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1.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(4): e9200, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267309

RESUMO

The consumption of alcoholic beverages influences carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, although it is not yet clear whether metabolism during physical exercise at different intensities is also affected. This was the objective of the present study. Eight young and healthy volunteers performed a treadmill test to identify the running speed corresponding to a lactate concentration of 4 mM (S4mM). At least 48 h later, they were subjected to two experimental trials (non-alcohol or alcohol) in which they performed two 1-km running sessions at the following intensities: 1) S4mM; 2) 15% above S4mM. In both trials, blood lactate, triglycerides, and glucose concentrations were measured before and after exercise. The acute alcohol intake increased triglycerides, but not lactate concentration under resting conditions. Interestingly, alcohol intake enhanced the exercise-induced increase in lactate concentration at the two intensities: S4mM (non-alcohol: 4.2±0.3 mM vs alcohol: 4.8±0.9 mM; P=0.003) and 15% above S4mM trial (P=0.004). When volunteers ingested alcohol, triglycerides concentration remained increased after treadmill running (e.g., at S4mM - at rest; non-alcohol: 0.2±0.5 mM vs alcohol: 1.3±1.3 mM; P=0.048). In contrast, glucose concentration was not modified by either alcohol intake, exercise, or their combination. We concluded that an acute alcohol intake changed lactate and lipid metabolism without affecting blood glucose concentration. In addition, the increase in lactate concentration caused by alcohol was specifically observed when individuals exercised, whereas augmented triglycerides concentration was already observed before exercise and was sustained thereafter.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Glicemia/análise , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
2.
Food Chem ; 315: 126308, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035316

RESUMO

Classification of Feng-flavor Baijiu considering aging category was furnished with a comprehensive fingerprinting strategy which used UPLC-Orbitrap and foodomics, and the most discriminant 29 compounds related to aging, 15 organic acids, 8 esters as well as some carbonyl compounds were discovered. Increase of aromatic organic acids, decline of carcinogenic dibutyl phthalate and generation of numerous aromatic substances in Baijiu were caused by irradiation until the system reached a relatively stable state which needed 28 days. It is similarity of physical and chemical reaction process of natural aging and irradiation maturation that both can facilitate flavor of base Baijiu, while the aging time can be plainly shorten utilizing irradiation for Baijiu, whose outcome has been demonstrated by LC-MS and sensory evaluation. The combination of UPLC-Orbitrap and foodomics was applied as a valid tactic to analyze a complex system and gamma irradiation can be a powerful tool to promote Baijiu aging.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Ácidos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ésteres/análise , Aromatizantes/análise , Aromatizantes/química , Raios gama , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Paladar , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Food Chem ; 317: 126363, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086119

RESUMO

1H NMR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was applied for the first time for golden rum classification based on several factors as fermentation barrel, raw material, distillation method and aging. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the overall structure, and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was carried out for the analytical discrimination of rums. Additionally, data-fusion of 1H NMR and chromatographic techniques (gas and liquid chromatography) coupled to mass spectrometry was applied to provide more accurate knowledge about rums. This approach provided a classification of samples with lower error rate than the one obtained by the use of a single technique (spectroscopic or chromatographic). The results showed that 1H NMR spectroscopy is an appropriate technique for the suitable classification of >95.5% of the samples. When data fusion methodology of spectroscopic and spectrometric data was performed, the prediction efficiency can reach 100% of the samples.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Metabolômica/métodos , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectrometria de Massas , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal
4.
Food Chem ; 317: 126366, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087513

RESUMO

The assessment of durum wheat geographical origin is an important and emerging challenge, due to the added value that a claim of origin could provide to the raw material itself, and subsequently to the final products (i.e. pasta). Up to now, the typical approach presented in literature is the evaluation of different isotopic ratios of the elements, but other techniques could represent an interesting and even more powerful alternative. In this study, using a non-targeted high-resolution mass spectrometry approach, a selection of chemical markers related to the geographical origin of durum wheat was provided. Samples of the 2016 wheat campaign were used to set up the model and to select the markers, while samples from the 2018 campaign were used for model and markers validation. Including in the samples set different geographies across different continents, a discrimination through Italian, European and Not European samples is now possible.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Triticum/química , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Análise Discriminante , Europa (Continente) , Itália , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Extratos Vegetais/química , Triticum/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 317: 126420, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101783

RESUMO

Although huangjiu is a popular alcoholic beverage in China, the occurrence of quick-intoxication suppresses huangjiu consumption and impedes development of the huangjiu industry. In this study, the Cryprinus carpio intoxication model was used to compare the differences in intoxication effect of alcoholic beverages and to assess the impacts of huangjiu components on intoxication for the first time. Exposure to huangjiu led to the most rapid physical imbalance of C. carpio, followed by red wine and Western liquor. Higher alcohols, biogenic amines and aldehydes could cause physical imbalance of fish by themselves, and synergistic effects were observed when combined with ethanol. 2-Phenylethanoland and isopentanol had the greatest positive effect on huangjiu intoxication, followed by histamine and phenethylamine. No synergistic effect was observed between individual aldehydes and ethanol. Identification of these impactful huangjiu components provides a new perspective on the establishment of more rigorous control on the quality and flavor of huangjiu.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/toxicidade , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Vinho/toxicidade , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Aldeídos/toxicidade , Animais , Aminas Biogênicas/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Etanol/toxicidade , Pentanóis/toxicidade , Fenetilaminas/toxicidade , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise
6.
Gene ; 737: 144434, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018015

RESUMO

Excessive alcohol (ethanol) use has long been known to affect human health negatively. However, the underlying molecular basis is incompletely understood. Moreover, consumption of alcohol is often mixed with kynurenic acid (KYNA), an abundant tryptophan metabolite produced during fermentation. The combined effect of ethanol and KYNA on host gene expression has not been investigated. The current study used mice as the model to interrogate the impact of ethanol and/or KYNA on global gene transcription. Adult male mice were administered with 2 g/kg ethanol and/or 0.1 mg/kg KYNA by gavage once a day for a week. Three organs: brain, kidney, and liver were collected and their total RNAs extracted for transcriptome sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR. Gene ontology, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes, and genomes pathway analyses revealed that alcohol affects the three organs differentially. Furthermore, the gene expression profile from alcohol and KYNA co-administration was significantly different from that of alcohol or KYNA administration alone. Strikingly, Indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan metabolism, was significantly increased in the brain after a combined exposure of alcohol and KYNA, suggesting that Trp metabolism was skewed towards the kynurenine pathway in the brain. Our systemic analysis provides new insights into the mechanism whereby alcohol and KYNA affects organ functions.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Etanol/farmacologia , Ácido Cinurênico/farmacologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ácido Cinurênico/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos
7.
J Food Sci ; 85(3): 762-770, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999368

RESUMO

Nuruk is a fermentation agent used to manufacture alcoholic beverages, which contains a variety of microorganisms. Most microorganisms in Nuruk are useful for the production of alcoholic beverages; however, Nuruk can be infected with Aspergillus flavus, which produces aflatoxin (AF). Therefore, this study analyzed total AF concentrations in Nuruk, the transfer of AF from Nuruk to alcoholic beverages, and AF-producing microorganisms to determine the safety of alcoholic beverages with respect to this toxin. ELISA showed that total AF levels in 14 of 61 Nuruk samples exceeded 15 ppb, the Korean permissible level in cereal products. In alcoholic beverages produced with Nuruk containing AF levels >15 ppb, only AF G1 was detected, at a level of 0.3 ppb, and the transfer ratio of AF G1 was approximately 1.2% to 1.3%. The dominant genera in Nuruk were Aspergillus and Rhizopus. Among 30 strains belonging to Aspergillus, 10 produced only AF B1 at levels of 0.1 to 2.4 ppb after incubation at 25 °C for 8 days on potato dextrose agar plates. Although AF in Nuruk was rarely transferred to alcoholic beverages and the aflatoxigenic strains were found to possess poor AF-producing capacity, further efforts to reduce AF in Nuruk are needed to ensure the safety of alcoholic beverages.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Aflatoxinas/metabolismo , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Fermentação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Rhizopus/metabolismo , Amido/análise , Amido/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 314: 126098, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954940

RESUMO

A metabolomics strategy was developed to differentiate strong aroma-type baijiu (SAB) (distilled liquor) from the Sichuan basin (SCB) and Yangtze-Huaihe River Basin (YHRB) through liquid-liquid extraction coupled with GC×GC-TOFMS. PCA effectively separated the samples from these two regions. The PLS-DA training model was excellent, with explained variation and predictive capability values of 0.988 and 0.982, respectively. As a result, the model demonstrated its ability to perfectly differentiate all the unknown SAB samples. Twenty-nine potential markers were located by variable importance in projection values, and twenty-four of them were identified and quantitated. Discrimination ability is closely correlated to the characteristic flavor compounds, such as acid, esters, furans, alcohols, sulfides and pyrazine. Most of the marker compounds were less abundant in the SCB samples than in the YHRB samples. The quantitated markers were further processed using hierarchical cluster analysis for targeted analysis, indicating that the markers had great discrimination power to differentiate the SAB samples.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Odorantes/análise , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Análise de Componente Principal , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
9.
Food Chem ; 312: 126084, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901820

RESUMO

The pit mud (PM) prokaryotic communities with obvious difference between old and young PM is essential for solid-fermentation of Chinese Strong-Flavor Baijiu. The bottom-PM (BPM) is considered more important. In this study, the multidimensional prokaryotic communities of old and young BPMs were investigated. The old BPM presented stratified difference within the depth of 0-7 cm, especially, the surface 0-1 cm was characteristic of dominant Caproiciproducens (34.79%). The young BPM showed significant difference between quarter/center and deep corner (1-7 cm), the former were characteristic of abundant Lactobacillus (12.80%-42.72%), while the deep corner was distinctive of dominant Caproiciproducens (17.85%-64.45%). The lactic acid, pH and soluble Ca2+ were considered as the 3 most significant environmental factors through redundancy analysis (RDA). This study may help illuminate the BPM aging process, and allow the future artificial regulation of young BPM.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Aromatizantes/análise , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Lactobacillus , Paladar , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Food Chem ; 314: 126126, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951887

RESUMO

In this study, square wave anodic stripping voltammetry using two different types of electrodes (carbon nanotube electrode and graphite electrode) was combined with chemometric methods - partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANN) for determining copper, zinc, cadmium and lead in cachaça. The objectives were comparison of methods developed and the verification of the quality of artisanal cachaças in terms of metal content. For the development of the methodology, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) was used as reference technique. The performance of multivariate models obtained was evaluated by the coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP). F test was utilized for comparing methods at confidence level of 95%. Better results were observed by using carbon nanotube electrode regardless of the multivariate method proposed. The methodology is simple, fast, and inexpensive and it can be used in quality control laboratories.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Cobre/análise , Zinco/análise , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Calibragem , Eletrodos , Grafite/química , Nanotubos de Carbono
11.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(7): 1551-1561, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953715

RESUMO

In this work, the development of a simple, fast and reliable method for the evaluation of a group of twelve plastic migrants in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages widely consumed by the population has been carried out. For that, a modified QuEChERS method for the extraction and preconcentration of the target compounds has been used prior to their separation and quantification by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. The whole methodology was validated for beer, cider and grape juice matrices, using dibutyl phthalate-3,4,5,6-d4 as surrogate. Recovery ranged from 75 to 120% for all matrices with relative standard deviation values lower than 20%, and the limits of quantification of the method were achieved in the range 0.034-1.415 µg/L. Finally, the analysis of different beer, cider and grape juice samples commercialised in different supermarkets of Tenerife was carried out, finding the presence of four of the evaluated phthalates in the range 0.14-1.1 µg/L in some of the evaluated beers, six of them in several cider samples, in the range 0.3-2.1 µg/L, and one in the range 1.2-1.5 µg/L in three of the analysed grape juices.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bebidas/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Plásticos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1419-1426, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888328

RESUMO

Sake, the Japanese rice wine, contains a variety of oligosaccharides and glucosides produced by fungal enzymes during the brewing process. This study investigates the effect of knocking out the Aspergillus oryzae α-glucosidase (agdA) gene on the transglycosylation products in brewed sake. In addition to α-ethyl glucoside and α-glyceryl glucoside, the amount of two compounds that have molecular mass values similar to that of ethyl maltose decreased by agdA gene knockout. Both compounds were synthesized, in vitro, from maltose and ethanol with purified agdA. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis identified the two compounds as ethyl α-maltoside and ethyl α-isomaltoside, respectively, which are novel compounds in sake as well as in the natural environment. Quantitative analysis of 111 commercially available types of sake showed that these novel compounds were widely present at concentrations of several hundred mg/L, suggesting that both of them are ones of the common glycosides in sake.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Aspergillus oryzae/enzimologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Aspergillus oryzae/genética , Aspergillus oryzae/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosilação , Maltose/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , alfa-Glucosidases/genética
13.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(2): 148-154, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607217

RESUMO

The presence of diethyl-phthalate (DEP), dibutyl-phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl-phthalate (BBP), diethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl-phthalate (DINP) was determined in 295 tequila samples. They were grouped by age of maturation (white, aged, extra aged or ultra aged) and year of production (between 2013 and 2018). Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry was used for identification and quantification. The results showed that 65 samples (22% of the total) were phthalate free. DEP (0.13-0.27 mg/kg), BBP (0.05-2.91 mg/kg) and DINP (1.64-3.43 mg/kg) were detected in 11 (3.73%), 37 (12.54%) and 5 (1.69%) samples, respectively. But, these concentrations did not exceed the maximum permitted limits (MPL) of phthalates for alcoholic beverages. DBP (0.01-2.20 mg/kg) and DEHP (0.03-4.64 mg/kg) were detected in 96 (32.54%) and 224 (75.93%) samples, from them only 10 (3.39%) and 15 (5.08%) samples, respectively, exceeded the MPL for alcoholic beverages and they were few tequilas produced in the year 2014 or before. DEHP was the most frequent phthalate found in tequila and observed DEHP concentrations were 2-times higher in ultra aged tequilas compared to those in white tequilas. We concluded that all tequilas produced in 2015 and after, satisfied the international standards for these compounds.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Dibutilftalato/análise , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , México , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1612: 460649, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708221

RESUMO

A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was established for the simultaneous determination of phenol, 4-ethylphenol (4-EP), guaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG), 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG), eugenol, and o-, m- and p-cresol. The separation was performed on a reversed-phase HALO C18 core-shell column (3.0 × 50 mm, 2.7 µm) with a mobile phase comprising 10 mM formate, pH 3, and 15% acetonitrile (ACN) (v/v), a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min, corresponding to a total run time of 9 min. The electrochemical detection (ECD) was set at +1.5 V vs. Pd/H2 in oxidative mode. Under optimized operating conditions, good linearity was obtained for the nine phenolics with corresponding coefficients of determination (R2) above 0.998. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) were 10 nM-1 µM, with an 80-fold increase in sensitivity for guaiacol achieved with ECD over ultraviolet (UV) detection. The sensitive and selective HPLC-ECD method was successfully applied for the identification and quantification of the nine phenolics in Islay, Irish, Scotch, and Highland whiskey samples, with significantly higher concentrations of the flavorings determined in Islay whiskey.


Assuntos
Boro/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Aromatizantes/análise , Fenóis/química , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Cresóis/química , Diamante/química , Eletrodos , Limite de Detecção
15.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 129(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515157

RESUMO

Folates are important vitamins in human nutrition. Pressed sake cake, a brewing by-product of sake, is a rich dietary source of folates derived from sake yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The National Research Institute of Brewing investigated 106 samples of pressed sake cake and revealed that three samples containing large amounts of folates were produced by Km67 yeast derived from the house sake yeast strain of Kiku-Masamune sake brewery. In this study, we performed sake brewing tests using Km67 and Kyokai no. 7 group strains and confirmed that Km67 yeast contributed to the production of pressed sake cake containing large amounts of folates. To elucidate the mechanisms of high folate accumulation in Km67, we performed whole-genome sequence analysis in Km67 and then screened 10 folate-metabolizing genes showing different sequences in Km67 and K7 strains. By folate analysis of each gene-disrupted strain derived from strain BY4743, we also selected four genes having significant effects on folate content in yeast from 10 candidate genes. Folate analysis of gene-disrupted yeast strains complemented with either Km67-type genes or K7-type genes revealed that the Km67-type HMT1 gene was related to high folate accumulation not only in laboratory yeast but also in sake yeast. In this gene, Leu63Phe was present in the methyltransferase motif I of Hmt1p, which was essential for the methyltransferase activity of Hmt1p. Our results and previous reports suggested that the methyltransferase activity of Km67-Hmt1p was higher than that of K7-Hmt1p, leading to enhanced production and high accumulation of folates in Km67 yeast.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Fermentação , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/genética , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 310: 125898, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816535

RESUMO

Changes of key odorants and aroma profiles of Chinese Laowuzeng baijiu during its one-year ageing were determined by HS-SPME-AEDA and direct injection-AEDA (DI-AEDA). Ethyl hexanoate, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and 2-phenylethyl acetate showed the highest FD value (486) in all ageing stages. With regards to aroma profiles, fruity, floral, acidic, sweet/honey and cheesy aromas were enhanced during storage, while pickled vegetable, grain and alcoholic notes weakened during the ageing. Quantitation and OAVs showed that most of the aroma compounds (OAVs > 1), including ethyl esters, aldehydes, and acids, increased their contents within the same period, whereas nonanal, 2-phenylethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, 4-ethylguaiacol, propanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol decreased in content after the storage of 365 days. Simulated aged samples, in which fresh samples were spiked with 18 compounds, were examined by triangle tests, which indicated that the "fruity" compounds were crucial for maintaining the special aroma profile of an aged sample.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Odorantes/análise , Acetatos/análise , Adulto , Aldeídos/análise , China , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Pentanóis/análise , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Álcool Feniletílico/análise , Olfato , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Fatores de Tempo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
17.
J Chromatogr A ; 1610: 460584, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607446

RESUMO

A headspace solid-phase microextraction Arrow (HS-SPME Arrow) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the quantitation of a large number of aroma compounds in Chinese liquor (Baijiu). Optimization of extraction conditions by a central composite experimental design revealed that the dilution of the alcohol content of 5 mL of Baijiu to 10%, followed by the addition of 1.5 g of NaCl and subsequent SPME Arrow extraction with DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber coating over 45 min at 45 °C was the most suitable. The quantitative method allowed the extraction and identification of 82 aroma compounds (esters, alcohols, fatty acids, aldehydes & ketones, furans, pyrazines, sulfur compounds, phenols, terpenes, and lactones) in the Baijiu sample. The method was validated with good repeatability, inter and intra-day precision (almost below 15%), and accuracy (almost in the range of 81.5-119.96%). Furthermore, the method was validated successfully for the most significant compounds and was applied to study the composition of volatile compounds in different types of Baijiu. This research proved that SPME Arrow is an effective method for the extraction of aroma compounds in Baijiu and other distilled spirits. This developed method will allow improved analysis of other distilled spirits.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Limite de Detecção , Polivinil/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
18.
Food Chem ; 310: 125831, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787391

RESUMO

Two sets of nine ciders were made by cryo-extraction for two consecutive harvests combining three types of ice cider apple juices (mono-varietal, bi-varietal and multi-varietal) and three autochthonous Saccharomyces bayanus yeast strains. The type of juice significantly influenced the pH values and the contents of sorbitol and shikimic acid in the ice juices. The strains used as starters did develop the fermentation producing ciders with alcoholic degrees between 8.75 and 11.52 (% v/v) and volatile acidities lower than 0.55 g acetic acid/L. Regarding the ice ciders, the apple mixture significantly influenced the levels of methanol (higher in mono-varietal ciders), 2-phenylethanol, and some minor acetate esters (higher in the bi-varietal ciders). The last ciders were also more floral, buttery, acidic and bitter than those made from mono- and multi-varietal juices. In the first harvest, the ciders obtained from the bi-varietal apple mixture scored lower for overall sensory quality.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Malus , Saccharomyces/metabolismo , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Fermentação , Congelamento , Humanos , Malus/química , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
19.
Food Chem ; 303: 125405, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466029

RESUMO

The study aimed at evaluating the influence of fermented sugarcane molasses ageing on lees and the distillation process used for the production of rums. Molasses were freshly fermented or 3-months lees aged. Batch (PS: Pot Still) or continuous (CS: Coffey Still) distillation was carried out resulting in four different rum distillates. Gas chromatography and 3D-fluorescence enabled to differentiate rum distillates chemical composition according to the distillation process, regardless of the ageing on lees of fermented molasses. Differences in fluorescent PARAFAC components and volatile acids, acetals and carbonyls contents revealed the predominance of the physicochemical processes driven at the liquid-vapor interface of fermented molasses, generated by the distillation systems. Notwithstanding the distilling conditions, the long chain fatty ester content was significantly higher in the 3-months lees aged condition. Multivariate analysis highlighted that CS rum distillates were chemically more homogeneous than those obtained by PS that preserved the lees effect.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Destilação/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Melaço/análise , Saccharum/química , Cromatografia Gasosa , Fermentação , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 343-353, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herbs are rich in various beneficial bioactive compounds and they can be used for many different purposes. One of the most common is maceration of herbs in alcohol. Different substances respond differently to extraction in prepared solutions. It is very important to enhance the highest proportion of beneficial ingredients during the maceration process in a herbal liqueur. A comparative analysis of numerous different phenolic compounds from eight of the most frequently used herbs for making aperitifs in Europe was performed. RESULTS: In the comparison among all studied herbs, the highest phenolic content was found with Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) (14.61 mg g-1 ) and Mentha piperita (peppermint) (13.89 mg g-1 ), while the lowest content was found with Centaurium erythraea (common centaury) (3.96 mg g-1 ). Salvianolic acid isomers and caffeic acid derivatives were the greatest contributors to the total phenolic content in lemon balm, wormwood, peppermint, fennel and sage. These compounds contain more hydroxyl groups and they were better extracted at the beginning of the maceration process. Caraway and common centaury contain more flavonols (quercetin and kaempferol derivatives), with higher chemical stability and fewer hydroxyl groups in their structure. CONCLUSION: The compositions of eight herbal liqueurs were highly related to the presence of different herbal ingredients and their solubility in the extract over time. Most flavonol derivatives were extracted over a longer time and the two liqueurs (common centaury and caraway) therefore had the highest phenolic contents after 3 weeks of maceration. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Artemisia/química , Carum/química , Centaurium/química , Europa (Continente) , Manipulação de Alimentos , Isomerismo , Mentha piperita/química , Fenóis/química
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