher than the reduction occurred by 15 day intervals of sprays (65.93 and 44.51%, respectively). Meanwhile, the 3 intervals of sprays did not differ significantly in the thrips reduction occurred by them with a range from 93.62-96.46%. CONCLUSION: This indigenous B. bassiana as 6×106 conidia mL-1 with 10 day intervals of the spray-on grapevine can suppress the piercing-sucking insect pests. This also will participate in grapevine organic production and furthermore, it could replace the chemical treatment.


Assuntos
Beauveria/fisiologia , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Vitis/parasitologia , Animais , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Afídeos/microbiologia , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arábia Saudita , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tisanópteros/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 106(2): e21763, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426694

RESUMO

Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are well known for their abilities to recognize or hydrolyze peptidoglycan (PGN), one of the major bacterial cell wall components. However, much less is known about their antifungal activities. PGRP-S1 was previously identified from a crop pest, Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). PGRP-S1 showed bacteriolytic activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, tissue expression analysis showed that PGRP-S1 was mainly expressed in the midgut of naïve larvae. The induction analysis showed that it was significantly induced in the larval midgut 12 h post the injection of Beauveria bassiana conidia. To identify the key residues that are related to its microbicidal activities, the structure of PGPR-S1 was predicted for structural comparison and molecular docking analysis. Six residues (H61, H62, Y97, H171, T175, and C179) were mutated to Ala individually by site-directed mutagenesis. The recombinant wild-type (WT) and mutant proteins were expressed and purified. The recombinant proteins bound to different polysaccharides, PGNs, and bacteria. H61A, Y97A, H171A, and C179A lost amidase activity. Accordingly, antibacterial assay and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that only H62A and T175A retained bacteriolytic activities. The germination of B. bassiana conidia was significantly inhibited by WT, H61A, Y97A, T175A, and C179A mutants. Electron microscopy showed that some conidia became ruptured after treatment. The growth of hyphae was inhibited by the WT, H61A, H62A, and T175A. In summary, our data showed that different residues of PGRP-S1 are involved in the antibacterial and antifungal activities.


Assuntos
Beauveria/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Mariposas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2188, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500474

RESUMO

Kuschelorhynchus macadamiae is a major pest of macadamias in Australia, causing yield losses of up to 15%. Our previous studies have shown the weevil is susceptible to Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The aim of this study was to investigate horizontal transmission of both fungal species to healthy weevils from both infected adults and weevil cadavers. In a confined environment the mortality of healthy adults caused by the transmission of conidia from live fungus-infected adults was < 50%. Under similar experimental conditions, the mortality of healthy adults reached 100% when exposed to conidiated cadavers. However, when conidiated cadavers were used in more spacious environments (insect cages), the mortality of adults was < 80%. Using scanning electron microscopy, it was observed that all healthy adults had conidia attached to all external parts of the body. This suggests that although the conidia were readily transferred to the adults, the lower mortality in the larger insect cages could be the result of an unfavourable environmental factor such as low humidity. The presence of conidia attached to all the adults indicated that they did not show any discriminatory behaviour such as avoidance of conidiated cadavers infected by these two fungal species. The results from this study show that there is potential for enhanced control of adult K. macadamiae via transmission from either fungus-infected adults or conidiated cadavers and this could strengthen sustainable pest management in macadamias.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Beauveria/fisiologia , Metarhizium/fisiologia , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia , Gorgulhos/microbiologia , Animais , Bioensaio , Cadáver , Gorgulhos/anatomia & histologia , Gorgulhos/ultraestrutura
18.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 179: 107473, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946913

RESUMO

The Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription cascade transduction (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway is highly conserved in mammals, but the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their functions are unclear. We found that the expression pattern of Bombyx mori C-type lectin 5 (BmCTL 5) had a synergy relevance with the JAK/STAT signaling pathway against Beauveria bassiana. An RNAi assay, subcellular localization analysis, yeast two-hybrid technique, protein recruitment experiment and pathogen infection tests were used to explore the roles of BmCTL 5 in the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Knock-down of the BmCTL 5 suppressed the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and the PO cascade of nodule melanization. BmCTL 5 is located in the cytomembrane and interacted with BmHOP both in yeast and B. mori ovary cells N (BmN cells). BmCTL 5 and the JAK/STAT signaling pathway was activated by B. bassiana but only slightly activated by B. mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV), Nosema bombycis and bacteria LPS. These findings suggest that BmCTL 5 might be an important PRR for the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and may mediate the nodule melanization for fungi infection. These data provide insights into the immune mechanism of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in insects and aid understanding of the mechanism of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and adaptive immune systems in mammals.


Assuntos
Beauveria/fisiologia , Bombyx/genética , Bombyx/microbiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bombyx/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/microbiologia , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/metabolismo
19.
Med Vet Entomol ; 35(1): 121-128, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886388

RESUMO

Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) have returned as a nuisance pest in the last 20 years. Different bed bug control measures in combination have not been thoroughly studied, although induction of multiple stressors may improve extermination. The effects of heat stress only, heat stress followed by exposure to insect pathogenic fungi, and heat stress followed by exposure to desiccant dust on starved and blood-fed bed bugs were investigated. Five days at 22 °C (control), 32 °C, 34 °C, or 36 °C (heat stress) did not cause mortality in adults. However, their starved first instar nymphs produced after heat stress suffered mortalities of 33%, 56% and 100%, respectively. Exposure to insect pathogenic fungi after heat stress increased the mortality of adults and their progeny compared to exposure to fungi without heat stress. The beneficial effects of heat stress were not observed in blood-fed bed bugs. Desiccant dust killed all nymphs within 2 days and all adults within 3 days regardless of previous heat stress, but survival time was prolonged by access to blood. This study highlights the advantage of combining different methods in pest management, and points to heat stress combined with blood deprivation as possible management elements to increase the control success.


Assuntos
Beauveria/fisiologia , Percevejos-de-Cama , Privação de Alimentos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Higroscópicos , Controle de Insetos , Inseticidas , Animais , Percevejos-de-Cama/efeitos dos fármacos , Percevejos-de-Cama/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Percevejos-de-Cama/microbiologia , Percevejos-de-Cama/fisiologia , Poeira , Feminino , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Longevidade , Masculino , Ninfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/microbiologia , Ninfa/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos
20.
J Med Entomol ; 58(1): 372-378, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740659

RESUMO

House flies, Musca domestica L., are widely recognized for their ability to develop resistance to chemical insecticides so alternative control strategies are desired. The use of entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin to manage house fly populations has shown promising results; however, the success of using this fungus against larval house flies varies widely. The overall objective of this study was to examine factors that may influence efficacy of B. bassiana treatments against larvae. When a high concentration (4 × 1011 conidia/ml) was applied to first- and second-instar larvae in rearing medium, there was a significant reduction in pupation and adult emergence rates. Treating third-instar larvae at the same concentration did not result in a significant reduction of pupation or adult emergence. Temperature (22 versus 32°C) and media composition (diets with- and without propionic acid) did not affect the B. bassiana treatment efficacy against house fly larvae. The narrow time window of vulnerability of larvae and the high doses required to infect them indicate that B. bassiana has little potential as an operational biocontrol agent for house fly larvae.


Assuntos
Beauveria/fisiologia , Moscas Domésticas/microbiologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , Moscas Domésticas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia
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