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1.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1323, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the prevention paradox, the majority of alcohol-related harms in the population occur among low-to-moderate risk drinkers, simply because they are more numerous in the population, although high-risk drinkers have a higher individual risk of experiencing alcohol-related harms. In this study we explored the prevention paradox in the Irish population by comparing alcohol-dependent drinkers (high-risk) to low-risk drinkers and non-dependent drinkers who engage in heavy episodic drinking (HED). METHODS: Data were generated from the 2013 National Alcohol Diary Survey (NADS), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of Irish adults aged 18-75. Data were available for 4338 drinkers. Respondents dependent on alcohol (as measured by DSM-IV criteria), respondents who engaged in monthly HED or occasional HED (1-11 times a year) and low-risk drinkers were compared for distribution of eight alcohol-related harms. RESULTS: Respondents who were dependent on alcohol had a greater individual risk of experiencing each harm (p < .0001). The majority of the harms in the population were accounted for by drinkers who were not dependent on alcohol. Together, monthly and occasional HED drinkers accounted for 62% of all drinkers, consumed 70% of alcohol and accounted for 59% of alcohol-related harms. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the majority of alcohol consumption and related harms in the Irish population are accounted for by low- and moderate-risk drinkers, and specifically by those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. A population-based approach to reducing alcohol-related harm is most appropriate in the Irish context. Immediate implementation of the measures in the Public Health (Alcohol) Act (2018) is necessary to reduce alcohol-related harm in Ireland.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
AIDS Behav ; 23(12): 3237-3246, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401740

RESUMO

Despite greater mental health co-morbidities and heavier alcohol use among PLWH, few studies have examined the role of the neighborhood alcohol environment on either alcohol consumption or mental health. Utilizing cross-sectional data from a cohort study in a southern U.S. metropolitan area, we examine the association between neighborhood alcohol environments on hazardous drinking and mental health among 358 in-care PLWH (84% African American, 31% female). Multilevel models were utilized to quantify associations between neighborhood alcohol exposure on hazardous drinking and effect modification by sex. Neighborhood alcohol density was associated with hazardous drinking among men but not women. Women living in alcohol dense neighborhoods were nearly two-fold likely to report depression compared to those in less dense neighborhoods, with no association between neighborhood alcohol density and depression among men. Neighborhood alcohol environments may be an important contextual factor to consider in reducing heavy alcohol consumption and improving mental health among PLWH.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribução , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Social , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Áreas de Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
3.
Br J Health Psychol ; 24(4): 847-858, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We build on findings from terror management theory to examine how non-conscious mortality concerns may lead individuals to adhere to cultural meanings yoked to discrete time periods, in this case influencing consumption of an ostensibly alcoholic beverage. DESIGN: The study took the form of a 2 (death vs. uncertainty reminder) × 3 (Monday vs. Wednesday vs. Friday) between-subjects laboratory-based quasi-experimental design. METHODS: A total of 210 participants (age: M = 21.92 years, SD = 5.33; 103 males and 107 females) recruited from a UK university answered either an open-ended question to prime mortality or uncertainty cognition on either a Monday, Wednesday, or Friday. As part of an ostensible taste test, they then consumed as much or as little of a purportedly alcoholic drink as they desired. RESULTS: Death reminders (vs. control topic) were found to result in more consumption of the beverage on a Friday, less consumption on a Monday, and no difference in consumption on a Wednesday. CONCLUSIONS: Findings point to the flexible, time-contingent nature of culture-oriented defences against mortality concerns with potential implications for the efficacy of alcohol health warnings featuring mortality-related stimuli. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Death reminders can spur people to adhere to cultural scripts for behaviour in the service of maintaining existential security. Death reminders can lead people to consume alcohol (particularly for those who are low in self-esteem). What does this study add? Death reminders may lead people to adhere to temporally yoked scripts related to drinking behaviour. Specifically, death reminders led to more positive drinking attitudes and more alcohol consumed on Friday compared to Monday or Wednesday. Cultural script following may be specifically tied to non-conscious mortality awareness.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Morte , Adulto , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
4.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 77(8): 608-616, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230511

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study is to study the association of alcoholic beverages and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level with periodontal condition. Material and methods: The study included 4294 dentate, non-diabetic Finnish adults aged 30-65 years who underwent periodontal examination during the Health 2000 Survey. The number of teeth with deepened (≥4 mm) periodontal pockets was the outcome. The exposures were self-reported beverage-specific alcohol intake (amount and frequency) and serum GGT level. The relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained by fitting zero-inflated negative binomial regression models. Results: We found no consistent association of either the intake of different alcoholic beverages or GGT level with the number of teeth with deepened periodontal pockets in the total study population or among the non-smokers. Among the highly educated non-smokers, spirit intake was associated with a low likelihood of having teeth with deepened periodontal pockets; RRs varied between 0.3 and 0.8. Among the non-smokers who had basic or intermediate education, spirit intake was associated with a higher likelihood of having teeth with deepened periodontal pockets; RRs varied between 1.2 and 1.8. Conclusion: In general, neither the intake of different alcoholic beverages nor the GGT level was consistently associated with the number of teeth with deepened periodontal pockets.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças da Gengiva , Doenças Periodontais , Adulto , Idoso , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas , Feminino , Finlândia , Doenças da Gengiva/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Bolsa Periodontal
5.
Geospat Health ; 14(1)2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099525

RESUMO

To date, the association between the alcohol sale status of decedents' residence and alcohol-related homicide victimization have not been studied as far as we know. The current study aims to: i) determine whether homicide victims who were residents of wet counties had higher odds of testing positive for alcohol than their counterparts in moist or dry counties after adjusting for confounders; ii) determine whether homicides and alcohol-related homicides tend to cluster spatially; iii) determine whether the aforementioned associations exist only in highly-populated counties. A multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data on homicide victims in the Kentucky Violent Death Reporting System from 2005 to 2012. Spatial statistics were used to determine the spatial autocorrelation in rates of homicides and alcohol-related homicides. Overall, 944 homicide victims were included. The male to female ratio was 3:1. About 32.8% of homicide victims tested positive for alcohol. About 33.0% of homicide decedents who were residents in wet counties tested positive for alcohol compared to 32.5% of their counterparts in moist/dry counties. Residence in wet counties was associated with a statistically insignificant increase in the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) of alcohol-related homicide victimization (OR=1.20, 95% CI=0.81-1.77) as well as the adjusted odds (aOR=1.33, 95% CI=0.83-2.12). There was no association between population size and alcohol-related homicide rate.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 198: 7-12, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated alcoholic beverage purchasing behaviors, which are relevant to the design and effectiveness of alcoholic beverage control policies. Focusing on spirits purchasing among spirits drinkers, this study compares purchasing behaviors between risky and non-risky drinkers and across drinking patterns among those observed drinking at both levels. METHODS: A rolling panel of 794 spirits drinkers in the state of Washington were surveyed between two and five times at 6-month intervals during 2014, 2015 and 2016 regarding their alcohol use, spirits purchasing and marijuana use frequency. Purchasing behaviors assessed for spirits were the frequency of purchasing and the travel time, unit cost, bottle size and store type from the respondents most recent purchase. Alcohol use was categorized at each measurement as risky or not using US NIAAA guidelines. RESULTS: Risky drinkers were more likely to purchase spirits, purchase spirits more frequently, purchase larger spirits containers and use marijuana occasionally, but not frequently. Among drinkers who were risky only in some survey waves, during risky waves they were more likely to purchase more frequently, pay less per liter for spirits purchased, buy larger sized containers of spirits and use marijuana occasionally. CONCLUSIONS: Drinkers chose to purchase lower cost spirits in larger containers when they were drinking more heavily compared to times when they were drinking within US low-risk guidelines. Findings also support complementarity between heavier drinking and marijuana use among spirits drinkers in a state with legal recreational marijuana sales.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Washington
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781481

RESUMO

Background: The volume of alcohol intake and type of alcohol affect Chinese men's health. This study investigated changes of alcohol type between 2004 and 2011, explored the trend of change in alcohol type with age and determined the social demographic factors influencing the alcohol intake of Chinese men. Methods: Research data originated from the public database, China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Three chi-square tests were used to determine the prevalence of different alcohol types (beer, wine and liqueur) and the trend with age among male drinkers from 2004 to 2011. An ordered logistic regression model was established with alcohol intake as the dependent variable and social demography as the independent variable to analyze the influence of these factors on male alcohol intake. Results: This study confirmed that from 2004 to 2011, 70.1% of Chinese men consumed alcohol less than 168 g/w. The popularity of beer was on the rise, while the liqueur alcohol consumption decreased from 2004 to 2011 and the consumption of wine began to rise rapidly after 2006 (p < 0.05 for all). The prevalence of liqueur drinking increased with age and the prevalence of beer drinking decreased with age among Chinese male drinkers (p < 0.05 for all). From 2004 to 2011, a positive correlation appeared between age and male alcohol intake (p < 0.05 for all). In 2004 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.03⁻1.44), 2006 (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.02⁻1.42) and 2011 (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.31⁻1.75), Chinese men living in rural areas had a high volume of alcohol intake. From 2004 to 2011, the participants had married consumed more alcohol (p < 0.05 for all). In 2004 (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.43⁻0.88) and 2011 (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68⁻0.94), higher education levels were negatively correlated with male alcohol intake. In 2006 (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.07⁻1.56), 2009 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.45⁻2.14) and 2011 (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.13⁻1.61), male drinkers who were working consumed more alcohol. From 2004 to 2011, a significant positive correlation appeared between tobacco consumption and alcohol intake (p < 0.05 for all). Conclusion: Consumption of three types of alcohol (beer, wine and liqueur) varies with the year. Beer consumption decreases with age, whereas liqueur consumption increases with age. Social demographic factors, such as residence, age, highest education level, working status and tobacco consumption, are related to alcohol intake. Our study affirms the effect of age on the choice of different types of alcohol.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uso de Tabaco
9.
Subst Use Misuse ; 54(6): 899-907, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: College student substance use has been a problem for many years. In particular, heavy alcohol consumption can create issues with academics, social relationships, and overall functioning. Unitary measures of generic alcohol consumption (e.g., drinking frequency) are important predictors of alcohol-related negative consequences, but the small amount of specific-beverage research available suggests that assessing beverage type consumed may enhance prediction. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to expand knowledge of alcoholic beverage preference in relation to negative consequences and confirm the factor structure of the RAPI proposed by Martens et al. ( 2007 ) in a college student sample. METHODS: In addition, the present study expanded current knowledge by assessing beverage preference type in relation to specific negative consequences on the RAPI. RESULTS: Results replicated the three-factor structure originally found by Martens et al. ( 2007 ). Moreover, results found that individuals consuming shots of liquor or alcohol mixed with caffeine reported higher overall RAPI scores and higher scores on the Abuse/Dependence and Personal Consequences factors but not the Social Consequences factor than those consuming mixed drinks, beer, or wine. Conclusions/Importance: This research might inform discussions with incoming college freshman about not only alcohol consumption and negative consequences but the dangers of drinking specific types of alcohol beverages such as shots and/or alcohol mixed with caffeine.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Epidemiol ; 29(4): 125-132, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30146528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to report the prevalence and correlates of high-risk alcohol consumption and types of alcoholic beverages. METHODS: The baseline data of the Health Examinees-Gem (HEXA-G) study participants, including 43,927 men and 85,897 women enrolled from 2005 through 2013, were used for analysis. Joinpoint regression was performed to estimate trends in the age-standardized prevalence of alcohol consumption. Associations of demographic and behavioral factors, perceived health-related effects, social relationships, and the diagnostic history of diseases with alcohol consumption were assessed using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of alcohol consumption remained higher in men during the study period and increased in women. The amount of alcohol consumed has increased in women, especially that from beer and makgeolli, a traditional Korean fermented rice wine. Older participants were less likely to be high-risk drinkers (men and women who drink more than 40 or 20 g/day of alcohol, respectively) and drink Soju, a distilled liquor, and beer, and more likely to drink makgeolli. Educational level was negatively associated with high-risk drinking. However, it was positively associated with the consumption of strong spirits and wine. Smoking was associated with high-risk drinking and the consumption of soju and strong spirits. Engaging in regular exercise and having stress were associated with drinking all types of beverages except for soju. CONCLUSIONS: Sex-specific trends in alcohol consumption were influenced by demographic, behavioral, and perceived health-related factors. The findings will help improve the understanding of alcohol-related problems and provide evidence for establishing country-specific policies and campaigns in Korea.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
11.
Eur J Health Econ ; 20(3): 439-454, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30276497

RESUMO

Many people drink more than the recommended level of alcohol, with some drinking substantially more. There is evidence that suggests that this leads to large health and social costs, and price is often proposed as a tool for reducing consumption. This paper uses quantile regression methods to estimate the differential price (and income) elasticities across the drinking distribution. This is also done for on-premise (pubs, bars and clubs) and off-premise (supermarkets and shops) alcohol separately. In addition, we examine the extent to which drinkers respond to price changes by varying the 'quality' of the alcohol that they consume. We find that heavy drinkers are much less responsive to price in terms of quantity, but that they are more likely to substitute with cheaper products when the price of alcohol increases. The implication is that price-based policies may have little effect in reducing consumption amongst the heaviest drinkers, provided they can switch to lower quality alternatives.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio/economia , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
Clin Obstet Gynecol ; 62(1): 142-155, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575614

RESUMO

Alcohol exposure during pregnancy results in impaired growth, stillbirth, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Fetal alcohol deficits are lifelong issues with no current treatment or established diagnostic or therapeutic tools to prevent and/or ameliorate some of these adverse outcomes. Despite the recommendation to abstain, almost half of the women consume alcohol in pregnancy in the United States. This review focuses on the trends in prenatal alcohol exposure, implications for maternal and fetal health, and evidence suggesting that preconception and the prenatal period provide a window of opportunity to intervene, mitigate, and ideally curtail the lifetime effects of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/prevenção & controle , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/prevenção & controle , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208509, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589849

RESUMO

Recent tobacco taxation research suggests that excise tax structure plays an important role in the effectiveness of increasing taxes in reducing consumption. However, evidence on excise tax structures of alcoholic beverages is scarce. We linked price variability measures for beer, wine, and liquor in the US derived using Economist Intelligence Unit city data from 2003 to 2016 with state-level excise tax structures from the Alcohol Policy Information System. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions were performed to assess the associations between excise tax structures and price variability, for beer, wine, and liquor (spirits), respectively. Results suggest that, compared with a specific excise beer tax structure based on volumes, a mixed structure with both specific and ad valorem components was associated with 38% (p≤0.01) greater beer price variability. In addition, a mixed excise tax structure for liquor was associated with 60-77% (p≤0.01) greater liquor price variability. However, these associations do not imply a causal link between tax structures and price variability. In summary, a mixed excise tax structure is associated with greater variability in beer and liquor prices, an indicator for tax avoidance opportunities. Future research is needed to identify the causal impact of tax structures on price variability.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Comércio , Impostos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades/economia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Família , Política de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Impostos/economia , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 15: E134, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388067

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Media tobacco and alcohol portrayals encourage adolescent substance use. Preventing adolescent initiation with these substances is critical, as they contribute to leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Television tobacco and alcohol portrayals have not been examined for more than 7 years. This study analyzed tobacco and alcohol portrayals on adolescents' favorite television shows and evaluated the rate of portrayals by parental rating. METHODS: Adolescent males (N = 1,220) from Ohio reported 3 favorite television shows and how frequently they watch them. For each of the 20 most-watched shows in the sample, 9 episodes were randomly selected and coded for visual and verbal tobacco and alcohol incidents. Demographics of characters who used or interacted with the substances were recorded. Negative binomial regression modeled rates of tobacco and alcohol incidents per hour by parental rating. RESULTS: There were 49 tobacco and 756 alcohol portrayals across 180 episodes. Characters using the products were mostly white, male, and adult. The rate of tobacco incidents per hour was 1.2 for shows rated TV-14 (95% CI, 0.4-3.6) and 1.1 for shows rated TV-MA (95% CI, 0.3-4.5). The estimated rate of alcohol incidents per hour was 20.9 for shows rated TV-14 (95% CI, 6.3-69.2) and 7.2 for shows rated TV-MA (95% CI, 1.5-34.1). CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent males' favorite television shows rated TV-14 expose them to approximately 1 tobacco incident and 21 alcohol incidents per hour on average. Limiting tobacco and alcohol incidents on television could reduce adolescents' risk of substance use.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Tela , Televisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223460

RESUMO

Underage drinking among youth in Lebanon is increasing. Regulating availability is one of the best buy policies recommended by the World Health Organization. To quantitatively document the current status of alcohol availability to youth in Lebanon, we used GPS technology to survey alcohol outlet density in four highly populated neighborhoods in Beirut, Lebanon, and to estimate their proximity to educational institutions. The density of alcohol outlets ranged from 18.30 to 80.95 per km² (average of 39.6 alcohol outlets/km²). The highest number of total alcohol outlets was in the "Hamra & Jamiaa" area, which includes one of the largest private universities in the country. Thirteen out of 109 (12%) alcohol outlets (on and off-premise) were located less 100 m away from educational institutions, in violation of the current licensing law. None of the off-premise and the majority (94%) of on-premise alcohol outlets displayed the "no sale for <18" sign. Findings were indicative of an environment conducive to increased access and availability of alcohol among youth in Lebanon probably attributed to the prevailing weak alcohol policies and their enforcement. Systematic collection and reporting of alcohol outlet densities is critical to understand the alcogenic environment and guide local harm reduction policies.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio , Etanol , Humanos , Líbano , Políticas , Consumo de Álcool por Menores
17.
Addiction ; 113(12): 2245-2249, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Estimated alcohol consumption from national self-report surveys is often only 30-40% of official estimates based on sales or taxation data. Global burden of disease (GBD) estimates for alcohol adjust survey estimates up to 80% of total per capita consumption. This assumes that cohort studies needed to estimate relative risks for disease suffer less from under-reporting than typical national surveys. However, there is limited evidence on which to base that assumption. This paper aims to assess the extent of underestimation of alcohol consumption in cohort studies concerning alcohol and mortality compared with official total consumption estimates. DESIGN: Comparisons of estimated per capita consumption from a comprehensive sample of cohort studies against official estimates by country and year. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1 876 046 participants in 40 cohort studies from 18 countries on alcohol use and all-cause mortality identified by systematic review. MEASUREMENTS: Alcohol consumption data from the cohort studies were converted into usual grams of ethanol per day and then to total age 15+ per capita consumption. Matched estimates were sourced from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Health Observatory. FINDINGS: The cohort studies had mean coverages of age 15+ per capita alcohol consumption of 61.71% (ranging from 29.19% for Russia to 96.53% for Japan), after weighting estimates by sample size for within-country estimates and by number of studies per country for the overall estimate. Regional estimates were higher for the United States (66.22%) and lower for western European countries (55.35%). CONCLUSIONS: Underestimation of alcohol consumption in cohort studies is less than in typical population surveys. Because some under-coverage is caused by under-sampling heavier drinkers, the current practice of uplifting survey estimates to 80% of total population consumption in global burden of disease studies appears to be appropriate.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Comércio , Autorrelato , Impostos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Carga Global da Doença , Saúde Global , Humanos
18.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 726, 2018 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol marketing on social networking sites (SNS) is associated with alcohol use among young people. Alcohol companies adapt their online marketing content to specific national contexts and responses to such content differ by national settings. However, there exists very little academic work comparing the association between alcohol marketing on SNS and alcohol use among young people in different national settings and across different SNS. Therefore, we aimed to extend the limited existing work by investigating and comparing the association between self-reported exposure to alcohol marketing on three leading SNS (Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter) and alcohol use among young people in diverse national contexts (India and Australia). METHODS: Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from a convenience sample of 631 respondents (330 in India; 301 in Australia) aged 13-25 years via online surveys. Respondents answered questions on their drinking behaviors and involvement with alcohol marketing on SNS. RESULTS: Many respondents from both countries reported interacting with alcohol content online, predominantly on Facebook, followed by YouTube and then Twitter. The interaction was primarily in the forms of posting/liking/sharing/commenting on items posted on alcohol companies' social media accounts, viewing the event page/attending the event advertised by an alcohol company via social media, and/or accessing an alcohol website. Multivariate analyses demonstrated significant associations between respondents' interaction with alcohol content and drinking levels, with effects differing by SNS, demographic group, and country. For example, having friends who shared alcohol-related content was an important predictor of usual alcohol consumption for Indian respondents (p < .001), whereas posting alcohol-related information themselves was a stronger predictor among Australians (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that interaction with alcohol-related content on SNS is associated with young people's alcohol use behaviors and that these behaviors vary by national settings. This study extends previous work by demonstrating this connection across varying social media platforms and national contexts. The results highlight the need to formulate and implement strategies to effectively regulate the SNS alcohol marketing, especially among younger SNS users.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Marketing/estatística & dados numéricos , Marketing Social , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Autorrelato , Rede Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 79(3): 408-416, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29885148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Marketing aims to foster brand allegiance, and alcohol is a heavily marketed commodity. We hypothesize that exposed youth who are able to identify an aspirational alcohol brand will be at higher risk for underage drinking. METHOD: U.S. youth ages 15-20 (N = 2,012; 51% female) were surveyed twice in 2011-2013. Aspirational brand was assessed by asking, "If you could drink any brand you want, what is the name of the brand of alcohol you would choose?" Multivariable logistic regression tested associations between having an aspirational brand at baseline and onset of ever, binge (≥6 drinks/occasion), and hazardous drinking (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption ≥ 4). RESULTS: Baseline ever, binge, and hazardous drinking prevalence was 55%, 26%, and 19%, respectively; 47% reported having an aspirational brand, of whom 20% were nondrinkers. Top five reported brands were Budweiser, Smirnoff, Corona, Jack Daniels, and Bacardi, all heavily advertised brands. Older age, male gender, sensation seeking, and peer/parent drinking were associated with having an aspirational brand. After we controlled for these confounders, having an aspirational brand was independently associated cross-sectionally with greater risk of ever, binge, and hazardous drinking (adjusted odds ratio = 4.47, 95% CI [3.33, 6.00], 4.84 [3.41, 6.86], and 5.46 [3.63, 8.23], respectively) and longitudinally with initiation of binge and hazardous drinking (1.80 [1.19, 2.73] and 2.02 [1.33, 3.06], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Having an aspirational alcohol brand is both common and independently associated with subsequent underage alcohol use and misuse. Further studies examining how youth interact with and are affected by branded advertising are critical to guide development of effective education and policy interventions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Marketing , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 113(10): 1484-1493, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899440

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is unclear whether low levels of alcohol are harmful in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to determine whether quantity, binge pattern consumption, or type of alcohol was associated with liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. METHODS: Previous and current alcohol consumption was assessed in NAFLD patients undergoing liver biopsy. All subjects currently consumed <210 g per week (male) or <140 g per week (female). Binge consumption was defined as ≥4 standard drinks (female) or ≥5 standard drinks (male) in one sitting. Liver biopsies were scored according to the NASH CRN system with F3/4 fibrosis defined as advanced. RESULTS: Among 187 patients (24% with advanced fibrosis), the median weekly alcohol consumption was 20 (2.3-60) g over an average of 18 years. Modest consumption (1-70 g per week) was associated with lower mean fibrosis stage compared to lifetime abstainers (p < 0.05) and a decreased risk of advanced fibrosis (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.78, p = 0.01). The association with reduced fibrosis was not seen in subjects drinking in a binge-type fashion. Exclusive wine drinkers but not exclusive beer drinkers, had lower mean fibrosis stage and lower odds of advanced fibrosis (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.06-0.69, p = 0.01), compared to lifetime abstinent subjects. No interaction between gender and alcohol quantity, type, or binge consumption on fibrosis was observed. DISCUSSION: Modest (1-70 g per week) alcohol consumption, particularly wine in a non-binge pattern, is associated with lower fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Prospective longitudinal studies into fibrosis progression, cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality are required before clinical recommendations can be made.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Biópsia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais
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