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1.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(2): 94-102, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Oral health can affect quality of life in all course of life, which is a key factor of general health. Dental caries, periodontitis and oral cancer are of the highest burden of oral diseases. Rising prevalence of soft drinks and alcoholic beverages consumption due to easy access and socio-demographic altering has increased the concerns on oral health. In this review our purpose was to show effects of the most consumed beverages on oral health in people older than 15 years. METHODS: The review was based on papers published in last 10 years, searched with combined key words related to types of drinks and specific oral health problems. We included 4 older studies due to lack of newer studies on subjected topics. RESULTS: Sugar-free soft drinks are found less cariogenic and erosive than regular versions in limited number of studies. Alcohol consumption is shown as one of the risk factors of prevalence and severity of periodontitis and is proven to have synergistic effects along with tobacco on oral cancer risk. Consumption of soft drinks and alcoholic beverages was related with tooth loss whether dental caries or periodontal diseases. CONCLUSION: There is good evidence for association between soft drinks and oral health problems, but still no clear answer exists about strength of association between sugar-free soft drinks and dental caries. Also the knowledge about influence of alcohol is inadequate. Since consuming style affects erosive potential of drinks manufacturers should be required to add some recommendations on labels about drinking style.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Saúde Bucal , Bebidas , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 376, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health warning labels (HWLs) using images and text to depict the negative health consequences of tobacco consumption are effective and acceptable for changing smoking-related outcomes. There is currently limited evidence concerning their potential use for reducing consumption of alcoholic drinks and energy-dense foods. The aim of this research was to describe the potential effectiveness and acceptability of image-and-text (also known as pictorial or graphic) HWLs applied to: i. alcoholic drinks and ii. energy-dense snack foods. METHODS: Two online studies were conducted using between-subjects designs with general population samples. Participants rated one of 21 image-and-text HWLs on alcoholic drinks (n = 5528), or one of 18 image-and-text HWLs on energy-dense snacks (n = 4618). HWLs comprised a graphic image with explanatory text, depicting, respectively, seven diseases linked to excess alcohol consumption, and six diseases linked to excess energy intake. Diseases included heart disease and various cancers. Outcomes were negative emotional arousal, desire to consume the labelled product, and acceptability of the label. Free-text comments relating to HWLs were content analysed. RESULTS: For both alcoholic drinks and energy-dense snacks, HWLs depicting bowel cancer generated the highest levels of negative emotional arousal and lowest desire to consume the product, but were the least acceptable. Acceptability was generally low for HWLs applied to alcohol, with 3 of 21 rated as acceptable, and was generally high for snacks, with 13 of 18 rated as acceptable. The majority of free-text comments expressed negative reactions to HWLs on alcohol or energy-dense snacks. CONCLUSIONS: Image-and-text health warning labels depicting bowel cancer showed greatest potential for reducing selection and consumption of alcoholic drinks and energy-dense snacks, although they were the least acceptable. Laboratory and field studies are needed to assess their impact on selection and consumption.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Comunicação , Dieta , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Rotulagem de Produtos/métodos , Lanches , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Dieta/psicologia , Emoções , Ingestão de Energia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Lanches/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco
4.
Am J Public Health ; 110(4): 485-488, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078349

RESUMO

The National Institutes of Health stopped the worldwide Moderate Alcohol and Cardiovascular Health (MACH) trial in 2018 because of institutional failings that led to the biased design of this major study. Drawing on e-mail correspondence among officials, researchers, and alcohol companies, we provide the first, to our knowledge, detailed analysis of alcohol industry involvement in the MACH trial.Alcohol companies agreed to fund the MACH trial to advance their commercial interests rather than to help answer a major scientific question. Alcohol industry executives seized opportunities presented by discussions of the MACH trial to try to influence this study and wider public health, research, and policy decision-making.The process of soliciting research funding from corporations, which included convincing alcohol companies that the study design supported their commercial interests, was intrinsically biased. Thus, the three parties-research funding officials, researchers, and industry executives-coproduced the biased trial design. A detailed understanding of this episode will be helpful in advancing efforts to protect public health research from biases associated with corporate donations.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comércio/ética , Conflito de Interesses/economia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Viés , Comércio/economia , Humanos
5.
Dermatol Online J ; 25(9)2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738848

RESUMO

Systemic contact dermatitis is a rash secondary to systemic exposure to allergens after sensitization. Numerous agents are implicated including Balsam of Peru, a plant-derived compound often used for flavoring and fragrance. Alcoholic beverages can contain many possible allergens, including cinnamon, vanilla, citrus peels, and Balsam of Peru. Herein, we describe two patients presenting with recurrent, diffuse, erythematous, and pruritic cutaneous eruptions suspicious for contact dermatitis. Based on clinical history, exam, and formal and at-home patch testing results, we believe the most likely etiology was Balsam of Peru within the alcohol beverages leading to systemic contact dermatitis. Both patients markedly improved after avoidance of their alcoholic beverages. Overall, systemic contact dermatitis secondary to alcohol consumption is a rare phenomenon, whereas Balsam of Peru is a relatively common allergen. Suspicion must be high to identify possible allergens (including Balsam of Peru) exposure within alcoholic beverages such as artificial flavorings, aromas, and mixtures.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Bálsamos/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Pele/patologia , Idoso , Biópsia , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/patologia , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739490

RESUMO

The relationship between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is not consistent and may vary between populations, depending on age, sex, ethnicity, cultural traditions and lifestyle. We have hypothesized that moderate alcohol consumption will be associated with the lowest risk of the syndrome. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between the current consumption of alcohol and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components. The research material includes data obtained from 12,285 men and women, in the age range of 37-66 years. Multiple logistic regression was used in the statistical analysis. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. In men, a current consumption of >30 g of alcohol/day was significantly associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.25-2.39), high blood pressure (OR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.64-4.65), elevated glucose concentration (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.24-2.32), and abdominal obesity (OR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.07-2.92). In women, the consumption from 10.1 to 15.0 g of alcohol was associated only with a higher risk of abnormal glucose concentration (OR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.14-2.38.) In both sexes, current alcohol consumption was associated with higher high-density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol concentration (p < 0.05). No relationship was found between alcohol consumption and triglyceride concentration. It is difficult to formulate unequivocal recommendations regarding alcohol intake in MetS prophylaxis due to its different association with particular MetS components. In order to explain the causal relationship between alcohol consumption and MetS and its components, prospective studies are necessary.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Lipídeos/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Triglicerídeos/sangue
7.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219301, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential impacts of beverage intake during the midlife on future subclinical atherosclerosis among women are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prospective associations between the intakes of eight beverage groups and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in midlife women. METHODS: Data came from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, a multicenter, multiethnic, and prospective cohort study. A total of 1,235 midlife women had measures of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis and repeatedly beverage intake data collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Beverages were aggregated into eight groups, including coffee, tea, sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, fruit juices, whole milk, milk with lower fat content, and alcoholic beverages. The associations of beverage intake with common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) and adventitial diameter (CCA-AD) were estimated using linear models; the associations with carotid plaque were estimated using log-binomial models. RESULTS: Coffee intake was associated with CCA-IMT in an inverted J-shaped pattern. After adjusting for covariates, women with >0 to <1 cup/day and 1 to <2 cups/day of coffee intake had a 0.031 mm (95% CI: 0.012, 0.051) and a 0.027 mm (95% CI: 0.005, 0.049) larger CCA-IMT, respectively, than coffee non-drinkers. Women who consumed ≥2 cups/day of coffee did not have significantly different CCA-IMT than non-drinkers. There was an inverse linear association between moderate alcoholic beverages intake and CCA-IMT (P-trend = 0.014). Whole milk intake had inverted U-shaped associations with CCA-IMT and carotid plaque. No significant associations were found between other beverage groups and subclinical atherosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS: In midlife women, occasional coffee intake may be associated with more subclinical atherosclerosis while moderate alcoholic beverages intake may be associated with less subclinical atherosclerosis. Future work should focus on the determination of the optimal beverage intake profile for maximum cardiovascular benefits in midlife women.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/fisiopatologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Placa Aterosclerótica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/etiologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Café/efeitos adversos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite , Placa Aterosclerótica/etiologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Chá/efeitos adversos , Saúde da Mulher
8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(3): 691-700, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a number of studies have examined the association between alcohol intake and hip fractures, few have considered specific alcoholic beverages separately. OBJECTIVES: We prospectively assessed total alcohol and specific alcoholic beverage consumption and risk of hip fractures in US men and women. METHODS: Health, lifestyle information, and hip fractures were self-reported on biennial questionnaires between 1980 and 2014 in 75,180 postmenopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study, and between 1986 and 2014 in 38,398 men aged ≥50 y from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Diet was assessed approximately every 4 y with a semiquantitative FFQ. RRs were computed for hip fracture using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: We ascertained 2360 incident low trauma hip fractures in women and 709 in men. Among women, RRs for low trauma hip fractures compared with nondrinkers were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.99) for an average daily consumption of <5.0 g, 0.81 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.94) for 5.0 to <10.0 g, 0.83 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.96) for 10.0 to <20.0 g, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.10) for ≥20.0 g. Among men, risk declined linearly with higher alcohol consumption (P-trend = 0.002). Multivariable RR compared with nondrinkers was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.01), 0.69 (0.49, 0.96), and 0.67 (0.48, 0.95) for an average intake of 10 g/d to <20 g/d, 20 g/d to <30 g/d, and 30.0 g/d or more, respectively. In women, the alcoholic beverage most significantly associated with hip fracture risk was red wine (RR per serving = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.79). In men, there was no clear association with specific alcoholic beverages. CONCLUSION: In these 2 US cohorts, low to moderate alcohol consumption, when compared with no consumption, was associated with a lower risk of hip fractures, particularly with red wine consumption among women.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(extr.3): 58-62, jul. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184437

RESUMO

Existe mucha evidencia que sugiere una relación en J entre el consumo moderado de alcohol y la salud cardiovascular. Se ha referido una reducción de alrededor del 20% en la mortalidad y de hasta el 40% en la cardiopatía isquémica en los bebedores moderados respecto a los abstemios absolutos. Las dosis consideradas saludables oscilan entre 10 y 20 g/día para mujeres y hombres, respectivamente, y parece que el patrón de bebida es igualmente relevante para obtener ese efecto saludable. Múltiples son los mecanismos que pueden explicar el retraso en la aterogénesis inducido por el consumo saludable de alcohol, pero probablemente los efectos sobre los lípidos y las plaquetas son los más importantes. Sin embargo, se mantiene la controversia sobre si las bebidas alcohólicas fermentadas con alto contenido en polifenoles como cerveza o vino tienen un mayor efecto de protección cardiovascular que los licores que no contienen apenas polifenoles


A large evidence-based reports a J-shaped association among moderate alcohol consumption and cardiovascular health. Low-moderate alcohol intake has been related to lower all-cause mortality (20%) and ischemic heart events (40%) compared to abstainers. The dose that is allegedly beneficial varies between 10-20 gr/day for women and men respectively. Moreover, the drinking pattern seems to be significant in order to get healthy effects. Moderate alcohol consumption hinders atherogenesis by several mechanisms mainly improving lipid profile and reducing thrombogenesis. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether high-polyphenol alcoholic beverages, such as wine and beer, confer a greater cardiovascular protection than spirits, which have much less polyphenol content


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Arteriosclerose/fisiopatologia , Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/complicações , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Polifenóis/efeitos adversos , Cerveja/efeitos adversos
10.
Pediatrics ; 144(1)2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235608

RESUMO

Alcohol use continues to be a major concern from preadolescence through young adulthood in the United States. Results of recent neuroscience research have helped to elucidate neurobiological models of addiction, substantiated the deleterious effects of alcohol on adolescent brain development, and added additional evidence to support the call to prevent and reduce underage drinking. This technical report reviews the relevant literature and supports the accompanying policy statement in this issue of Pediatrics.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Consumo de Álcool por Menores , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/terapia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/prevenção & controle , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Pediatrics ; 144(1)2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235610
12.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 8(5): 256-260, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204441

RESUMO

Addressing the determinants of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is challenged by aggressive market promotion by tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy food industries in emerging countries with fast economic development; and interference by these industries in government policies aimed at containing consumption of unhealthy products. This editorial reviews market promotion and industry interference and classifies them into four groups of tactics: (a) interfering with the legislative process; (b) using front groups to act on their behalf; (c) questioning the evidence of tobacco harm and the effectiveness of harm-reduction interventions; and (d) appearing responsible in the eyes of the public, journalists and policy-makers. Despite active implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy food industries use similar tactics to aggressively interfere in policies, with the tobacco industry being the most aggressive. Policy interference by industries are effective in the context of poor governance, rampant corruption, conflict of interest among political and government actors, and regulatory capture in all levels of countries from low- to high-income. In addressing these interferences, government requires the practice of good governance, effective mechanisms to counteract conflict of interests among political and policy actors, and prevention of regulatory capture. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework of Engagement with non-State Actors can be applied to the country context when engaging private entities in the prevention and control of NCDs.


Assuntos
Indústria Alimentícia , Marketing , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Indústria do Tabaco , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
13.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 201: 236-243, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantity and frequency of drinking may be used to effectively quantify the severity of alcohol-use. Drinking-severity has been related to neurocognitive impairments in such domains as spatial working memory (SWM). Youth drinking has been associated with altered neurofunctional underpinnings of SWM. The current study examined the relationship between drinking-severity and SWM processing. METHODS: One-hundred-and-seventy college drinkers reported the maximum number of drinks in a 24 -h period in the last six-months (quantity) and average number of drinking weeks in the last six-months (frequency). All participants performed a virtual Morris Water Task during fMRI which included trials where the target platform was visible or hidden. RESULTS: Greater quantity was associated with reduced SWM-related activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (F(1, 167) = 4.15, p = .04). Greater frequency was associated with reduced SWM-related activity in the hippocampus (F(1, 167) = 4.34, p = 0.039). Greater quantity was associated with longer search times (r = 0.21, p = .005) and greater platforms found (r = 0.19, p = .01) in VISIBLE trials. We did not find a relationship between drinking quantity or frequency and gender on SWM-related activity, although men found more platforms in both HIDDEN (F(1, 168) = 11.7, p = 0.0008) and VISIBLE (F(1, 168) = 23.0, p < .0001) trials compared to women. CONCLUSIONS: Altered SWM-related hippocampal function relating to alcohol use in young adults raises questions regarding the impact on young adult health and the nature of the findings. Future studies should examine whether these differences may lead to cognitive deficits later in life.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/psicologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Navegação Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Universidades/tendências , Adulto Jovem
14.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 54(4): 435-438, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162528

RESUMO

AIMS: To search for pharmaceutical additives in illicit alcoholic beverages referred to the laboratory of Legal Medicine Organization in Iran in 2017. METHODS: Hundred beverages were sampled. Ethanol content was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and then a liquid-liquid extraction combined with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detector (PAD) was employed for the qualitative analysis. The analysis was confirmed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). RESULTS: In 15% either one or more of the following were detected: tramadol, methadone, diazepam, oxazepam, flurazepam and alprazolam. Tramadol was found with highest frequency. CONCLUSIONS: The wide availability of addictive pharmaceutical is leading to fortification of alcoholic beverages on some countries. The addition of such depressant additives should be better known because of the potentially fatal consequences of the combination with ethanol, as well as the potential for adverse effects on behavior.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Analgésicos Opioides/análise , Benzodiazepinas/análise , Metadona/análise , Tramadol/análise , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Metadona/efeitos adversos , Distribuição Aleatória , Tramadol/efeitos adversos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 665, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health policy is inevitably associated with either a strong presence or lack of public support. We investigated factors associated with both the public support of and opposition to health taxes and the media regulation regarding advertising harmful products in Korea. METHODS: We interviewed 1200 respondents that were recruited using an equal-probability sampling method in accordance with the 2016 Korean census. Our investigation examined the extent of support and opposition towards health taxes and the media regulation of advertising that targets the consumption of tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy foods according to socioeconomic characteristics, health habits, body mass index (BMI), and exposure to the advertising of harmful products. The study was conducted using a univariate and stepwise multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS: The majority (71.8%) of the respondents were supportive of imposing health taxes in general. Despite a high prevalence of tobacco and alcohol consumption among the respondents, they strongly supported media regulation of tobacco (72.3%), alcohol (63.7%), and eating broadcasts (51.9%) food advertising (44.0%). Those that were non-smokers, earned a high-income, were married, or had a child were likely to support at least one kind of regulation regarding alcohol and smoking related advertising. An exposure to excessive advertising of unhealthy products was associated with increase of respondents supporting the media regulation. Those who regarded the media as being influential seemed to be more supportive of health taxes or media regulation. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated strong public support among the respondents for health taxes and the media regulation regarding the advertising of unhealthy products. Based on our data, we are optimistic that countries whose population show a high rate of tobacco, alcohol or unhealthy food consumption may launch public policy in addressing these factors.


Assuntos
Publicidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/legislação & jurisprudência , Opinião Pública , Impostos/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Feminino , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Produtos do Tabaco/economia
17.
J Health Commun ; 24(3): 328-338, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038010

RESUMO

Alcohol-facilitated sexual assault is a serious problem on college campuses, and bystander intervention has been shown to be a successful method in reducing sexual assaults. Although there are a number of factors associated with individuals' intentions to intervene in sexual assault situations, the media's cultural scripts that link alcohol consumption to sexual success may play a role. Alcohol advertisements, in particular, routinely portray women as sexual objects and often link alcohol consumption to sexual success; therefore, exposure to such content may be negatively associated with people's intentions to intervene in alcohol-facilitated sexual assault situations. Thus, the current study investigated if exposure to and perceptions of objectified images of women in alcoholic beverage advertisements were associated with college students' intentions to intervene in alcohol-facilitated sexual assault situations. Undergraduate college students (N = 1208) were randomly assigned to view three alcohol advertisements that either included highly-objectified or low-objectified women, and then they reported their perceptions of the women in each of the alcohol advertisements and their intentions to intervene in sexual assault situations. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that individuals' perceptions of alcohol advertisements moderate the relationship between exposure to objectifying alcohol advertisements and intentions to intervene in sexual assault situations.


Assuntos
Publicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Intenção , Estupro/prevenção & controle , Estupro/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
18.
Prof Inferm ; 71(4): 199-208, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980705

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The habit of teenagers and young adults to take alcoholic beverages mixed with Energy Drinks (AmED) is increasing. Epidemiological data are of concern but awareness of the problem between consumers and health workers is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects and damages from consumption of AmED compared to alcohol. METODI: Finding documents through the interrogation of seven biomedical databases. Overview of systematic reviews assessed for methodological quality and risk of bias respectively with the AMSTAR checklist and ROBIS tool with narrative synthesis of results. RESULTS: Six systematic reviews of low quality and high risk of bias met the inclusion criteria. The intake of AmED seems to determine the increase in state of vigilance, reduction of sedation and possible effects at physiological level; there are no significantly different cognitive or psychomotor effects. The evidence to support a lower perception of alcohol intoxication is insufficient; controversial are those in favour of an increase in alcohol intake or risky behavior. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The results of experimental studies, which unlike nonexperimental could identify a cause-effect relationship, are often statistically insignificant and do not lead to a unanimous consensus on the different effects/damages of two consumption patterns. The authors of three reviews declare conflicts of interest with an ED producer, raising the problem of industry's influence on research. The current evidence is insufficient to confirm or refute the hypothesis that intake of AmED results in significantly different effects/damage compared to alcohol. However, the magnitude of phenomenon must act as a push for further studies promoted by independent researchers.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934815

RESUMO

Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with various alcohol-related consequences among college students. However, more information is required to assess how this relationship is affected by sociodemographic and environmental factors. This paper investigates the association between AmED consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences while (1) stratifying AmED users by sex, (2) examining a range of outcomes specific to the college context (e.g., missing class), and (3) controlling for drinking frequency and amount. We surveyed and analyzed the data of 4592 students in a nationally representative sample of 82 colleges in South Korea. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify the association between AmED use and a number of alcohol-related consequences (ranging from a score of 0⁻12) while adjusting for covariates, including drinking frequency and intake per drinking session. Of our study population, 22.0% of alcohol-consuming men and 13.4% of alcohol-consuming women reported AmED consumption in the past 12 months. AmED users experienced a greater number of alcohol-related consequences (e.g., missing class, engaging in unplanned sexual activity) than non-AmED users (men ß: 0.804, p ≤ 0.0001; women ß: 0.522, p ≤ 0.0001). Male AmED users consuming alcohol once a month (ß: 1.155, p ≤ 0.0001) and female users consuming less than once a month (ß: 1.019, p ≤ 0.0001) experienced the greatest number of consequences compared to non-users, as did AmED users consuming 3⁻4 drinks per drinking session (men ß: 1.012, p ≤ 0.0001; women ß: 0.993, p ≤ 0.0001). Our findings reveal that both male and female college students who consume AmED experience a greater number of negative alcohol-related consequences than those who do not. Rather than high-risk drinkers, moderate drinkers who consume alcohol infrequently and/or in low amounts may experience more consequences when consumers of AmED.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Interações Alimento-Droga , Assunção de Riscos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , República da Coreia , Comportamento Sexual , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
20.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214865, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2010 World Health Organization Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol recommends countries adopt evidence-based interventions. AIM: To update, summarize, and appraise the methodological rigour of systematic reviews of selected alcohol control interventions in the Strategy. METHODS: We searched for systematic reviews across PUBMED, EMBase and The Cochrane Library in 2016 and updated in 2017 with no language limits. Two investigators independently in duplicate conducted screening, eligibility, data extraction, and quality assessment using the ROBIS tool. We categorised interventions according to the WHO recommendations, and rated reviews as at high, low or unclear risk of bias. We applied a hierarchical approach to summarising review results. Where overlap existed we report results of high quality reviews and if none existed, by most recent date of publication. We integrated the ROBIS rating with the results to produce a benefit indication. RESULTS: We identified 42 systematic reviews from 5,282 records. Almost all eligible reviews were published in English, one in German and one in Portuguese. Most reviews identified only observational studies (74%; 31/42) with no studies from low or lower-middle income (LMIC) countries. Ten reviews were rated as low risk of bias. Methodological deficiencies included publication and language limits, no duplicate assessment, no assessment of study quality, and no integration of quality into result interpretation. We evaluated the following control measures as possibly beneficial: 1) community mobilization; 2) multi-component interventions in the drinking environment; 3) restricting alcohol advertising; 4) restricting on- and off-premise outlet density; 5) police patrols and ignition locks to reduce drink driving; and 6) increased price and taxation including minimum unit pricing. CONCLUSIONS: Robust and well-reported research synthesis is deficient in the alcohol control field despite the availability of clear methodological guidance. The lack of primary and synthesis research arising from LMIC should be prioritised globally.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Dirigir sob a Influência/prevenção & controle , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Marketing , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Política Pública , Impostos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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