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1.
Talanta ; 232: 122387, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074389

RESUMO

An infrared spectroscopy (IR) based methodology has been developed to determine γ-butyrolactone (GBL) in adulterated beverages. The proposed method permits the direct screening of GBL in beverages and involves a minimum sample treatment requiring less than 2 min for quantitative determination of GBL. Sensitivity of IR method was improved by using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) providing detection limits of 0.023 mg g-1. Accuracy of the proposed methodology was evaluated through the analysis of soft beverages and alcoholic cocktails spiked with GBL at concentration levels ranging from 0.075 to 10 mg g-1 providing recovery values from 91 to 100%. GBL was determined in twelve blind-spiked beverages, including from mineral water to wine and cocktails. Results obtained were statistically comparable to those provided by a liquid chromatography (LC) reference methodology and consistent with the spiked values. Therefore, the use of LLE-FTIR allowed a simple, sensitive and quantitative determination of GBL in soft beverages and alcoholic cocktails, thus evidencing its use for sex submission intention.


Assuntos
Estupro , Vinho , 4-Butirolactona/análise , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bebidas/análise
2.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(11): 4383-4395, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021810

RESUMO

Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic compound that is also a by-product of fermented foods (bread, sour milk, soy cheese, etc.) and alcoholic beverages (wine, sake, distilled liquor, etc.). Studies have showed that ethyl carbamate is ingested by humans primarily through the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Many countries have thus established EC limits for alcoholic beverages. Chinese liquor (Baijiu) is a traditional and unique distilled liquor, which has a huge consumption in China due to its excellent color, flavor, and taste. Therefore, the control of EC in Chinese liquor is of great significance. This review summarized for the first time the progress in presence level, analysis method, formation mechanism, and elimination strategy of EC of Chinese liquor in recent decades. KEY POINTS: • GC-MS and HPLC are the main methods to quantify EC in Chinese liquor. • EC is formed in the fermentation, distillation, and storage stage. • EC content can be reduced from raw material, microorganism, and production process.


Assuntos
Uretana , Vinho , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , China , Fermentação , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Uretana/análise , Vinho/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 359: 129825, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940473

RESUMO

Taste is a key driver of food and beverage acceptability due to its role in consumers' pleasure. The great interest that natural food and beverages now arouse lies notably in the complexity of their taste, which in turn is related to a wide range of taste-active compounds. Going beyond the classic divide between targeted and untargeted strategies, an integrative methodology to spirits was applied. Untargeted profiling of several cognac spirits was implemented by LC-HRMS to identify compounds of interest among hundreds of ions. A targeted fractionation protocol was then developed. By using HRMS and NMR, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol was identified and described for the first time in spirits and oak wood. It was characterized as sweet at 2 mg/L in two matrices and was quantified in spirits up to 4 mg/L. These findings demonstrated how this methodology is relevant and effective to discover new taste-active compounds.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Fracionamento Químico , Cromatografia Líquida , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas , Paladar , Humanos , Quercus/química , Madeira/química
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1644: 462134, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848765

RESUMO

Amino acids (AAs) are minor compounds occurring in meads contributing to their final organoleptic properties. Determination of AAs profile and content can help to assess the mead authenticity, adulteration and thus its quality. This work deals with the optimization of rapid analysis of 21 AAs present in mead using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection after simple derivatization procedure with phenyl isothiocyanate agent without any sample pre-treatment. Optimized derivatization and separation conditions have been successfully applied to the quantification of AAs present in five Czech meads using the multiple point standard addition method. The total amino acid content was in the range of 134-828 mg/L. The content of proline was confirmed by Harmonised spectrophotometric method. Both chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods provided overlapping results in the range of 30-266 mg/L.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Isotiocianatos/análise , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , República Tcheca , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807505

RESUMO

Plum brandy (Slivovitz (en); Sljivovica(sr)) is an alcoholic beverage that is increasingly consumed all over the world. Its quality assessment has become of great importance. In our study, the main volatiles and aroma compounds of 108 non-aged plum brandies originating from three plum cultivars, and fermented using different conditions, were investigated. The chemical profiles obtained after two-step GC-FID-MS analysis were subjected to multivariate data analysis to reveal the peculiarity in different cultivars and fermentation process. Correlation of plum brandy chemical composition with its sensory characteristics obtained by expert commission was also performed. The utilization of PCA and OPLS-DA multivariate analysis methods on GC-FID-MS, enabled discrimination of brandy samples based on differences in plum varieties, pH of plum mash, and addition of selected yeast or enzymes during fermentation. The correlation of brandy GC-FID-MS profiles with their sensory properties was achieved by OPLS multivariate analysis. Proposed workflow confirmed the potential of GC-FID-MS in combination with multivariate data analysis that can be applied to assess the plum brandy quality.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Prunus domestica , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Fermentação , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Metabolômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multivariada , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Leveduras
6.
J Food Sci ; 86(5): 1861-1877, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822387

RESUMO

In order to differentiate and characterize Chinese Luzhou-flavor liquor according to geographical origins, the volatile flavor compounds were analyzed for forty commercial Luzhou-flavor liquor samples from Sichuan, Jiangsu, and Hubei provinces. A total of 113 volatile flavor compounds were quantified; among them, 29 flavor compounds were quantified according to the internal standard method. The differences in flavor composition among different brands of Luzhou-flavor liquor were compared. A data matrix of 64 (flavor components) × 40 (samples) was studied and interpreted using chemometric analysis. The research object could be naturally clustered according to geographical origin (brand) based on the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) methods. A 100% of predication ability was obtained by the application of K-nearest neighbor model (KNN) for study sample classification. The results demonstrate that the abundance of volatile flavor components in liquors combined with appropriate multivariate statistical methods could be used for the division and traceability of liquors from different geographic origins. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study can provide the basis for the identification of liquor authenticity and the traceability of liquor.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bebidas Alcoólicas/classificação , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Fermentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Paladar
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 347: 109169, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813131

RESUMO

The isolation of autochthonous yeast species presents a good strategy to select new microorganisms for developing an adequate inoculum to carry out fermentations and generate representative products of the cider production zone. However, non-Saccharomyces yeasts have been considered to have low capacity to carry out a complete fermentation as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work, five autochthonous yeasts from a cider fermentation process were isolated and identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia membranaefaciens, P. kluyveri and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. A series of fermentations were developed at laboratory level, using each species individually and it was observed that only S. cerevisiae was able to finish the process. K. marxianus consumed less than 50% of the sugars; P. kluyveri and Z. rouxii consumed less than 70% and P. membranaefaciens consumed more than 90% but the yield (ethanol produced for sugar consumed (YP/S)) was 0.39. Nevertheless, the addition of magnesium, zinc and nitrogen increased the fermentative capacity of almost all species: K. marxianus, Z. rouxii and P. kluyveri, showed an increase in ethanol production when nutrients were added, obtaining more than 80 g/L of ethanol, and showing that those nutrients are necessary to complete the fermentation. This work describes the potential use of different non-Saccharomyces species to carry out fermentation of apple juice and highlights the importance of certain nutrients to enable an efficient alcoholic fermentation and the generation of desirable volatile compounds for cider production.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Leveduras/metabolismo , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Etanol/análise , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Malus/microbiologia , Nutrientes/análise , Especificidade da Espécie , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação
8.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925245

RESUMO

Methanol is a natural ingredient with major occurrence in fruit spirits, such as apple, pear, plum or cherry spirits, but also in spirits made from coffee pulp. The compound is formed during fermentation and the following mash storage by enzymatic hydrolysis of naturally present pectins. Methanol is toxic above certain threshold levels and legal limits have been set in most jurisdictions. Therefore, the methanol content needs to be mitigated and its level must be controlled. This article will review the several factors that influence the methanol content including the pH value of the mash, the addition of various yeast and enzyme preparations, fermentation temperature, mash storage, and most importantly the raw material quality and hygiene. From all these mitigation possibilities, lowering the pH value and the use of cultured yeasts when mashing fruit substances is already common as best practice today. Also a controlled yeast fermentation at acidic pH facilitates not only reduced methanol formation, but ultimately also leads to quality benefits of the distillate. Special care has to be observed in the case of spirits made from coffee by-products which are prone to spoilage with very high methanol contents reported in past studies.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bebidas Alcoólicas/normas , Frutas/química , Metanol/química , Fermentação , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética
9.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920200

RESUMO

Seventy-three samples of alcoholic beverages and juices that were purchased on the Polish market and home-made were analyzed for their elemental profiles. The levels of 23 metals were determined by ICP-MS (Ag, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Tl), ICP-OES (Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ti and Zn) and CVAAS (Hg) techniques in twenty-five samples of ciders widely available on the Polish market; six samples of home-made ciders; two samples of juices used in the production of these ciders; and forty samples of low-percentage, flavored alcoholic beverages based on beer. The gathered analytical data confirmed that the final elemental fingerprint of a product is affected by the elemental fingerprint of the ingredients used (apple variety) as well as the technology and equipment used by the producer, and in the case of commercial ciders, also the impact of type of the packaging used was proven. These factors are specific to each producer and the influence of the mentioned above parameters was revealed as a result of the performed analysis. Additionally, the inclusion of the home-made ciders in the data set helped us to understand the potential origin of some elements, from the raw materials to the final products. The applied statistical tests revealed (Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA) the existence of statistically significant differences in the concentration of the following metals: Ag, Al, B, Bi, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Na, Ni, Ti and Zn in terms of the type of cider origin (commercial and home-made). In turn, for different packaging (can or bottle) within one brand of commercial cider, the existence of statistically significant differences for Cu, Mn and Na was proved. The concentrations of all determined elements in the commercial cider from the Polish market and home-made cider samples can be considered as nontoxic, because the measured levels of elements indicated in the regulations were lower than the allowable limits. Moreover, the obtained results can be treated as preliminary for the potential authentication of products in order to distinguish the home-made (fake) from the authentic products, especially for premium-class alcoholic beverages.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Malus/química , Metais/isolamento & purificação , Oligoelementos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Íons/química , Íons/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas , Metais/química , Polônia , Análise Espectral , Oligoelementos/química
10.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801493

RESUMO

The present work reports the development of a biologically inspired analytical system known as Electronic Eye (EE), capable of qualitatively discriminating different tequila categories. The reported system is a low-cost and portable instrumentation based on a Raspberry Pi single-board computer and an 8 Megapixel CMOS image sensor, which allow the collection of images of Silver, Aged, and Extra-aged tequila samples. Image processing is performed mimicking the trichromatic theory of color vision using an analysis of Red, Green, and Blue components (RGB) for each image's pixel. Consequently, RGB absorbances of images were evaluated and preprocessed, employing Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to visualize data clustering. The resulting PCA scores were modeled with a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) that accomplished the qualitative classification of tequilas. A Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation (LOOCV) procedure was performed to evaluate classifiers' performance. The proposed system allowed the identification of real tequila samples achieving an overall classification rate of 90.02%, average sensitivity, and specificity of 0.90 and 0.96, respectively, while Cohen's kappa coefficient was 0.87. In this case, the EE has demonstrated a favorable capability to correctly discriminated and classified the different tequila samples according to their categories.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Dispositivos Ópticos , Cor , Análise Discriminante , Eletrônica , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Análise de Componente Principal
11.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808745

RESUMO

Isotopic ratios of δ13CVPDB and δ18OVSMOW have been used as an additional parameter to ensure the authenticity of the aging time of 100% agave tequila. For this purpose, 120 samples were isotopically analyzed (40 silver class, 40 aged class, and 40 extra-aged classes). The samples were obtained through a stratified sampling by proportional allocation, considering tequila producers from the main different regions of Jalisco, Mexico (Valles 41%, Altos Sur 31%, Cienega 16%, and Centro 12%). The results showed that the δ13CVPDB was found in an average of -12.85 ‰ for all the analyzed beverages, with no significant difference between them. Since for all the tested samples the Agave tequilana Weber blue variety was used as source of sugar to obtain alcohol, those results were foreseeable, and confirm the origin of the sugar source. Instead, the results for δ18OVSMOW showed a positive slope linear trend for the aging time (silver class 19.52‰, aged class 20.54‰, extra-aged class 21.45‰), which is associated with the maturation process, there are oxidation reactions that add congeneric compounds to the beverage, these can be used as tracers for the authenticity of the aging time. Additionally, the experimental data showed homogeneity in the beverages regardless of the production region, evidencing the tequila industry's high-quality standards. However, a particular case occurs with the δ18OVSMOW data for the silver class samples, in which a clear trend is noted with the altitude of the region of origin; therefore, this information suggests that this analytical parameter could be useful to authenticate the regional origin of beverage.


Assuntos
Agave , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(15): 4509-4517, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829784

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to improve our knowledge on the chemical markers of Cognac aromas. We report results concerning the distribution and sensorial impact of 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (MND), a well-known compound in aged red wine, reminiscent of anise or "dried fruit", according to its concentration. We assayed first this diketone (solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS), chemical ionization (CI)) in many Cognac samples followed by grappa, brandy, rum, whisky, vodka, and fruit spirits, and concentrations ranged from traces to 11.2 µg/L. Highest concentrations were obtained in grappa and freshly distilled eaux-de-vie of Cognac samples. Exceeding its detection threshold (100 ng/L, 70 vol %), MND contributes to the anise descriptor of these spirits. Its concentration decreased over aging while being highly correlated with the total amount of fatty acid ethyl ester. In addition, we showed that MND was produced during distillation according to the oxidation state of the white wine as well as the amount of lees used.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Vinho , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Alcanos/análise , Diacetil/análogos & derivados , Odorantes/análise , Vinho/análise
13.
Food Chem ; 351: 129264, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662908

RESUMO

The valorization of the brewer's spent grain (BSG) generated in a craft beer industry was studied by subcritical water hydrolysis in a semi-continuous fixed-bed reactor. Temperature was varied from 125 to 185 °C at a constant flow rate of 4 mL/min. Biomass hydrolysis yielded a maximum of 78% of solubilized protein at 185 °C. Free amino acids presented a maximum level at 160 °C with a value of 55 mg free amino acids/gprotein-BSG. Polar amino acid presented a maximum at lower temperatures than non-polar amino acids. The maximum in total phenolic compounds was reached at 185 °C. This maximum is the same for aldehyde phenolic compounds such as vanillin, syringic and protocatechuic aldehyde; however, for hydroxycinnamic acids, such as ferulic acid and p-coumaric, the maximum was obtained at 160 °C. This allows a fractionation of the bioactive compounds. Subcritical water addresses opportunities for small breweries to be incorporated within the biorefinery concept.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Grão Comestível/química , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos , Água/química , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Biomassa , Ácidos Cumáricos/análise , Hidrólise , Fenóis/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Appl Opt ; 60(7): 1924-1929, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690282

RESUMO

A rapid and label free aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) microfluid sensor was proposed and tested. The device was fabricated with hollow-core photonics crystal fiber infiltrated with the AFB1 solution. The autofluorescence emitting from the AFB1 molecules was detected. The sensor length was optimized. The AFB1 concentration was tested with a 4 cm long sensor. The best limit of detection was achieved as low as 1.34 ng/ml, which meets the test requirement of the national standards for AFB1 in food. The effectiveness of this sensor being applied in beer solution was also verified to be a little more sensitive than in aqueous solution. Compared with traditional AFB1 detection methods, the proposed single-ended device perfectly satisfies the demand of process control in alcoholic beverages manufacture.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/química , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Limite de Detecção
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 345: 109129, 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711686

RESUMO

The production of pome fruits as pears and apples, as well as their derived industries, is of great economic importance in North Patagonia. The elaboration of fermented beverages as cider or perry has evidenced a substantial diversification during the last years, with the evaluation of different fruit varieties, yeast starters and technological changes. In this work, two cryotolerant yeasts belonging to the species Saccharomyces uvarum were evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale in sterile and no-sterile pear must. One of the strains was originally isolated from apple chicha (strain NPCC1314) and the other from apple cider (strain NPCC1420) in Patagonia. Both physicochemical and sensory features of the fermented products were evaluated. Both strains were able to successfully complete the fermentations, although strain NPCC1420 showed the better kinetic properties including a faster sugar consumption than the strain NPCC1314. Both strains showed excellent implantation capacity, but the fermented products showed different chemical profiles. The perry fermented with the strain NPCC1314 was characterized by better sensory attributes as assessed by trained panelists and a greater acceptance for untrained public than the same fermented with the strain NPCC1420. The two strains were able to consume sorbitol, both in pear must and in agar-plates supplemented with sorbitol as the sole carbon source. This ability is described for the first time in S. uvarum, at least for the two strains evaluated in this work.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Pyrus/microbiologia , Saccharomyces/metabolismo , Argentina , Reatores Biológicos , Chile , Fermentação , Frutas/química , Frutas/microbiologia , Malus/microbiologia , Saccharomyces/isolamento & purificação , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação
16.
Food Res Int ; 140: 109995, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648229

RESUMO

As the main raw material for commercial Wuliangye-flavor liquor, Wuliangye-flavor raw liquor (WFRL) plays an important role in the formation of flavor components. Aroma components and microbial community diversity of 4 WFRLs produced by the same fermenting cellar were investigated by headspace solid phase microextraction, liquid-liquid microextraction combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and phospholipid fatty acid fingerprint method. Correlations between aroma components and microbial community of WFRL were disclosed by multivariate statistical analysis techniques. Results indicated that a total of 75 aroma components were identified, including 39 esters, 11 alcohols, 9 acids, 7 aldehyde, 5 ketones and 4 others, whereas esters were dominant for the samples (67.49%). Meanwhile, Gram-positive bacteria (G+) and aerobe in the fermenting cellar increased gradually from top to bottom, compared with Gram-negative bacteria (G-), anaerobe and fungi showed the opposite trend. Furthermore, 4 WFRLs could be distinguished according to 13 differential aroma components (VIP > 1, P < 0.05). Whereas, the differential aroma components were positively correlated with G-, anaerobe and fungi, but negatively correlated with G+ and aerobe. In particular, 4 key esters including ethyl caproate, ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate and ethyl lactate that determine the grade of WFRL were positively correlated with anaerobe and fungi. Therefore, the results can be used as a reference to understand the correlation between aroma components and microbial communities in different quality grades of WFRL.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Odorantes , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida
17.
Food Chem ; 355: 129596, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770619

RESUMO

The oxygen-based oxidation process is leading toward the understanding of the flavour formation mechanism of aged Baijiu. However, the oxygen-based oxidation process in Baijiu aging is difficult to explore because of (1) the composition of Baijiu produced in different batches varies a lot and (2) the spontaneous oxidation needs several years or even decades to occur. Hence, the flavour formation mechanism of Baijiu aging was investigated using electrochemistry and UPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS/MS, which enabled us to solve the two difficulties above. The oxidation reaction on gold surface could accelerate Baijiu aging by catalyzing the transformation from alcohols to acids. Although natural aging contributed more diverse compound changes to Baijiu, the oxygen-based oxidation process during natural aging was similar to that in the electrochemical oxidation as a whole. This study provides new insights to flavour formation mechanism of aged liquors and provides a new way for liquor-related enterprises to optimise the aging process.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Aromatizantes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Oxirredução , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Food Chem ; 352: 129363, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676120

RESUMO

A study was carried out to determine systematically the key aroma-active compounds of Langyatai Baijiu with Jian flavour (LBJF) using sensory omics analysis (SOA). A total of 56 odorants were screened out using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS)/Osme analysis. Among them, 15 aroma-active components were first identified. After quantitation, 30 odorants had odour activity values (OAVs) > 1.0 in LBJF. Recombinant and omission experiments proved that the esters, alcohols, acids, especially ethyl hexanoate, γ-nonalactone, and dimethyl trisulfide, were critical to the flavour of LBJF. The basic and commercial liquors had obvious differences in the skeleton compositions of esters and acids. This study uncovers the characteristics of Jian flavour Baijiu (JFB) and provides a scientific basis for the quality control of JFB, which is helpful for the development of Chinese Baijiu flavour styles.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Paladar , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Olfatometria , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
19.
Food Chem ; 352: 129450, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714803

RESUMO

The unique flavor of and rich physiological activities exhibited by the Chinese JingJiu has made it become an essential part of the blended alcoholic beverage. In this study, the aromatic characteristics of Chinese JingJiu have been identified using sensory analysis, aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA), and quantitative analysis techniques. The odor activity values (OAVs) were also used to characterize the compound. A total of 136 aroma compounds were identified through the AEDA and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The flavor dilution (FD) factors were found to be in the range of 2-1024. Seventy aroma-active compounds with FD ≥ 8 were identified. Forty-three aroma-active compounds were identified using the molecular sensory science approach. Furthermore, 13 compounds were confirmed to be the key aroma-active compounds present in the Chinese JingJiu. The work provides a certain guiding effect on the regulation and optimization of the Chinese JingJiu production process.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Técnicas de Diluição do Indicador , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
20.
Food Res Int ; 140: 110037, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648263

RESUMO

As a widely used Asian starter culture, the quality of daqu can significantly affect the organoleptic characteristics of the final products, yet the microbial metabolic network involved in flavor development remains unclear. This study aims to investigate that network based on the dynamics of physicochemical properties, microbial community, and volatile compounds in medium-temperature daqu (MT-daqu) during spontaneous fermentation. Analyses using the metagenomic data set facilitated the gene repertoire overview of this ecosystem, indicating that Lactobacillales (mainly Weissella, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus), Mucorales (mainly Lichtheimia), and Eurotiales (mainly Aspergillus, Rasamsonia and Byssochlamys) were the potential predominant populations successively responsible for the production of lytic enzymes and flavor precursors/compounds in MT-daqu. Flavor-relevant pathways were found to exist in multiple species, but only bacteria showed the potential to participate in butane-2,3-diol (e.g. Weissella, Lactobacillus, and Staphylococcus) and butanoate (Thermoactinomyces) metabolism, and only fungi were potentially involved in biosynthesis of guaiacol (Byssochlamys) and 4-vinylguaiacol (Aspergillus). Furthermore, a combined analysis revealed that the acidic thermal environment present in early phases was mainly due to the catabolic activities of Lactobacillales and Lichtheimia, which could contribute to the effective self-domestication of microbiota. The study helps elucidate the different metabolic roles of microorganisms and disclose the formation mechanism of daqu's partial functions, namely providing various aromatic substances/precursors and enzymes.


Assuntos
Metagenômica , Microbiota , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Microbiota/genética , Temperatura
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