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1.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 23(5): 281-285, sept.-oct. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197072

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: En los últimos 20 años se ha producido un incremento del consumo de bebidas energéticas, con un alto contenido de cafeína, en especial en la población de adolescentes. Pocos estudios han investigado qué saben los estudiantes de medicina sobre este producto y sus posibles efectos secundarios. SUJETOS Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional y transversal. Se incluyeron todos los alumnos de primer y segundo curso de medicina en la Universidad Europea de Madrid en los cursos 2017-2018 y 2018-2019. Se elaboró una encuesta con 20 ítems: 7 preguntas sobre datos sociodemográficos y de estilo de vida y 13 sobre conocimiento y hábitos de consumo de bebidas energéticas. Los alumnos cumplimentaron la encuesta de forma voluntaria, anónima y autoadministrada Se realizó una estadística descriptiva y para la comparación de variables cualitativas se utilizó la prueba de chi cuadrado o el test exacto de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Respondieron a la encuesta 353 alumnos (80% de la muestra). De ellos, 115 (32,6%) señalaron que consumían al menos una lata al mes (consumidores). El 79% conocían algún componente: el 67,1%, que contenían taurina; el 51,9%, cafeína, y el 31,2%, azúcares. En cuanto a los efectos secundarios derivados del consumo, los más conocidos eran taquicardia/palpitaciones, insomnio, nerviosismo e irritabilidad e incremento de la diuresis. CONCLUSIONES: Los alumnos de primer y segundo de medicina conocen mayoritariamente que las bebidas energéticas contienen taurina, pero solo la mitad, que contienen cafeína. Los efectos secundarios más conocidos son la sensación de palpitaciones/taquicardia y la dificultad para dormir


INTRODUCTION: The consumption of energy drinks, drinks with a high caffeine content, has increased exponentially in the last decade. Several studies have been carried out especially in the adolescent population, but there are not many studies in medical students. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Observational and cross-sectional study where all students of 1st and 2nd year of Medicine at Universidad Europea de Madrid were included in the 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 academic years. A questionnaire was done with 20 items: 7 questions about sociodemographic and lifestyle aspects and 13 questions about knowledge and consumption habits of energy drinks. Questionnaire fill in was voluntary, anonymous and self-administered. A descriptive statistic analysis was performed and squared chi test or Fisher's exact test was used for the comparison of qualitative variables. RESULTS: 353 students (80%) filled in the questionnaire. 115 of them (32.6%) indicated that they consumed at least one can per month (consumers). 79% knew at least one components of these drinks: 67.1% said they contained taurine, 51.9% caffeine and 31.2% sugars. Best known side effects were tachycardia/palpitations, insomnia, nervousness and irritability and increased diuresis. CONCLUSIONS: Most of 1st and 2nd year medical students knows that energy drinks contain taurine but only half of them knows they contain caffeine. Best known side effects are: palpitations/tachycardia and difficulty sleeping


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Energéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(10): 1679-1684, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There are concerns that energy drinks (EDs) are contributing to upward trends in overweight, obesity, and cardiometabolic conditions in young people. We investigated cross-sectional and prospective associations between frequency of ED-intake in young-adults and (i) body mass index (BMI) and (ii) Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and its components. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants from the Raine Study at 20-years (n = 1236) and 22 years (n = 1117) self-reported ED-intake, dietary intake, and physical activity, and had blood and anthropometric measures taken. Regression modelling examined associations between ED-intake and BMI, MetS and its components. There was a positive, but not significant, cross-sectional association with BMI and likelihood of MetS with frequent ED use at 20-years (BMI: ß = 0.19; MetS: OR = 1.11) and 22-years (BMI: ß = 0.51; MetS: OR = 1.28). There were no associations in the prospective analysis. After adjustment, significant associations existed between occasional ED-intake and lower HDL-cholesterol (ß = -0.07) and higher fasting triglycerides (ß = 0.16) at 20-years, and lower fasting triglycerides at 22-years (ß = -0.10), but no significant associations in the prospective analyses. CONCLUSION: No significant associations existed between frequency of ED-intake, and BMI, MetS or its individual components over two years (ages 20-22 years). Future studies should include volume of EDs consumed and longer follow-up.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 67(1): 79-84, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Energy Drinks (EDs) and Soft Drinks (SDs) are widely consumed among adolescents and young adults. These drinks contain variable amounts of caffeine which is a central nervous system stimulator; in addition to sugar, taurine, vitamins and herbal extracts. Several adverse effects have been reported for the excessive consumption of caffeine and sugar. AIM: This work aimed at providing a comparison between the effect of chronic consumption of both drinks on metabolism biochemically as well as at the histopathological level. METHODS: Adult albino rats were randomly divided into three groups and treated for 4 weeks. Animals received water (control, group 1), 12.5 ml/kg/day of either Pepsi® (SD, group 2) or Power Horse® (ED, group 3). All animals had free access to water and standard animal chow. RESULTS: ED and SD groups showed a significant weight gain compared to control. ED animals showed a significant increase in serum urea, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in comparison to control and SD groups. Serum uric acid significantly increased in ED and SD groups. ED group showed congestion and inflammation in their renal tissues in addition to splenomegaly and increased phagocyte infiltration. CONCLUSION: The high caffeine-sugar content in ED exerts a more significant influence on the metabolic pathways than SDs. Both increase the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and tissue inflammation due to their effect on lipid profile and blood glucose. The other ingredients in EDs may play a role in the observed metabolic disturbances. Chronic use of EDs should be especially discouraged to avoid these negative effects.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cafeína/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Rim/patologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/induzido quimicamente , Ratos , Esplenomegalia/etiologia , Açúcares/farmacologia , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079347

RESUMO

The prevalence of energy drink consumption has increased in Hungary over the past 10-15 years. This study assesses the frequency, motivations, and adverse effects of energy drink consumption, and examines how the process of becoming a regular consumer is connected with sense of coherence and depression symptoms. A total of 631 high school and college students were assessed using the Depression Scale (BDS-13) and Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13). Logistic regression models were fit to test the effect of and links between factors influencing addiction to energy drink use. A total of 31.1% (95% CI: 27.4-34.7) of those surveyed consumed energy drinks, 24.0% of those affected consumed the energy drink with alcohol, 71.4% (95% CI: 64.7-77.3) experienced adverse effects following energy drink consumption, and 10.2% (95% CI: 6.7-15.2) experienced at least four symptoms simultaneously. The most common motivations of consumption were fatigue, taste, and fun. Obtained by multivariate logistic regression models, after adjustment for sex and age, SOC and tendency to depression had a significant influence on the respondents' odds of addiction. The tendency to depression increases the chances of addiction, while a strong sense of coherence diminishes the effects of depression. Young people in Hungary have been shown to consume energy drinks in quantities that are detrimental to their health. Complex preventive measures and programs are needed to address the problem. Families and educators should strive to instill a strong sense of coherence in children from an early age.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Bebidas Energéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Senso de Coerência , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Etanol , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Med Case Rep ; 14(1): 23, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992329

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the USA, energy drinks are commonly consumed among adults. The side effects of these drinks are not well studied but consumers have reported multiple adverse events to the US Food and Drug Administration including acute kidney injury and acute hepatitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old white woman presented with progressive weakness, fatigue, confusion, and delirium secondary to acute kidney injury and acute hepatitis associated with excessive energy drink use. Clinical improvement occurred with supportive care and discontinuation of energy drinks, with resolution of acute kidney injury and progressive improvement of liver function. The defined mechanism of injury is unknown but thought due to energy drink ingredients. CONCLUSION: Multiple cases of energy drink-induced acute kidney injury or acute hepatitis are reported in the literature but this case is the first to report them simultaneously. Ingredients and presumed doses to cause these events are outlined in this case report.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hepatite , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Anesth Analg ; 130(1): 66-75, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residency training in anesthesiology involves care of hospitalized patients and necessitates overnight work, resulting in altered sleep patterns and sleep deprivation. Caffeine consumption is commonly used to improve alertness when fatigued after overnight work, in preparation for the commute home. METHODS: We studied the impact of drinking a caffeinated energy drink (160 mg of caffeine) on driving performance in a high-fidelity, virtual reality driving simulator (Virginia Driving Safety Laboratory using the Driver Guidance System) in anesthesiology resident physicians immediately after 6 consecutive night-float shifts. Twenty-six residents participated and were randomized to either consume a caffeinated or noncaffeinated energy drink 60 minutes before the driving simulation session. After a subsequent week of night-float work, residents performed the same driving session (in a crossover fashion) with the opposite intervention. Psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) testing was used to evaluate reaction time and lapses in attention. RESULTS: After 6 consecutive night-float shifts, anesthesiology residents who consumed a caffeinated energy drink had increased variability in driving for throttle, steering, and speed during the first 10 minutes of open-road driving but proceeded to demonstrate improved driving performance with fewer obstacle collisions (epoch 2: 0.65 vs 0.87; epoch 3: 0.47 vs 0.95; P = .03) in the final 30 minutes of driving as compared to driving performance after consumption of a noncaffeinated energy drink. Improved driving performance was most apparent during the last 30 minutes of the simulated drive in the caffeinated condition. Mean reaction time between the caffeine and noncaffeine states differed significantly (278.9 ± 29.1 vs 294.0 ± 36.3 milliseconds; P = .021), while the number of major lapses (0.09 ± 0.43 vs 0.27 ± 0.55; P = .257) and minor lapses (1.05 ± 1.39 vs 2.05 ± 3.06; P = .197) was not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: After consuming a caffeinated energy drink on conclusion of 6 shifts of night-float work, anesthesiology residents had improved control of driving performance variables in a high-fidelity driving simulator, including a significant reduction in collisions as well as slightly faster reaction times.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/psicologia , Anestesiologia/educação , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Bebidas Energéticas , Internato e Residência , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Carga de Trabalho , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Anestesiologistas/educação , Nível de Alerta/efeitos dos fármacos , Cafeína/efeitos adversos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Treinamento com Simulação de Alta Fidelidade , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 30(5): 310-312, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477495

RESUMO

Arrhythmogenic ingredients in our diet such as mushrooms, licorice, toxic honey, liquid protein drinks, etc. have long been recognized as rare but important considerations in the differential diagnosis of arrhythmias. Anecdotal reports of torsades de pointes (TdP), arrhythmias and/or sudden death and small studies in normal subjects have suggested that simple ingredients such as grapefruit juice or ingredients in energy drinks marketed as dietary supplements could have direct arrhythmogenic actions, especially in patients with congenital long QT syndrome (cLQTS). Two recent studies that employed the industry-standard "thorough QT" trial design leave no doubt that grapefruit juice and some energy drinks can prolong the QTc interval and to exceed 500 msec. in some patients with cLQTS, a threshold known to signal imminent danger. These reports raise numerous clinically important questions such as which other patients may be at risk of arrhythmias. For example, patients with multiple clinical risk factors for TdP (hypokalemia, bradycardia, female sex, etc.) may be at risk from these and possibly other dietary ingredients ingested by millions of people each day. It is essential that further research evaluate the safety of these and similar food products and that vulnerable patients, especially those with cLQTS, be warned of this serious and emerging threat.


Assuntos
Citrus paradisi/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Frutas/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do QT Longo/etiologia , Plantas Tóxicas/efeitos adversos , Torsades de Pointes/etiologia , Toxinas Biológicas/efeitos adversos , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Síndrome do QT Longo/fisiopatologia , Período Refratário Eletrofisiológico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Torsades de Pointes/diagnóstico , Torsades de Pointes/fisiopatologia
10.
Acta Haematol ; 143(2): 176-180, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167181

RESUMO

The vast majority of cases of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) are the result of acquired antibodies which inhibit the activity of the ADAMTS13 enzyme. Acquired TTP is more frequently seen in young females or in individuals with autoimmune disease. The development of antibodies against ADAMTS13 may also result from the administration or consumption of drugs and other substances. However, specific laboratory tests to identify the pathogenic mechanism of a particular drug may not be available, and the role of a potentially implicated drug or other ingested substance may not be clear. In this report we present 2 acquired TTP cases involving the consumption of a large amount of energy drink.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/diagnóstico , Proteína ADAMTS13/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína ADAMTS13/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Troca Plasmática , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/tratamento farmacológico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/genética , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
11.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(2): 317.e1-317.e3, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837890

RESUMO

The deleterious effect of energy drinks is increasingly recognized. We present a 26-year-old woman with inotrope-dependent severe dilated cardiomyopathy, potentially caused by chronic ingestion of energy drinks. The results of extensive investigation-consisting of cardiac magnetic resonance, F-18-fluorodesoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, coronary angiography, and endomyocardial biopsy-were normal. A left ventricular assist device (LVAD) was implanted as a potential bridge to recovery. After 10 months of mechanical support and pharmacological treatment, cardiac function was recovered, and the LVAD was successfully explanted. This is the first case report of energy drink abuse leading to severe heart failure requiring mechanical support for recovery.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/terapia , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Coração Auxiliar , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos
12.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(1): 39-46, 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120258

RESUMO

La flexibilidad laboral es característica de la producción estacional agroindustrial, cuyo principal problema es aprovechar con intensidad los períodos en los que se incrementa la producción. Pero, ¿cómo la demandante competitividad laboral influye en las estrategias de los trabajadores para incrementar su productividad? A partir de esta pregunta, se identificaron los aspectos económicos, sociales y laborales que inciden en la salud, así como las respuestas para disminuir el dolor físico y aumentar las exigencias de competitividad, flexibilización y desregularización del mercado de trabajo. La exposición ambiental y ocupacional en las condiciones de trabajo, el estrés térmico asociado a la deshidratación en la actividad física intensa, el limitado acceso a los servicios de salud, la mala alimentación y la pobre calidad de vida, también pueden producir otras enfermedades como diabetes e hipertensión, así como infecciones y lesiones renales. En ese contexto, en los últimos 20 años, se empezaron a reportar casos de enfermedad renal. La metodología cualitativa aplicada a este estudio, permitió llevar a cabo un proceso investigativo descriptivo e interpretativo sobre la forma en que los sujetos interactúan. Para ello se utilizaron las trayectorias laborales como técnicas en la recolección de datos. Los resultados arrojaron información relevante sobre las estrategias que los trabajadores utilizan para incrementar su rendimiento laboral, entre ellas la automedicación de vitaminas y analgésicos para tratar los espasmos musculares, que estimulan el sistema nervioso central, así como de bebidas saborizadas y energizantes con posibles repercusiones en la excreción renal.


Labor flexibility is characteristic of seasonal agroindustrial production whose main problem is to take advantage of the periods in which production increases. But, how does this demanding labor competitiveness influence workers' strategies to increase their productivity? From this question, the economic, social and labor aspects that affect health were identified, as well as the answers to reduce physical pain and increase the demands for competitiveness, flexibility and deregulation of the labor market. Environmental and occupational exposure in working conditions, thermal stress associated with dehydration in intense physical activity, limited access to health services, poor diet and quality of life, can also cause other diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, as well as infections and kidney lesions. In that context, in the last 20 years, cases of kidney disease began to be reported. The qualitative methodology applied to this study, allowed to carry out a descriptive and interpretive investigation process on the way in which the subjects interact, for this, the work trajectories were used as techniques in data collection. The results yielded relevant information on the strategies that workers use to increase their work performance, including self-medication of "vitamins" and analgesics to treat muscle spasms, drugs that stimulate the central nervous system, as well as flavored and energizing drinks with possible repercussions on renal excretion.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trabalhadores Rurais , Condições de Trabalho , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Automedicação , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Costa , Desidratação/complicações , Mercado de Trabalho , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Eliminação Renal , Desempenho Profissional , Guatemala , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(12)2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843776

RESUMO

This case identifies a newly found association between energy drinks and acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN). Our patient, a 34-year-old woman with no significant ocular or previous medical history, presented with a 3-day history of decreased vision after consumption of multiple energy drinks. After near infrared and optical coherence tomography imaging, we were able to diagnose her with AMN. Our patient's vision improved over a 2-month course with no intervention. Our case aims to emphasise the effect of caffeine on the retina, as well as encourage clinicians to consider energy drinks as a causative agent of AMN.


Assuntos
Cafeína/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Síndromes do Ponto Branco/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Cafeína/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Síndromes do Ponto Branco/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 187: 172795, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669834

RESUMO

Mixing alcohol with energy drinks has emerged as a popular trend over the last decade. However, epidemiological studies have found this consumption to be associated with increased hazards, such as binge drinking, increased alcohol-related harm and risk of developing alcohol use disorder. The mechanisms underlying these effects are not clear, but much attention has been attributed to caffeine. However, taurine, another common ingredient in energy drinks, has also been associated with the dopamine elevating properties of ethanol, and may in this respect contribute to the increased liability associated with the mixture of alcohol and energy drinks. In the present study we measured locomotor activity, a phenomenon previously linked to the dopamine activating and reinforcing properties of the drug, following acute systemic administration with caffeine (1, 5, 15, 30 mg/kg), taurine (30, 60, 300, 600 mg/kg) and ethanol (1.75, 2.5, 3.25 g/kg), alone or in combination. We found that ethanol and caffeine, but not taurine, increased locomotion compared to vehicle. In addition, when combined with ethanol, caffeine, but not taurine, increased the locomotor stimulatory effect of ethanol. Furthermore, the combination of caffeine and taurine were able to further enhance the ethanol-induced locomotor response. Eleven days of intermittent caffeine exposure produced a sensitized response to the caffeine-induced locomotion, but did not alter the additive effect produced by the combination of caffeine and taurine on ethanol-induced locomotion. Based on the present study we suggest that the combination of caffeine and taurine, at a specific dose range, enhances the locomotor stimulatory properties of ethanol, a phenomenon previously linked to the reinforcing properties of the drug.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Etanol/farmacologia , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/etiologia , Animais , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Dopamina/metabolismo , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/administração & dosagem
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1539, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caffeine containing energy drinks (EDs) are heavily consumed, particularly among young adults. The number of reports of caffeine intoxication from caffeinated EDs and problems related to caffeine dependence and withdrawal is increasing. The objective was to assess the knowledge and perceived beneficial effects of EDs consumers, to assess consumption patterns and determine the adverse effects experienced by different EDs consumer groups residing in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study with data from a randomly selected Saudi population was conducted during the period of January 15th, 2015, to April 15th, 2015, using a pre-tested 43-item questionnaire. The data were obtained and collected using interview questionnaires. Sociodemographic characteristics and data on EDs consumption patterns, the level of awareness among study subjects, and the purported benefits and reported adverse effects of EDs were collected. Frequency, percentage, and arithmetic means were calculated using Chi-square and ANOVA tests, and data with p < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: Of the 816 individuals invited to participate in the study, 783 participants responded and completed interviews, response rate was 96%. Consumers attributed the popularity of EDs to massive advertising media (46.7%) and their stimulating and invigorating effects (37.5%). EDs are consumed by subjects for their effects on fatigue reduction (64.6%), increased alertness and focus (75.8%), and assistance during long driving trips (75.7%). Study subjects reported suffering from adverse effects, including mainly diuresis (53.7%), palpitations (50.7%), insomnia (50.7%). Importantly, an inverse association was identified between knowledge of EDs and consumption rate, and a proportional association was identified between experienced adverse effects and consumption frequency. Lower knowledge scores were identified in daily consumers than in 1-3 times monthly consumers; higher adverse events were experienced by daily consumers than by 1-3 times monthly consumers. The majority of consumers (84.6%) recommended that authorities should regulate EDs consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive EDs consumption is associated with an increased risk of experiencing several adverse events, which is commensurate with published studies. Increasing knowledge about EDs and their possible risks could decrease their consumption by the general public.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Energéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cells ; 8(11)2019 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684159

RESUMO

The consumption of energy drinks is continuously rising, particularly in children and adolescents. While risks for adverse health effects, like arrhythmia, have been described, effects on neural cells remain elusive. Considering that neurodevelopmental processes like myelination and neuronal network formation peak in childhood and adolescence we hypothesized that developing oligodendrocytes and neurons are particularly vulnerable to main energy drink components. Immature oligodendrocytes and hippocampal neurons were isolated from P0-P1 Wistar rats and were incubated with 0.3 mg/mL caffeine and 4 mg/mL taurine alone or in combination for 24 h. Analysis was performed immediately after treatment or after additional three days under differentiating conditions for oligodendrocytes and standard culture for neurons. Oligodendrocyte degeneration, proliferation, and differentiation were assessed via immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. Neuronal integrity was investigated following immunocytochemistry by analysis of dendrite outgrowth and axonal morphology. Caffeine and taurine induced an increased degeneration and inhibited proliferation of immature oligodendrocytes accompanied by a decreased differentiation capacity. Moreover, dendritic branching and axonal integrity of hippocampal neurons were negatively affected by caffeine and taurine treatment. The negative impact of caffeine and taurine on developing oligodendrocytes and disturbed neuronal morphology indicates a high risk for disturbed neurodevelopment in children and adolescents by excessive energy drink consumption.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodendroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cafeína , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hipocampo , Masculino , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Cultura Primária de Células , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Taurina
17.
Metas enferm ; 22(8): 59-67, oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184998

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar los conocimientos, percepciones y riesgos asociados al consumo de las bebidas energéticas (BE) en adolescentes. Método: para esta revisión narrativa se consultaron las bases de datos: Pubmed, Cinahl, Cuiden Plus y Scopus. Se utilizó lenguaje libre y controlado (MeSH). Se aplicaron límites de idioma (inglés y español), los últimos cinco años de publicación (2014-2019), y adolescentes (10-19 años). Resultados: se seleccionaron 26 artículos de un total de 702. Un 82,6% tenía un enfoque cuantitativo, mayoritariamente estudios descriptivos transversales (57,6%). Los hallazgos se categorizaron en: conocimientos y percepciones de los consumidores, influencia en el descanso y estado anímico, y abuso de sustancias. El consumo de BE se percibía como un hábito propio de hombres, poco saludable y de prácticas deportivas en general; además se asociaba a la actividad física, adopción de conductas violentas, un peor rendimiento y fracaso escolar, problemas afectivos, problemas en el patrón del sueño, hiperactividad, conducción temeraria, abuso de sustancias y dependencia alcohólica. Conclusiones: la desinformación y agresivas campañas de marketing favorecen el abuso de BE, lo que conduce a un mayor riesgo de abuso de sustancias. La elaboración de programas preventivos, la actualización de los vigentes, el consejo nutricional y la educación para la salud podrían ser cruciales para resolver el problema


Objective: to identify the knowledge, perceptions and risks associated with the use of energy drinks (EDs) in adolescents. Method: the following databases were consulted for this narrative review: Pubmed, Cinahl, Cuiden Plus and Scopus. Free and controlled language was used (MeSH). There were limitations in terms of language (English and Spanish), the last five years of publication (2014-2019), and adolescents (10-to-19-year old). Results: twenty-six (26) articles were selected out of 702; 82.6% of these had a quantitative approach, the majority were descriptive cross-sectional studies (57.6%). Findings were classified into: knowledge and perceptions by users, influence in rest and mood, and substance abuse. The use of EDs was perceived as a typically male behaviour, not healthy, and for sports activities in general; besides, it was associated with physical activity, violent behaviours, worse performance and academic failure, emotional problems, sleep pattern problems, hyperactivity, reckless driving, substance abuse, and alcohol dependency. Conclusions: lack of information and aggressive marketing campaigns encourage the abuse of energy drinks, which leads to a higher risk of substance abuse. Preparing preventive programs and updating the current ones, as well as nutritional advice and education for health, could be essential in order to solve this problem


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento do Adolescente , Exercício Físico , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Humor , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Desempenho Atlético , Desempenho Acadêmico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
18.
Am J Med Sci ; 358(4): 304-311, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543103

RESUMO

Energy drinks are widely used and very popular. They are touted as "harmless" energy boosters for use in professional, recreational and domestic settings. They are typically high in monosaccharides, and caffeine with other assorted products like ginseng. Careful study of the potential risks of their use is nonexistent while rigorous documentation of their touted energy boosting capacity is also meagre. We present the cautionary case of a 46-year-old Caucasian man with well-controlled type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease who developed a toxic triad syndrome of gastritis, hepatitis and pancreatitis within 4 months of commencing daily consumption of 2-3 160z cans of the energy drink Monster Energy. His clinical symptoms and biochemical derangements promptly resolved with stopping the beverage. We discuss the potential risks inherent in unsupervised liberal consumption of energy drinks and the need for both caution and vigilance among clinicians and patients.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Gastrite/etiologia , Hepatite/etiologia , Pancreatite/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Síndrome
19.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 56(1): 99-115, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482331

RESUMO

Energy drinks are increasingly used by young people and young athletes in order to improve their performance alone or in association of other substances, particularly alcohol. In recent years, a number of reports of reports have raised attention on the side-effects associated with the use or abuse of energy drinks particularly serious cardiovascular events. The European Cardiac Arrhythmia Society (ECAS) has undertaken a systematic and critical review of reported data on cardiovascular events including life-threatening arrhythmias with or without cardiac arrest and other cardiovascular events, and discussed in this review the possible causal effect of caffeine and other ingredients contained in energy drinks and the reported events. Twenty-two cardiovascular events were reported in association with the use or abuse of energy drinks. The European Cardiac Arrhythmia Society would like to draw attention on the possible cardiovascular complications that may occur with the consumption of these beverages and to emphasize the prevention measures to be taken particularly in the young population. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to clarify the possible role of energy drinks in inducing the cardiovascular events reported.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Consenso , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Sociedades Médicas
20.
Addict Behav ; 98: 106062, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377447

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that people drink more alcohol and experience more adverse alcohol-related consequences (ARCs) on occasions when they also consume caffeine. The current study examined whether this increase in risk is a result of caffeine attenuating the subjective effects of alcohol intoxication (i.e., the masking hypothesis). METHODS: Undergraduate students (n = 148) reported their drinking patterns using a modified Timeline Followback approach. For each recalled drinking occasion, alcohol consumption, caffeine consumption, perceived blood alcohol concentration, and ARCs were assessed. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the influence that alcohol and caffeine consumption had on perceived intoxication and the experience of ARCs. RESULTS: At the occasion level, greater caffeine consumption was associated with increased consumption of alcohol and increased ARCs. There was also a significant curvilinear relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed and perceived intoxication, such that the more alcohol was consumed on each occasion the less each additional drink increased perceived intoxication. Increased caffeine consumption weakened the association between alcohol consumption and perceived intoxication and it also weakened the association between alcohol consumption and ARCs. Specifically, the weakest relationship between ARCs and alcohol consumption existed at the highest level of caffeine consumption (240+ mg). Caffeine increased subjective intoxication. CONCLUSIONS: These findings do not support the masking hypothesis. Caffeine was strongly associated with ARCs when consumed at high doses and this effect does not appear to be the result of drinking more alcohol or underestimating one's blood alcohol content. Efforts to reduce caffeinated alcohol beverage use are greatly needed.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Cafeína/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Bebidas Energéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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