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1.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807505

RESUMO

Plum brandy (Slivovitz (en); Sljivovica(sr)) is an alcoholic beverage that is increasingly consumed all over the world. Its quality assessment has become of great importance. In our study, the main volatiles and aroma compounds of 108 non-aged plum brandies originating from three plum cultivars, and fermented using different conditions, were investigated. The chemical profiles obtained after two-step GC-FID-MS analysis were subjected to multivariate data analysis to reveal the peculiarity in different cultivars and fermentation process. Correlation of plum brandy chemical composition with its sensory characteristics obtained by expert commission was also performed. The utilization of PCA and OPLS-DA multivariate analysis methods on GC-FID-MS, enabled discrimination of brandy samples based on differences in plum varieties, pH of plum mash, and addition of selected yeast or enzymes during fermentation. The correlation of brandy GC-FID-MS profiles with their sensory properties was achieved by OPLS multivariate analysis. Proposed workflow confirmed the potential of GC-FID-MS in combination with multivariate data analysis that can be applied to assess the plum brandy quality.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Prunus domestica , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Fermentação , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Metabolômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multivariada , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Leveduras
2.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103766, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875202

RESUMO

Daqu, a brick-shaped product spontaneously fermented under an open environment, has been regarded as the starter of fermentation, raw enzyme preparation and raw materials for baijiu production. However, its contribution in baijiu fermentation has not been fully elaborated yet. Here, the effects of daqu microbiota on baijiu fermentation were investigated under both field-scale and lab-scale conditions. In field-scale baijiu fermentation, the dominant daqu microbes (average relative abundance>10.0%), including unclassified_Leuconostocaceae, Thermoascus, and Thermomyces, tended to dominate the early stage (0-7 d). However, the rare daqu microbes (average relative abundance <0.1%, e.g., Kazachstania) tended to dominate the middle and late stages (11-40 d). In addition, some genera showed differences in species diversity between daqu and fermented grains. The average relative abundance of Lactobacillus was over 75% during baijiu fermentation, and most of them were affiliated with Lactobacillus acetotolerans, while Lactobacillus crustorum dominated the Lactobacillus OTUs in daqu. The similar patterns were also observed during lab-scale baijiu fermentation. The results of function prediction showed the enriched metabolic pathways were associated with glycolysis and long-chain fatty acid esters in baijiu fermentation. These results improved the understanding of daqu microbiota function during baijiu fermentation and provided a basic theory to support the regulation of baijiu production.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Microbiota , China , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillus/classificação , Lactobacillus/genética
3.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103644, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875226

RESUMO

The potential of yeasts isolated from traditional chichas as starter cultures, either for controlled production of the native beverage or for industrial beer production, has been investigated. Three S. cerevisiae strains and one T. delbrueckii strain isolated from four different Ecuadorian chichas were compared to ale and lager beer strains with respect to fermentation performance, sugar utilisation, phenolic off-flavour production, flocculation and growth at low temperature. Fermentations were performed in 15 °P all-malt wort and in a model chicha substrate at 12 °C and 20 °C. Tall-tube fermentations (1.5 L) were also performed with both substrates to assess yeast performance and beer quality. Among the strains tested, only one Ecuadorian S. cerevisiae strain was able to ferment the wort sugars maltose and maltotriose. Fermentations with all Ecuadorian strains were poor in wort at 12 °C relative to 20 °C, but were similar in model chicha substrate at both temperatures. The aromatic profile was different between species and strains. These results indicate the potential of yeasts derived from traditional Andean fermented beverages for commercial applications. One of the chicha strains demonstrated traits typical of domesticated brewery strains and could be suitable for ale fermentation, while the other strains may have potential for low-alcohol beer or chicha production.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Trissacarídeos/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiologia , Cerveja/microbiologia , Equador , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Maltose/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/genética , Leveduras/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 347: 109169, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813131

RESUMO

The isolation of autochthonous yeast species presents a good strategy to select new microorganisms for developing an adequate inoculum to carry out fermentations and generate representative products of the cider production zone. However, non-Saccharomyces yeasts have been considered to have low capacity to carry out a complete fermentation as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work, five autochthonous yeasts from a cider fermentation process were isolated and identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia membranaefaciens, P. kluyveri and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. A series of fermentations were developed at laboratory level, using each species individually and it was observed that only S. cerevisiae was able to finish the process. K. marxianus consumed less than 50% of the sugars; P. kluyveri and Z. rouxii consumed less than 70% and P. membranaefaciens consumed more than 90% but the yield (ethanol produced for sugar consumed (YP/S)) was 0.39. Nevertheless, the addition of magnesium, zinc and nitrogen increased the fermentative capacity of almost all species: K. marxianus, Z. rouxii and P. kluyveri, showed an increase in ethanol production when nutrients were added, obtaining more than 80 g/L of ethanol, and showing that those nutrients are necessary to complete the fermentation. This work describes the potential use of different non-Saccharomyces species to carry out fermentation of apple juice and highlights the importance of certain nutrients to enable an efficient alcoholic fermentation and the generation of desirable volatile compounds for cider production.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Leveduras/metabolismo , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Etanol/análise , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Malus/microbiologia , Nutrientes/análise , Especificidade da Espécie , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação
5.
Appl Opt ; 60(7): 1924-1929, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690282

RESUMO

A rapid and label free aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) microfluid sensor was proposed and tested. The device was fabricated with hollow-core photonics crystal fiber infiltrated with the AFB1 solution. The autofluorescence emitting from the AFB1 molecules was detected. The sensor length was optimized. The AFB1 concentration was tested with a 4 cm long sensor. The best limit of detection was achieved as low as 1.34 ng/ml, which meets the test requirement of the national standards for AFB1 in food. The effectiveness of this sensor being applied in beer solution was also verified to be a little more sensitive than in aqueous solution. Compared with traditional AFB1 detection methods, the proposed single-ended device perfectly satisfies the demand of process control in alcoholic beverages manufacture.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/química , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Limite de Detecção
6.
J Food Sci ; 86(3): 1048-1057, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527386

RESUMO

The compositional and sensorial profiles of traditional American meads were determined using standard enological, volatile, and descriptive analyses. Forty-one commercial meads produced by 35 meaderies across 20 states were selected to encompass a broad product range. The meads were analyzed for ethanol content, residual sugar, pH, titratable acidity, acetic acid, and free and total sulfur dioxide. Forty-three volatile compounds (alcohols, esters, acids, terpenes, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, etc.) were tentatively identified using a nontargeted HS-SPME-GC-MS method. Ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl alcohol, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl acetate were the most relatively abundant volatile compounds across the sample set. A trained panel (n = 11) evaluated each mead using descriptive analysis and the chemical and sensory analyses were compared. Acidity, sweetness, and cloying and viscous mouthfeel sensations, and alcoholic heat were the most influential sensory attributes and were driven by titratable acidity, residual sugar, and ethanol content, respectively. Ethyl octanoate and ethyl decanoate were correlated with manure aroma, phenylethyl alcohol with yeast and green aromas, and ethyl acetate with citrus, solvent, and green olive aromas. This research further elucidates the empirical relationship between the chemical composition and sensory profiles of commercial meads. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This work provides the mead industry with further understanding of the compositional drivers of the sensory profiles of commercial meads and demonstrates product categories (dry, semi-sweet, sweet) do not necessarily indicate compositional or sensory attributes.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Mel/análise , Odorantes/análise , Sensação , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Mel/microbiologia , Humanos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Estados Unidos
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 339: 108987, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321431

RESUMO

Bacterial and fungal population dynamics in cider for distillation have so far been explored by culture-dependant methods. Cider for distillation can be produced by the spontaneous fermentation of apples that do not undergo any intervention during the process. In this study, cider microbiomes extracted from six tanks containing ciders for distillation from four producers in Normandy were characterized at three main stages of the fermentation process: fermentation Initiation (I), end of the alcoholic Fermentation (F) and end of the Maturation period (M). Cider samples were subjected to Illumina MiSeq sequencing (rRNA 16S V1-V3 and ITS1 region targeting) to determine bacterial and fungal communities. Yeasts (YGC), Zymomonas (mZPP) and lactic acid bacteria selective media (mMRS, mMLO, mPSM) were also used to collect 807 isolates. Alcoholic levels, glycerol, sugar content (glucose, fructose and sucrose), pH, total and volatile acidity, nitrogen, malic and lactic acid contents were determined at all sampling points. Alpha diversity indexes show significant differences (p < 0.05) in microbial populations between I, F and M. Fungal communities were characterized by microorganisms from the environment and phytopathogens at I followed by the association of yearsts with alcoholic fermentation like Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Hanseniaspora, Candida). A maturation period for cider leads to an increase of the Dekkera/Brettanomyces population, which is responsible for off-flavors in cider for all producers. Among bacterial communities, the genera community associated to malolactic fermentation (Lactobacillus sp., Leuconostoc sp., Oenococcus sp.) was the most abundant at F and M. Acetic acid bacteria such as Acetobacter sp., Komagataeibacter sp. and Gluconobacter sp. were also detected during the process. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in fungal and bacterial populations between the four producers and during the fermentation process. The development of microorganisms associated with cider spoilage such as Zymomonas mobilis, Lactobacillus collinoides or Brettanomyces/Dekkera sp. was anticipated by a metagenomic approach. The monitoring of microbial diversity via high throughput sequencing combined with physical-chemical analysis is an interesting approach to improve the fermentation performance of cider for distillation and therefore, the quality of Calvados.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biodiversidade , Destilação , Fungos/fisiologia , Bactérias/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Fermentação , Malus , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
8.
Food Chem ; 345: 128833, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341559

RESUMO

Composition of volatile compounds and concentrations of sugars and organic acids were studied in apple ciders produced with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe yeasts using eleven different Finnish apple cultivars. Moreover, sensory quality of selected ciders was studied using check-all-that-apply test with untrained panelists. Seventy-seven volatile compounds were detected in the samples using HS-SPME-GC-MS. In general, the ciders had higher concentrations of higher alcohols, aldehydes, and acetals whereas the juices contained higher contents of C6-alcohols. Simultaneously, fermentation using S. pombe resulted in lower concentrations of malic acid, ethyl pentanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and volatile acids and higher concentrations of residual sugars compared to S. cerevisiae. Ciders made using S. cerevisiae were characterized as 'alcoholic' and 'yeasty' while S. pombe ciders were more frequently described as 'sweet', 'honey-like', and less rated as sour. Besides the strong effect by the yeasts, apple cultivars had significant effects on the compositional and sensorial properties of apple ciders.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Malus/química , Malus/microbiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Schizosaccharomyces/metabolismo , Paladar , Fermentação , Finlândia , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
9.
Food Microbiol ; 94: 103658, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279083

RESUMO

The production of experimental beer and cider products has increased, worldwide. The complex microbiomes found in these beverages affect their organoleptic qualities and chemical compositions and can have diverse impacts on human health. The total diversity of a microbiome can be elucidated through the use of high-throughput sequencing and comprehensive data analysis tools. We analysed the bacterial and yeast microbiomes found in mixed and spontaneously fermented beers (n = 14) and unpasteurised apple ciders (n = 6), using high-throughput 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. The ratio of bacteria to yeast was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and short-chain organic acids were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). An upgraded version of the Knomics-Biota system was used to analyse the data. The microbiomes included both starter microorganisms and those that originate from the production environment and the raw materials. In addition to the common Saccharomyces and Brettanomyces, the yeast diversity included many non-conventional species. The bacterial community in beer was dominated by Lactobacillus species, whereas these communities were more diverse in cider. Lactobacillus acetotolerans was prevalent in wild ales, whereas Candida ethanolica was prevalent in cask-matured beverages. We observed complex patterns of subspecies-level yeast diversity across beer styles, breweries, and countries. Our study represents an exploratory analysis of non-conventional beer and cider microbiomes and metabolomes, which contributes information necessary to develop improved quality control processes and may drive innovative product development in experimental and artisanal brewing.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Cerveja/análise , Cerveja/microbiologia , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Malus/microbiologia , Microbiota , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/genética , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Leveduras/metabolismo
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 337: 108951, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202299

RESUMO

Pit mud microbiota plays a key role in flavour production for Chinese strong-aroma type liquor. However, the pit mud microbiota cannot be cultured in laboratory. In this study, an oligotrophic medium with acetate as carbon source was used to enrich pit mud microbiota. The 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied to examine the microbial dynamics of the enrichment consortia. Both methanogens and bacteria were simultaneously enriched. Euryarchaeota, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the top 3 enriched phyla, and 31 genera were successfully enriched. More specifically, 11 genera (65%) out of the 17 dominant genera in pit mud were successfully enriched, including Petrimonas, Proteiniphilum, Anaerocella, Hydrogenispora, Methanosarcina, Fermentimonas, LNR_A2-18, Sedimentibacter, Lutispora, Syntrophomonas and Aminobacterium. Furthermore, 20 rare genera in the analyzed pit mud samples were also enriched. Aceticlastic Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina were found to be dominant methanogens in the enrichment consortia. Metagenomic sequencing was then applied to the enriched microbial consortia to explore the metabolic potentials of pit mud microbes. Aceticlastic methanogenesis pathway of Methanosaeta was reconstructed. Furthermore, 26 high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were obtained based on the metagenomic binning analysis. Moreover, nutrients in pit mud were found to be crucial to sustain the methanogenesis of the enriched microbial consortia. These results suggested that the enrichment approach by using oligotrophic culturing can effectively cultivate the pit mud microbiota. Combined with metagenomics, the oligotrophic culturing will be greatly helpful to decipher the community composition and metabolic potentials of pit mud microbiota.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Microbiota , Acetatos/análise , Acetatos/metabolismo , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , China , Meios de Cultura/química , Fermentação , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
11.
Food Chem ; 338: 127829, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818867

RESUMO

Nine ciders obtained by cryo-extraction were analysed for chemical, olfactometric and sensory characteristics. Three types of ice apple juices and three autochthonous yeast strains were evaluated. The quantitative volatile profile is mainly influenced by the apple juice. Regarding the olfactometric profiles of the ice ciders, 23 odorants not previously found in Spanish still ciders, and described as sweet, spicy, fruity and floral were observed. Among these, it is worth mentioning 5 high-boiling point compounds found in an olfactometric zone where heavy, phenolic odours predominate in still ciders. The sensory descriptions obtained by Check-All-That-Apply classified the ice ciders mainly by their sweet taste and smoothness, these attributes being the most influential in the assessment of the overall quality of the ciders. The most highly valued ciders were described as the sweetest, most fruity ones, in agreement with their having the highest values for the ratio between total sugars and total acidity.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Malus/química , Odorantes/análise , Adulto , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Olfatometria , Fenóis/análise , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Leveduras
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108802, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745827

RESUMO

Soy (tofu) whey is a liquid by-product generated from tofu (soybean curd) production and it is often discarded off as a waste liquid by the tofu manufacturers. Previous studies have demonstrated that soy whey can be biotransformed into a soy alcoholic beverage by using Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts even though soy whey is low in yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) content. In this study, the initial YAN of the soy whey was estimated to be 46.6 mg N/L and Torulaspora delbrueckii Biodiva was used to ferment soy whey supplemented with either isoleucine only or isoleucine paired with valine, leucine or phenylalanine (each amino acid supplemented at a dosage of 30 mg N/L). Amino acid supplementation was found to enhance sugar utilization by the yeast, which led to higher ethanol production (7.49% v/v in control versus 8.35-8.80% v/v in supplemented samples). Samples supplemented with isoleucine only experienced slower sugar utilization during the fermentation as compared to the paired amino acid samples, but the yeast was still able to utilize the sugar to low levels at the end of the fermentation. The presence of leucine supplementation counteracted the "inhibition" induced by the presence of isoleucine at the first day of the fermentation. Amino acid supplementation slowed down glutamic acid utilization and resulted in higher levels of residual glutamic acid and alanine. Amino acid supplementation increased the corresponding fusel alcohol production and the presence of other amino acids reduced the active amyl alcohol production. Therefore, interactions between amino acids can impact the metabolism of the yeast as well as the flavor modulation during soy whey fermentation.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Fermentação/fisiologia , Isoleucina/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja , Torulaspora/metabolismo , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Etanol/metabolismo , Pentanóis/metabolismo , Leite de Soja/química , Paladar , Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Vinho
13.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(5): 489-495, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753307

RESUMO

1-Octen-3-ol is a major aroma component of awamori, a traditional distilled liquor produced in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. As 1-octen-3-ol is thought to affect the sensory properties of awamori, it is important to fully characterize the compound's biosynthetic pathway and control mechanism. We previously reported that the fatty acid oxygenase ppoC (ppo: psi-produced oxygenase) of Aspergillus luchuensis is directly involved in the production of 1-octen-3-ol in rice koji (Kataoka et al., J. Biosci. Bioeng., 129, 192-198, 2020). In the present study, we constructed A. luchuensis ppoD disruptants to characterize the role of ppo genes in 1-octen-3-ol biosynthesis. A small-scale awamori fermentation test was performed using ppoA, ppoC, and ppoD single disruptants (ΔppoA, ΔppoC, and ΔppoD, respectively), along with the parent strain, ΔligD. 1-Octen-3-ol was not detected in the distillate prepared using the ΔppoC strain. We conclude that A. luchuensis ppoC is the only 1-octen-3-ol-producing factor in the awamori brewing process. Because ΔppoA and ΔppoD slightly enhanced 1-octen-3-ol productivity, these two genes may play a role in negatively controlling 1-octen-3-ol biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Octanóis/metabolismo , Oxigenases/genética , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Aspergillus/genética , Biotecnologia , Odorantes , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxirredução
14.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(4): 367-373, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646632

RESUMO

Cross hybridization breeding of sake yeasts is hampered by difficulty in acquisition of haploid cells through sporulation. We previously demonstrated that typical sake yeast strains were defective in meiotic chromosome recombination, which caused poor sporulation and loss of spore viability. In this study, we screened a single copy plasmid genomic DNA library of the laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae GRF88 for genes that might complement the meiotic recombination defect of UTCAH-3, a strain derived from the sake yeast Kyokai no. 7 (K7). We identified the SPO11 gene of the laboratory strain (ScSPO11), encoding a meiosis-specific endonuclease that catalyzes DNA double-strand breaks required for meiotic recombination, as a gene that restored meiotic recombination and spore viability of UTCAH-3. K7SPO11 could not restore sporulation efficiency and spore viability of UTCAH-3 and a laboratory strain BY4743 spo11Δ/spo11Δ, indicating that K7SPO11 is not functional. Sequence analysis of the SPO11 genes of various Kyokai sake yeasts (K1, and K3-K10) revealed that the K7 group of sake yeasts (K6, K7, K9, and K10) had a mutual missense mutation (C73T) in addition to other three common mutations present in all Kyokai yeasts tested. ScSPO11C73T created through in vitro mutagenesis could not restore spore viability of BY4743 spo11Δ/spo11Δ. On the other hand, K8SPO11, which have the three common mutations except for C73T could restore spore viability of BY4743 spo11Δ/spo11Δ. These results suggest that C73T might be a causative mutation of recombination defect in K7SPO11. Moreover, we found that the introduction of ScRIM15 restored sporulation efficiency but not spore viability.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Endodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Meiose/genética , Recombinação Genética/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Mutação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia
15.
J Food Sci ; 85(7): 2069-2079, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602125

RESUMO

Triggered by the development of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during the production of Scotch whisky, this study examined the influence of yeast and LAB inoculation on whisky flavor. Four new spirits were produced using the same process. LAB were added as a form of a Greek yogurt's live culture. In each category (barley and rye), one sample was fermented with Greek yogurt while the other was fermented without it. The spirits were matured and analyzed at five different points. Results from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed basic volatile compounds, along with some important extra compounds with yogurt culture. The most obvious differences were observed in the concentration of butanoic acid, a characteristic acid in spirits undergoing lactic acid fermentation: to identify esters such as ethyl butanoate, ethyl isobutanoate, isoamyl butanoate, and 2-phenylethyl butanoate, they are not typical compounds in whisky.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Aromatizantes/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Iogurte/análise , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Meios de Cultura/análise , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hordeum/metabolismo , Hordeum/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Secale/metabolismo , Secale/microbiologia , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Leveduras/metabolismo , Iogurte/microbiologia
16.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(4): 352-359, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522405

RESUMO

Aspergillus luchuensis has been used to produce awamori, a distilled liquor, in Okinawa, Japan. Vanillin, derived from ferulic acid (FA) in rice grains, is one of the characteristic flavors in aged and matured awamori, known as kusu. Decarboxylation of FA leads to the production of 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG), which is converted to vanillin by natural oxidization. However, the mechanism underlying FA conversion to 4-VG has remained unknown in awamori brewing. In our previous studies, we showed that phenolic acid decarboxylase from A. luchuensis (AlPAD) could catalyze the conversion of FA to 4-VG, and that AlPAD is functionally expressed during koji making (Maeda et al., J. Biosci. Bioeng., 126, 162-168, 2018). In this study, to understand the contribution of AlPAD to 4-VG production in awamori brewing, we created an alpad disruptant (Δalpad) and compared its 4-VG productivity to that of the wild-type strain. The amount of 4-VG in the distillate of moromi prepared with the wild-type strain showed a significant increase, proportional to the time required for koji making. In the Δalpad strain, the amount of 4-VG was very small and remained unchanged during the koji making. In an awamori brewing test using koji harvested 42-66 h after inoculation, the contribution of AlPAD to 4-VG production was in the range of 88-94 %. These results indicate that AlPAD plays a key role in 4-VG production during awamori brewing.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Aspergillus/enzimologia , Carboxiliases/metabolismo , Guaiacol/análogos & derivados , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Guaiacol/metabolismo
17.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(6): 1190-1197, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597068

RESUMO

Clostridia inhabiting in jiupei and pit mud plays key roles in the formation of flavour during the fermentation process of Luzhou-flavour baijiu. However, the differences of Clostridial communities between jiupei and pit mud remains unclear. Here, the species assembly, succession, and metabolic capacity of Clostridial communities between jiupei and pit mud were analysed by high-throughput sequencing and pure culture approaches. The ratio of Clostridial biomass to bacterial biomass in the pit mud was relatively stable (71.5%-91.2%) throughout the fermentation process. However, it varied widely in jiupei (0.9%-36.5%). The dominant Clostridial bacteria in jiupei were Clostridium (19.9%), Sedimentibacter (8.8%), and Hydrogenispora (7.2%), while Hydrogenispora (57.2%), Sedimentibacter (5.4%), and Caproiciproducens (4.9%) dominated in the Clostridial communities in pit mud. The structures of Clostridial community in pit mud and jiupei were significantly different (P=0.001) throughout fermentation. Isolated Clostridial strains showed different metabolic capacities of volatile fatty acids in pure culture. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of Clostridial communities existed in the baijiu fermentation pit, which was closely related to the main flavour components of Luzhou-flavour baijiu.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Clostridium , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Clostridium/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação
18.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(5): 3406-3412, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375947

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated as 3 H-10T, was isolated from a yellow water sample collected from the manufacturing process of strong flavor Chinese baijiu in Yibin region of Sichuan province (PR China). Oval endospores were formed at the subtermini of cells with swollen sporangia. The isolate was able to grow at temperatures of 20-45 °C (optimum growth at 37 °C), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum growth at pH 8.0) and in the presence of 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum growth with 0 % NaCl). Ribose was the major cell-wall sugar, and meso-diaminopimelic acid (meso-DAP) was the diagnostic amino acid. The main polar lipids of 3 H-10T included diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). MK-7 was predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 (60.7 %) was the major fatty acid. Comparisons of 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that 3 H-10T was most closely related to Bacillus mesophilus SA4T (96.30 %), Bacillus ginsengihumi Gsoil 114T (96.27 %) and Bacillus shackletonii LMG 18435T (96.27 %). The average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between strain 3 H-10T and the three type strains mentioned above were 69.56, 70.19 and 70.67 %, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 35.4 mol%. On the basis of its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain 3 H-10T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus aquiflavi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Bacillus aquiflavi 3 H-10T (=CICC 24755T=JCM 33703T).


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Bacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Água
19.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(12)2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276974

RESUMO

Identifying the functional microbes in spontaneous food fermentation is important for improving food quality. To identify the key flavor producers in Chinese liquor fermentation, we propose a novel quantitative microbiome profiling method that uses indigenous internal standards to normalize high-throughput amplicon sequencing results. We screened Lactobacillus acetotolerans and Lactobacillus jinshani as indigenous internal standards based on their high distribution frequencies and relative abundances. After determining the absolute abundance of indigenous internal standards using quantitative PCR with species-specific primers, the liquor-fermented bacterial community and its dynamics were better characterized by internal standards normalization. Based on quantitative microbiome profiling, we identified that Lactobacillus was a key flavor producer correlated with eight flavor compounds. Metatranscriptomic analysis indicated that Lactobacillus was active in transcribing genes involving the biosynthesis of flavor compounds and their precursors. This work has developed a novel and extensible absolute quantification method for microbiota that will alleviate concerns in the statistical analyses based on relative microbiome profiling, and shed insights into the function of Lactobacillus in food fermentation. It can potentially be applied to other microbial ecology studies.IMPORTANCE In this study, we developed a novel strategy using indigenous internal standards to normalize the high-throughput amplicon sequencing results. We chose two Lactobacillus species as indigenous internal standards and characterized the absolute abundance of the bacterial community. Further, we identified Lactobacillus as the key flavor producer using quantitative microbiome profiling combined with multivariate statistics and metatranscriptomic analysis. This work developed a novel strategy for absolute quantitative abundance analysis of microbiota and expanded our understanding of the role of Lactobacillus in food fermentation.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , China , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(1): 63-70, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265130

RESUMO

Japanese sake production involves three processes: rice koji fermentation, seed mash fermentation, and main mash fermentation. Traditional seed mash (kimoto) production utilizes natural lactic acid produced by lactic acid bacteria for pure cultures of only sake yeast, preventing the growth of wild yeast and other unwanted bacteria. Recently, because kimoto production requires substantial time and labor, sake yeast mass-cultured in usual liquid medium has been used as a seed mash alternative. Sake quality is highly similar to that of kimoto, suggesting that they share similar component profiles. However, comparative component analyses of sake brewed with kimoto and sake brewed with cultured yeast are lacking. In this study, a time-course analysis of hydrophilic compounds in the main mash brewed with kimoto and with cultured yeast as well as a sensory evaluation of the products were performed. As a result, differences in various compounds and in umami taste level between sake brewed with kimoto and cultured yeast were detected. This is the first comparative analysis of changes in the component profile during sake main mash brewing using kimoto seed mash and cultured sake yeast; our results clarify the effects of kimoto seed mash on main mash brewing and sake quality.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Aromatizantes/química , Leveduras/metabolismo , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/análise , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Paladar
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