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2.
J Dent Child (Chic) ; 88(1): 11-16, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875046

RESUMO

Purpose: To assess the effects of a soft drink, a soybean-based apple juice and strawberry juice on the superficial and deep microhardness of primary tooth enamel.
Methods: Sixty primary teeth were divided according to the beverages and a control group (artificial saliva). Immersion cycles were carried out under agitation (five minutes three times a day over 60 days). Superficial microhardness measurements were taken after seven, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. Teeth were cut for deep microhardness evaluation. Analysis of variance and Tukey's test (95 percent confidence interval) were used for data analysis. Teeth were scanned by electron microscopy for quantitative analysis.
Results: The soybean drink led to a significant decrease in the superficial microhardness ( P <0.05) at all tested times. The decrease for the strawberry juice was steeper than for the soybean drink and the soft drink significantly decreased the superficial microhardness at all times. The soybean drink recorded lower surface deep microhardness values while the juice presented similar results to the soybean drink at a depth of up to 200 µm. There was a gradual and statistically significant increase at a depth of up to 300 µm with the soft drink. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation showed that all beverages had gradual demineralization, being evident on the 60th day; the soft drink showed the greatest overall loss of enamel.
Conclusion: All beverages affected the microhardness of primary teeth enamel. The soft drink was the most harmful to enamel among the assessed beverages.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário , Erosão Dentária , Bebidas , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Dureza , Humanos , Erosão Dentária/induzido quimicamente , Dente Decíduo
3.
BMJ ; 372: n254, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in household purchases of drinks and confectionery one year after implementation of the UK soft drinks industry levy (SDIL). DESIGN: Controlled interrupted time series analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Members of a panel of households reporting their purchasing on a weekly basis to a market research company (average weekly number of participants n=22 183), March 2014 to March 2019. INTERVENTION: A two tiered tax levied on manufacturers of soft drinks, announced in March 2016 and implemented in April 2018. Drinks with ≥8 g sugar/100 mL (high tier) are taxed at £0.24/L and drinks with ≥5 to <8 g sugar/100 mL (low tier) are taxed at £0.18/L. Drinks with <5 g sugar/100 mL (no levy) are not taxed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Absolute and relative differences in the volume of, and amount of sugar in, soft drinks categories, all soft drinks combined, alcohol, and confectionery purchased per household per week one year after implementation of the SDIL compared with trends before the announcement of the SDIL. RESULTS: In March 2019, compared with the counterfactual estimated from pre-announcement trends, purchased volume of drinks in the high levy tier decreased by 155 mL (95% confidence interval 240.5 to 69.5 mL) per household per week, equivalent to 44.3% (95% confidence interval 59.9% to 28.7%), and sugar purchased in these drinks decreased by 18.0 g (95% confidence interval 32.3 to 3.6 g), or 45.9% (68.8% to 22.9%). Purchases of low tier drinks decreased by 177.3 mL (225.3 to 129.3 mL) per household per week, or 85.9% (95.1% to 76.7%), with a 12.5 g (15.4 to 9.5 g) reduction in sugar in these drinks, equivalent to 86.2% (94.2% to 78.1%). Despite no overall change in volume of no levy drinks purchased, there was an increase in sugar purchased of 15.3 g (12.6 to 17.9 g) per household per week, equivalent to 166.4% (94.2% to 238.5%). When all soft drinks were combined, the volume of drinks purchased did not change, but sugar decreased by 29.5 g (55.8 to 3.1 g), or 9.8% (17.9% to 1.8%). Purchases of confectionery and alcoholic drinks did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with trends before the SDIL was announced, one year after implementation, the volume of soft drinks purchased did not change. The amount of sugar in those drinks was 30 g, or 10%, lower per household per week-equivalent to one 250 mL serving of a low tier drink per person per week. The SDIL might benefit public health without harming industry. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN18042742.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Alimentícia/economia , Política de Saúde/economia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/economia , Impostos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido
4.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244884, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395444

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have gained support as a policy response to adverse health effects associated with SSB consumption. On July 1, 2017, Oakland, California, implemented a one-cent/ounce tax on SSBs with ≥25 calories/12 fluid ounces. This study estimated the long-term impact of the tax on taxed and untaxed beverage prices. METHODS: Data on 5,830 taxed and 5,146 untaxed beverage prices were obtained from 99 stores in Oakland and 111 stores in Sacramento (comparison site), California, in late May-June 2017 and June 2019. Linear regression difference-in-differences models were computed with store and product fixed effects, with robust standard errors clustered on store, weighted based on volume sold by beverage sweetener status, type, and size. RESULTS: Taxed beverage prices increased by 0.73 cents/ounce (95% CI = 0.47,1.00) on average in supermarkets and grocery stores in Oakland relative to Sacramento and 0.74 cents/ounce (95% CI = 0.39,1.09) in pharmacies, but did not change in convenience stores (-0.09 cents/ounce, 95% CI = -0.56,0.39). Untaxed beverage prices overall increased by 0.40 cents/ounce (95% CI = 0.05,0.75) in pharmacies but did not change in other store types. Prices of taxed individual-size soda specifically increased in all store types, by 0.91-2.39 cents/ounce (p<0.05), as did prices of untaxed individual-size soda in convenience stores (0.79 cents/ounce, 95% CI = 0.01,1.56) and pharmacies (1.66 cents/ounce, 95% CI = 0.09,3.23). CONCLUSIONS: Two years following SSB tax implementation, there was partial tax pass-through with differences by store type and by beverage type and size within store type.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/economia , Impostos/economia , Impostos/tendências , Bebidas/economia , California , Bebidas Gaseificadas/economia , Comércio/métodos , Comércio/tendências , Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Políticas , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Food Chem ; 348: 129146, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515945

RESUMO

Natural anthocyanin dyes are safe for human and the environment due to their biocompatibility and rapid biodegradability. In this paper, an aqueous anthocyanin extract from grapes was used as a colouring reagent for the determination of humic acid (a cancer-promoting agent) in water and caffeine/phosphoric acid-containing caramelized soft drink. Three techniques, viz: chromametry, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed for comparative quantifications. The results showed that the chromametry technique exhibited better sensing performance than the spectroscopic techniques in terms of the limit of detection (LOD) and % recovery. However, both chromametry and UV-Vis techniques agreed that the presence of HA could easily be detected in the soft drink at a spiked concentration of 6.4 ppm where less interference occurred.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Vitis/química , Cafeína/análise , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Ácidos Fosfóricos/análise , Vitis/metabolismo , Água/química
6.
Food Chem ; 346: 128924, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429297

RESUMO

The increasing interest of consumers in the still-developing craft beer market and the strict tax-related legal regulations concerning alcoholic beverages require precise methods for quality control. Determination of ethyl alcohol concentration was performed in 167 samples of alcoholic beverages (craft beers, soft drinks, wines, and cider). We applied headspace gas chromatography using a dual column/dual flame ionization detector (HS-GC-FID/FID), a technique routinely used in forensic toxicology. The method was linear in range, from 0.01 to 20.0%, with a coefficient of determination of 0.999 (R2). The limit of quantification was 0.01%; the detection limit was 0.003%. Furthermore, very good validation parameters were achieved (precision and accuracy below 5%). The samples were analyzed for compliance with EU standards and recommendations of The Beer Judge Certification Program. Moreover, the content of trace quantities of volatile compounds and fusel alcohols (1-propanol, 2-propanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde) was found in the majority of alcoholic beverages.


Assuntos
Cerveja/análise , Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Etanol/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Vinho/análise , Ionização de Chama , Humanos
7.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(1): e10162, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503157

RESUMO

It is still unknown whether excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be linked to gestational hypertensive disorders, other than preeclampsia. This study investigated the association between soft drink consumption and hypertension during pregnancy, analyzing the relationship from the perspective of counterfactual causal theory. Data from pregnant women of the BRISA cohort were analyzed (1,380 in São Luis and 1,370 in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil). The explanatory variable was the frequency of soft drink consumption during pregnancy obtained in a prenatal interview. The outcome was gestational hypertension based on medical diagnosis, at the time of delivery. A theoretical model of the association between soft drink consumption and gestational hypertension was constructed using a directed acyclic graph. Marginal structural models (MSM) weighted by the inverse of the probability of soft drink consumption were also employed. Using Poisson regression analysis, high soft drink consumption (≥7 times/week) was associated with gestational hypertension in São Luís (RR=1.48; 95%CI: 1.03-2.10), in Ribeirão Preto (RR=1.51; 95%CI: 1.13-2.01), and in the two cohorts combined (RR=1.45; 95%CI: 1.16-1.82) compared to lower exposure (<7 times/week). In the MSM, the association between high soft drink consumption and gestational hypertension was observed in Ribeirão Preto (RR=1.63; 95%CI: 1.21-2.19) and in the two cohorts combined (RR=1.51; 95%CI: 1.15-1.97), but not in São Luís (RR=1.26; 95%CI: 0.79-2.00). High soft drink consumption seems to be a risk factor for gestational hypertension, suggesting that it should be discouraged during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/etiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Food Chem ; 338: 127712, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829295

RESUMO

Herein, a new method for quantifying the brominated vegetable oil content in commercial soft drinks was developed, which accelerated the sample preparation process and improved analytical efficiency. First, simple and accurate chromatographic separation techniques were performed using a VF-5ht column for both GC-FID (quantitative) and APGC-QTOF (qualitative) analyses. The samples were subjected to chromatography on a reversed-phase solid-phase extraction cartridge. (PoraPak™RxnRP). Transesterification using a boron trifluoride methanol complex in methanol solution was performed. When validating this method, the analyte recovery percentages were between 82.2% and 99.9%, and the recovery and standard deviation of repeatability values were between 1.2% and 3.5%. Using an isotope library, the bromostearic acid methyl esters (9,10-dibromostearic acid methyl ester, 9,10,12,13-tetrabromostearic acid methyl ester, and hexabromostearic acid methyl ester) in the sample mixtures were qualitatively confirmed via APGC-QTOF. A novel aqueous ammonium adduct, which has not been previously reported, was also confirmed. These results indicated that this new method was simple, accurate, and also allowed for precise qualitative and quantitative confirmation as well as high reproducibility.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ionização de Chama , Halogenação , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida
9.
Rev. esp. nutr. comunitaria ; 26(4): 0-0, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200108

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTOS: El consumo de gaseosas se asocia positivamente al padecimiento de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Dicho consumo difiere entre países de distinto nivel de ingreso y entre individuos de distinto nivel socioeconómico. A pesar de gravar el consumo de estas bebidas, Argentina se ubica entre lospaíses de mayor consumo de gaseosa per cápita, lo que motiva estudiar su distribución según región y nivel socioeconómico. MÉTODOS: A partir de 3 encuestas nacionales de gastos de los hogares (1996-2013) se efectúan pruebas de diferencia de medias (test de Welch y Games-Howell al 5%) entre 12 sub-regiones del país y entre deciles de gasto per cápita para el consumo mensual de gaseosa por adulto equivalente. Asimismo, se verifica la presencia de inequidad a partir del cómputo del índice de concentración de Wagstaff. RESULTADOS: Entre las provincias que conforman el noroeste argentino no se encuentran diferencias significativas en el consumo, pero sí entre ellas y las que conforman la Patagonia. Valores positivos del índice de concentración indican que no existe inequidad en el consumo de gaseosas. CONCLUSIONES: Si bien no se verificó inequidad en el consumo en ningún período, la evolución decreciente del índice de concentración indicaría un aumento del consumo entre hogares más pobres


BACKGROUND: Carbonated beverage consumption is positively associated with cardiovascular disease. Such consumption differs between countries of different income levels and between individuals of different socioeconomic levels. Despite taxing the consumption of these drinks, Argentina is among the countries with the highest consumption of soda per capita, which motivates studying its distribution according to region and socioeconomic level. METHODS: From 3 national surveys of household expenditures (1996-2013), mean difference tests (Welch and Games-Howell test at 5%) are carried out between 12 sub-regions of the country and between deciles of per capita spending for the monthly consumption of soda per equivalent adult. Likewise, the presence of inequity is checked from the computation of the Wagstaff concentration index. RESULTS: Among the provinces that are part of the Argentine northwest, there are no significant differences in consumption, but there are differences between them and those that are part of Patagonia. Positive values of the concentration index indicate that there is no inequity in the consumption of carbonated beverage. CONCLUSIONS: Although there was no inequity in consumption in any period, the decreasing evolution of the concentration index would indicate an increase in consumption among poorer households


Assuntos
Humanos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Consumo de Alimentos , Argentina
10.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(3): 63-70, 20201201.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177488

RESUMO

Introducción: Comer saludablemente puede contribuir a disminuir la frecuencia de enfermedades crónicas evitables y a mejorar la calidad de vida en la edad avanzada. El objetivo fue describir el comportamiento alimentario de los adolescentes escolares de escuelas públicas, subvencionadas y privadas a nivel nacional. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal cuantitativo no probabilístico, como instrumento se utilizó el cuestionario de la Encuesta Global de Salud Escolar, a adolescentes de 12 departamentos, la encuesta fue aplicada en marzo del 2017, fueron incluidos 3149 estudiantes matriculados sistemáticamente con una probabilidad proporcional a los grados Octavo-Tercer curso. Resultados: El comportamiento alimentario se caracterizó por el bajo consumo de frutas y verduras en porciones de cinco o más veces al día que fue solo del 7,5%. El 61,7% consumieron bebidas gaseosas azucaradas una o más veces al día, y 15% de los estudiantes consumieron tres días o más comidas rápidas en los últimos 7 días. Conclusión: El comportamiento alimentario de los adolescentes se caracteriza por un elevado consumo de los alimentos marcadores de una alimentación no saludable con mayor proporción entre los más jóvenes.


Introduction: Eating healthy can help reduce preventable chronic diseases and improve quality of life in old age. The objective was to describe the eating habits of school adolescents from public, subsidized and private schools nationwide. Materials and Methods: It is a non-probabilistic quantitative cross-sectional descriptive study, the instrument used was the Global School Health Survey, for adolescents from 12 departments, the survey was applied in March 2017. 3149 systematically enrolled students were included with a proportional probability to grades Eight-Third year. Results: The eating behavior was characterized by the low consumption of fruits and vegetables in portions of five or more times a day, which was only 7.5%. 61.7% consumed sugary soft drinks one or more times a day, and 15% of the students consumed fast foods three or more days a week. Conclusion: The eating behavior of adolescents is characterized by a high consumption of foods that are markers of an unhealthy diet, with a higher proportion among the youngest.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Alimentos , Doença Crônica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
11.
J Oral Sci ; 63(1): 75-78, 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311010

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of nicotine on the activity of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in soft drinks. Regular soft drinks contain large proportions of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), which increases the activity of S. mutans resulting in high-caries risk compared with sugar-free soft drinks. Nicotine use exhibits a strong correlation with increased S. mutans biofilm formation. The soft drinks chosen were (Coca-Cola Classic, Diet Coke, Coca-Cola Zero Sugar, Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Caffeine-Free Diet Coke, Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola Zero Sugar). S. mutans was grown overnight in tryptic soy broth; nicotine was diluted in tryptic soy broth supplemented with 1.0% sucrose followed by soft drinks in dilution of 1:3. Total growth absorbance and biofilm growth were determined by spectrophotometry, absorbance measured to determine biofilm formation, and metabolic activity quantified. One-way ANOVA showed a considerable effect for HFCS and caffeine in the presence of nicotine and their interaction in all measures. Results showed sugar-free caffeinated colas demonstrated significant effect in inhibiting S. mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity with nicotine. Nicotine-induced S. mutans increased biofilm formation and metabolic activity in the presence of HFCS and caffeine in soft drinks. In conclusion, smokers should consider sugar-free caffeinated versions to minimize the chance of developing dental caries dut to the reduction of biofilm formation.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Streptococcus mutans , Biofilmes , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Nicotina
12.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379359

RESUMO

Beer is a popular beverage and some beneficial effects have been attributed to its moderate consumption. We carried out a pilot study to test if beer and non-alcoholic beer consumption modify the levels of a panel of 53 cardiometabolic microRNAs in plasma and macrophages. Seven non-smoker men aged 30-65 with high cardiovascular risk were recruited for a non-randomised cross-over intervention consisting of the ingestion of 500 mL/day of beer or non-alcoholic beer for 14 days with a 7-day washout period between interventions. Plasma and urine isoxanthohumol were measured to assess compliance with interventions. Monocytes were isolated and differentiated into macrophages, and plasma and macrophage microRNAs were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Anthropometric, biochemistry and dietary parameters were also measured. We found an increase in plasma miR-155-5p, miR-328-3p, and miR-92a-3p after beer and a decrease after non-alcoholic beer consumption. Plasma miR-320a-3p levels decreased with both beers. Circulating miR-320a-3p levels correlated with LDL-cholesterol. We found that miR-17-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-145-5p, miR-26b-5p, and miR-223-3p macrophage levels increased after beer and decreased after non-alcoholic beer consumption. Functional analyses suggested that modulated microRNAs were involved in catabolism, nutrient sensing, Toll-like receptors signalling and inflammation. We concluded that beer and non-alcoholic beer intake modulated differentially plasma and macrophage microRNAs. Specifically, microRNAs related to inflammation increased after beer consumption and decreased after non-alcoholic beer consumption.


Assuntos
Cerveja , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Macrófagos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Plasma , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Risco , Xantonas/urina
13.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 959-971, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215487

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence, distribution, and the associated factors of tooth erosion in Turkish school children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed on a representative sample of 473 children (aged 7-14 years) from 11 public schools in Turkey. Parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire to collect sociodemographic data. A questionnaire was also given to the children, to collect data pertaining to personal demographic details and habits of consuming acidic foods and drinks. The O'Sullivan index was used to assess affected permanent teeth. The data were analysed using a chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Dental erosion was observed in 21.8% of the children. Lesions were most often observed in the enamel with less than half of the buccal surface affected. Erosion was found to be statistically significantly higher in older children and in those with an elevated body mass index (BMI) (p <0.05). The consumption of fruit juices, drinks with cola, orange soft drinks, gaseous, cocoa milk, iced tea, sodas, sports drinks, energy drinks, oranges, lemons, kiwis, grapefruits, apples, peaches, and fruit yogurts was statistically significantly higher in students with erosion (p <0.05). There was no statistically significant relationship between students' sex, systemic disease, premature birth and low birth weight, exercise activity level, socioeconomic status, parental education level, and oral hygiene habits with erosion (p >0.05). CONCLUSION: Although erosive lesions were limited to the enamel, the prevalence of erosion was high. Erosion was statistically significantly associated with older age, elevated BMI, consumption of certain beverages, and fruit.


Assuntos
Erosão Dentária , Adolescente , Idoso , Bebidas , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Prevalência , Erosão Dentária/epidemiologia , Erosão Dentária/etiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
14.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(5): 895-901, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198003

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: la erosión dental es la pérdida patológica, crónica, localizada e indolora de los tejidos dentarios, producida por la acción química de ácidos y sin la intervención de la acción de microorganismos. En los últimos años se ha observado un incremento significativo de la prevalencia de esta patología, especialmente en niños y adolescentes. OBJETIVOS: determinar la prevalencia de la erosión dental en la dentición temporal mediante el índice Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) en niños de entre 5 y 12 años, y determinar los hábitos de alimentación que pueden favorecer en ellos el desarrollo de lesiones. MÉTODOS: se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en una muestra de 391 niños. Se realizó una encuesta donde se analizaron los hábitos de alimentación, y se realizó una exploración clínica de los dientes temporales empleando el índice BEWE. RESULTADOS: la prevalencia de la erosión dental en la muestra estudiada fue del 19,7 %, presentándose con mayor frecuencia lesiones iniciales. CONCLUSIONES: el 30,62 % de la población estudiada presentaba riesgo bajo de erosión dental, observándose un aumento del riesgo a medida que aumentaba el consumo de bebidas ácidas (bebidas gaseosas, bebidas isotónicas y zumos de frutas) y frutas ácidas, como naranjas, uvas y manzanas


INTRODUCTION: dental erosion is the pathological, chronic, localized and painless loss of dental tissues, produced by the chemical action of acids, where the action of microorganisms is not involved. In recent years, a significant increase in the prevalence of this pathology has been observed, especially in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: to determine the prevalence of dental erosion in temporary dentition using the Basic Erosive Wear Examination Index (BEWE) in children between 5 and 12 years of age, and to determine the eating habits that may favor the development of these lesions. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 391 children. A survey was conducted where eating habits were analyzed and a clinical examination of the temporary teeth was performed using the BEWE index. RESULTS: the prevalence of dental erosion in the studied sample was 19.7 %, with mild lesions being most common. CONCLUSIONS: in all, 30.62 % of the studied population had a low risk of dental erosion, and risk was seen to increase with consumption of acidic beverages (soft drinks, isotonic drinks and fruit juices) and acidic fruits such as oranges, grapes and apples


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Comportamento Alimentar , Erosão Dentária/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Erosão Dentária/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/estatística & dados numéricos , Desgaste dos Dentes/diagnóstico
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239217, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide population has been increasingly exposed to ultra-processed foods, which are associated with obesity. Adolescence is a transition period of life and WHO recommends the surveillance of risk factors to the adolescents' health, such as diet, because experiences in this phase can result in health risks. OBJECTIVE: To assess the trends in food consumption of adolescents from Brazilian capitals according to sociodemographic variables, based on data from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE). METHODS: Data from in 2009, 2012 and 2015 of a total of 173,310 9th graders enrolled in public and private schools in Brazilian capitals and in the Federal District were assessed. Food consumption was assessed from regular consumption (five or more times a week) of healthy eating markers (beans; vegetables; fruit) and unhealthy eating markers (sweets; soft drinks; fried salty snacks). For sociodemographic variables, we considered macro regions; age; race/ skin color; gender; school administrative status. We assessed these markers trends for the population and, additionally, the analyses were stratified by gender, race/ skin color, and school administrative status. Statistical significance of the temporal trends was assessed by linear regression model. RESULTS: Over six years, three types of change in Brazilian adolescents' diet were observed: decreasing regular consumption of beans, sweets and soft drinks, increasing regular consumption of vegetables, and stable consumption of fruit and fried salty snacks. CONCLUSION: Brazilian adolescents' diet composition has changed in a short period, and therefore it is necessary to monitor it to propose actions aimed at this public.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Brasil , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/ética , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tempo
17.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20200182, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813839

RESUMO

The increased consumption of citrus sweets can contribute to the development of erosive tooth wear (ETW). Objective This in vitro study evaluated the erosive potential of citrus sweets on bovine enamel samples regarding the quantification of wear. Methodology Ninety bovine crowns were prepared and samples were randomly distributed into 6 groups (n=15): 0.1% citric acid solution (pH 2.5); Coca-Cola ® Soft Drink (pH 2.6); Fini ® Diet (lactic and citric acid, pH 3.3); Fini ® Jelly Kisses (lactic and citric acid, pH 3.5); Fini ® Fruit Salad Bubblegum (maleic acid, pH 2.6); Fini ® Regaliz Acid Tubes (maleic and citric acid, pH 3.1). Sweets were dissolved in the proportion of 40 g/250 mL of deionized water. Enamel samples were submitted to erosive challenges for 7 days (4 daily acid immersion cycles for 90 s each). Enamel wear was measured using contact profilometry (µm), and data (median values [interquartile range]) were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn's test (p<0.0001). Results All citrus sweets tested present a high erosive potential, Fini Diet ® (2.4 [1.2]) and Fini Regaliz Tubs ® (2.2 [0.5]) show the highest erosive potential, similar to 0.1% citric acid (2.3 [0.7]); Fini Regaliz Tubs ® is more erosive than Coca-Cola ® (1.4 [0.9]). Conclusion The evaluated citrus sweets have great erosive potential and play a key role in the development of ETW.


Assuntos
Citrus , Erosão Dentária , Desgaste dos Dentes , Animais , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Bovinos , Esmalte Dentário , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
18.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(8): 1594-1603, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in the frequency and severity of federally reported adverse events between caffeine-containing and non-caffeine-containing products while also identifying the category of caffeine-containing products associated with the highest frequency and severity of adverse events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All adverse event reports that met specified eligibility criteria and were submitted to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Adverse Event Reporting System between January 1, 2014, and June 29, 2018, were extracted. In this retrospective observational study, the most severe adverse event experienced, an ordinal variable, was categorized into death, life-threatening, hospitalization/disability, and emergency department visit. A nonproportional odds model was used to compare the odds of caffeine-containing products being associated with more severe adverse events relative to a noncaffeine group. The analysis is of data only from those reporting adverse events and may or may not be representative of the entire population exposed to these products, which is not known from the examined data. RESULTS: Energy and preworkout products saw a significant increase in the odds of the adverse event experienced being death rather than the other less severe outcomes relative to the noncaffeinated group. Those products, along with weight loss products, had greater odds of the adverse event being death or life-threatening vs the less severe outcomes relative to the noncaffeinated group. CONCLUSION: Caffeine-containing products have a greater association with severe adverse events compared with non-caffeine-containing products. Exposure to preworkout and weight loss products had greater odds of being associated with a more serious adverse event relative to noncaffeinated products. Health care practitioners should use these outcomes to better inform and educate patients about the many factors related to caffeine intake and adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cafeína/efeitos adversos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/toxicidade , Cafeína/toxicidade , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/toxicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Café/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Chá/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 3(2)ago.12, 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1117155

RESUMO

El consumo de bebidas carbonatadas es común a nivel mundial. En El Salvador es frecuente en la dieta de la población; sin embargo, algunos de sus componentes pueden ser responsables de afectar la salud. Objetivo. Evaluar los efectos a la salud de dos bebidas carbonatadas administradas continuamente durante 10 semanas a ratones experimentales. Metodología. Se utilizaron 12 ratones distribuidos en 3 grupos de 4 ratones cada uno; un control y dos experimentales, para administrar dos bebidas carbonatadas azucaradas de alto consumo dentro de la población salvadoreña por vía intragástrica. Resultados. Los chequeos clínicos presentaron alteraciones en algunos aspectos evaluados, como deshidratación, piloerección y diarrea. En peso corporal, hubo diferencias entre el grupo control y los experimentales. En la evaluación macroscópica de los órganos, los grupos tratados sufrieron irregularidades, tanto en la apariencia como en el color, aunque en su peso no existieron diferencias, a excepción del riñón derecho del grupo tratado con bebida carbonatada 1. La química sanguínea mostró únicamente diferencia en el colesterol total del grupo tratado con bebida carbonatada 2. Conclusión. La apariencia de los ratones tratados con bebidas carbonatadas mostró daños a la salud, principalmente el daño provocado en la apariencia de los órganos internos


Currently, the consumption of carbonated beverages is very common worldwide. In El Salvador it is frequent in the diet of the population; while some constituent components may be responsible for affecting health. Objective. To assess the health effects of two carbonated beverages administered continuously for 10 weeks to experimental mice. Methodology. Two carbonated beverages with high consumption sugar were chosen within the Salvadoran population. In this study 12 mice distributed in 3 groups of 4 mice each were used; one control and two experimental. The substances were administered intragastrically. Results. The clinical check-ups showed alterations in some aspects evaluated, such as dehydration, piloerection and diarrhea. In body weight, there were significant differences between the control and the experimental group. In the macroscopic evaluation of the organs, the treated groups suffered from certain irregularities, both in appearance and color, although there were no differences in weight, except for the right kidney of the group treated with carbonated beverage 1. Blood chemistry showed only


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Impactos na Saúde
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687521

RESUMO

We sought to investigate the association between consumption of coffee, tea, or soft drinks and risk of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) among Koreans using nationwide population-based data. This cross-sectional survey was performed through the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2011. Participants older than 19 years were included in the sample for analysis after excluding those with any missing data. The diagnosis of OAG was based on the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria, and participants without glaucomatous optic neuropathy served as controls. The frequency of beverage consumption during the past 12 months was obtained through a questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the relationship between consumption of each type of beverage and prevalence of OAG. A total of 6,681 participants was included in the analysis. The prevalence of OAG was 4.4% (n = 323), including 5.4% (n = 169) among men and 3.5% (n = 154) among women. After adjusting for multiple covariates, coffee consumption was significantly associated with OAG, while no significant association was found between consumption of tea or soft drinks and OAG. Participants who drank coffee had a higher risk of having OAG compared with those who did not drink coffee (odds ratio [OR], 2.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-4.72; p = 0.011). In sex-stratified analyses, the robust association of coffee consumption with OAG was observed in men (OR, 3.98; 95% CI, 1.71-9.25; p = 0.001) but not in women. Our results suggest that coffee consumption may affect the risk of OAG, particularly in men.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Café , Ingestão de Líquidos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Chá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
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