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2.
BMJ ; 369: m1311, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in categories of soft drink consumption in a cohort of Mexican adults, three years after the implementation of the sugar sweetened beverage tax. DESIGN: Open cohort longitudinal analysis. SETTING: Three waves of the Health Workers Cohort Study, Mexico, spanning 2004 to 2018. PARTICIPANTS: 1770 people aged 19 years or older with information on drinks consumption available in at least one of the three cohort waves. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Change in probability of belonging to one of four categories of soft drinks consumption (non, low, medium, high) after the tax was implemented. Heterogeneity of associations by income and education was also assessed. RESULTS: Before the implementation of the tax, more than 50% of the participants were medium and high consumers of soft drinks and less than 10% were in the non-consumer category. After the tax was implemented, 43% of the population was categorised as medium or high consumers and the prevalence of non-consumers increased to 14%. Three years after implementation of the tax on 1 January 2014, the probability of being a non-consumer of soft drinks increased by 4.7 (95% confidence interval 0.3 to 9.1) percentage points and that of being a low consumer increased by 8.3 (0.6 to 16.0) percentage points compared with the pre-tax period. Conversely, the probability of being in the medium and high levels of soft drinks consumption decreased by 6.8 (0.5 to 13.2) percentage points and 6.1 (0.4 to 11.9) percentage points, respectively. No significant heterogeneity of the tax across income levels was observed, but stronger effects of the tax were seen in participants with secondary school education or higher, compared with those with elementary school or less. CONCLUSIONS: The Mexican sugar sweetened beverage tax was associated with a reduction in the probability of consuming soft drinks in this cohort of employees from a healthcare provider. The results cannot be extrapolated to the Mexican population, but they suggest that three years after implementation, the tax had helped to increase the proportion of people who do not consume soft drinks while decreasing the proportion of high and medium consumers.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/economia , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 42, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe students protected by laws and exposed to soft drinks sales and assess whether forbidding laws are associated with lower availability of these beverages. METHODS: We identified laws forbidding non-government administered cafeterias or sales of soft drinks in schools in the 27 Brazilian state capitals. Data on soft drinks sales were obtained from Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar 2015 (PeNSE - National Survey of School Health 2015), for a representative sample of 9th graders from public and private schools. Students were attributed with the status of their school regarding the law and sale of soft drinks. Co-variables were school status (public or private), school size, geographic regions, mother's educational level, score of goods and services. We performed multivariate analyses using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The total of 23 laws forbidding sales of soft drinks covered 63.0% of capitals, comprising 56.9% of students. Law coverage was higher among students from more developed regions (67.6%) and in public schools (60.6%), compared with those from less developed regions (38.0%) and private schools (45.8%). Soft drinks were available for 33.9% of students. Students attending public schools in less developed regions had the lowest availability of soft drinks, regardless of law coverage (14.8%; 12.0%); while students attending private schools in these regions had a high availability, regardless of law coverage (82.1%; 73.4%). Restrictive laws were associated with lower sales of soft drinks in more developed regions, and restrictions had a greater association with the availability of soft drinks in public schools (PR = 0.25; 95%CI = 0.15-0.41), compared with private schools (PR = 0.48; 95%CI = 0.35-0.66). CONCLUSION: Laws restricting soft drinks in schools were associated with fewer sales in more developed regions. Private schools were less compliant with the law than public schools. A broadly enforced national law could reduce the availability of soft drinks in schools.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Instituições Acadêmicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Brasil , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Setor Privado/legislação & jurisprudência , Setor Público/legislação & jurisprudência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Clin Ter ; 171(2): e142-e148, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141486

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plant-based diets are associated with a lower: (i) body mass index, (ii) rates of death from ischemic heart disease, (iii) serum cholesterol, (iv) incidence of high blood pressure, (v) type II diabetes mellitus and cancer, with an overall longer life expectancy. However, little data concerning the oral health in individuals on a plant-based diet are available. AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the general and clinical oral health status in a cohort of adults who had been following a plant-based diet for a minimum of 24 months. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For this purpose, individuals were administered two questionnaires (a.Questionnaire investigating risk areas for oral diseases; b. Italian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile -14 (IOHIP-14)) by a dental hygienist and clinical examination of the oral cavity was carried out. RESULTS: Seventy-seven adult individuals were enrolled. On average, they followed a plant-based diet for the last four years, had four meals a day and brushed their teeth twice a day. Fruit was the most frequently consumed food at breakfast by 48 of the participants. Thirty-four responders did not drink beer or wine, 65 did not drink spirits, 57 avoided carbonated beverages and 62 (80.5%) did not consume any highly-sugared beverages. Different dental therapies in the previous three years were reported in 36 of the responders. Overall, answers "never and almost never" to the IOHIP-14 questionnaire were observed in 87% to 100% of the individuals. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that fresh fruit consumption at lunch had a protective effect against caries (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study showed that individuals on a plant-based diet have good overall oral health conditions. These features are in agreement with the behavior of these subjects towards an overall healthy life style.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Saúde Bucal , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS Med ; 17(2): e1003025, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary sugar, especially in liquid form, increases risk of dental caries, adiposity, and type 2 diabetes. The United Kingdom Soft Drinks Industry Levy (SDIL) was announced in March 2016 and implemented in April 2018 and charges manufacturers and importers at £0.24 per litre for drinks with over 8 g sugar per 100 mL (high levy category), £0.18 per litre for drinks with 5 to 8 g sugar per 100 mL (low levy category), and no charge for drinks with less than 5 g sugar per 100 mL (no levy category). Fruit juices and milk-based drinks are exempt. We measured the impact of the SDIL on price, product size, number of soft drinks on the marketplace, and the proportion of drinks over the lower levy threshold of 5 g sugar per 100 mL. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed data on a total of 209,637 observations of soft drinks over 85 time points between September 2015 and February 2019, collected from the websites of the leading supermarkets in the UK. The data set was structured as a repeat cross-sectional study. We used controlled interrupted time series to assess the impact of the SDIL on changes in level and slope for the 4 outcome variables. Equivalent models were run for potentially levy-eligible drink categories ('intervention' drinks) and levy-exempt fruit juices and milk-based drinks ('control' drinks). Observed results were compared with counterfactual scenarios based on extrapolation of pre-SDIL trends. We found that in February 2019, the proportion of intervention drinks over the lower levy sugar threshold had fallen by 33.8 percentage points (95% CI: 33.3-34.4, p < 0.001). The price of intervention drinks in the high levy category had risen by £0.075 (£0.037-0.115, p < 0.001) per litre-a 31% pass through rate-whilst prices of intervention drinks in the low levy category and no levy category had fallen and risen by smaller amounts, respectively. Whilst the product size of branded high levy and low levy drinks barely changed after implementation of the SDIL (-7 mL [-23 to 11 mL] and 16 mL [6-27ml], respectively), there were large changes to product size of own-brand drinks with an increase of 172 mL (133-214 mL) for high levy drinks and a decrease of 141 mL (111-170 mL) for low levy drinks. The number of available drinks that were in the high levy category when the SDIL was announced was reduced by 3 (-6 to 12) by the implementation of the SDIL. Equivalent models for control drinks provided little evidence of impact of the SDIL. These results are not sales weighted, so do not give an account of how sugar consumption from drinks may have changed over the time period. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the SDIL incentivised many manufacturers to reduce sugar in soft drinks. Some of the cost of the levy to manufacturers and importers was passed on to consumers as higher prices but not always on targeted drinks. These changes could reduce population exposure to liquid sugars and associated health risks.


Assuntos
Sacarose na Dieta , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos , Impostos/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebidas Gaseificadas/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Tamanho da Porção , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/legislação & jurisprudência , Reino Unido
6.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110172, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090852

RESUMO

Packaging used for beverages, such as soft drinks, juices, and beers, is widely consumed worldwide. The manufacture of this packaging involves energy consumption, even when made with recycled material. The sum of all energies required to produce the packaging is considered the incorporated or embodied energy. In this work, the embodied energy used to manufacture six common types of beverage packaging was analyzed. For this purpose, the average percentage of material recycling in Brazil and the United States of America (USA) was considered since the energy incorporated is quite different when recycling is used. A calculation methodology was developed to estimate the embodied energy in each type of packaging in Brazil and the USA. For a more appropriate comparison, the embodied energy per volume was calculated. Comparing the embodied energy per volume, aluminum packaging, when mostly recycled, is the packaging that has the lowest embodied energy per liter of beverage. This study highlights the importance of recycling to produce packaging with less embodied energy and opens perspectives for environmentally more favorable attitudes regarding the choice of beverage packaging materials.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Embalagem de Produtos , Brasil , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Reciclagem , Estados Unidos
7.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(1): 65-70, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929209

RESUMO

Objective and Aim: The importance of fluoride in preventing dental diseases cannot be overemphasized. The aim of this study was to determine the fluoride content of commercial bottled water, sachet water and carbonated soft drinks available in Southeastern-Nigeria at the same time, eliciting their dental and public health implications. Method: Determination of fluoride level in water and carbonated drinks was carried out using Colorimetric-SPADNS (Trisodium 2-(4-sulfophenylazo)-1, 8-dihydroxynaphthalene-3, 6-disulfonate) method. This is a simple and rapid technique with high accuracy. 10 brands of bottled water, 10 brands of carbonated soft drinks and 20 brands of sachet water were studied. The experiment for each brand was carried out in duplicates and mean fluoride concentrations generated. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 17. Results: Fluoride contents in mg/L of bottled water brands ranged from 0.0173 ± 0.0019 mg/L to 0.1607 ± 0.0630 mg/L [mean: 0.0442 ± 0.0184 mg/L] and that of sachet water brands was from 0.0131 ± 0.0019 mg/L to 0.1754 ± 0.1344 mg/L. Mean fluoride content of carbonated soft drinks was 0.0228 ± 0.0064 mg/L with one of the brands having as low as 0.0066 ± 0.0028 mg/L fluoride. Conclusion: None of the drinks investigated contained level of fluoride up to standard admissible values suggesting sub-optimal intake. As the suitability of advice on fluoride use in preventing dental abnormalities depends on the individual's total fluoride intake from drinks and other sources, a further study is warranted to relate this total with the baseline decayed missing and filled teeth of the population.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Água Potável/química , Fluoretos/análise , Água/análise , Humanos , Nigéria , Saúde Pública
8.
Eur Arch Paediatr Dent ; 21(1): 109-117, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177478

RESUMO

AIMS: To provide information regarding the different types of soft drinks and critically reviewing their risk on the dental and general health of children and adolescents, as well as the cost associated with such drinks. METHODS: The literature was reviewed using electronic databases, Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, and was complemented by cross-referencing using published references list from reviewed articles. Search words; soft drinks, juices, carbonated drinks, sports and energy drinks, soft drink and dental diseases, soft drink and health, cost of soft drinks, soft drink advertising, sugar tax on soft drinks were used for this review. In total, 104 papers were reviewed by both authors; of these, 62 papers were found to have relevant information. RESULTS: The consumption of soft drinks was found to have increased dramatically over the past several decades. The greatest increase in soft drink consumption has been among children and adolescents. Some commercial soft drinks are high in sugar content and acidity. In addition, they supply energy only and are of little nutritional benefit and lack micro-nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Soft drink consumption can contribute to detrimental oral and general health. Efforts have been made by manufacturers and government agencies to reduce the potential harmful effects of sugar-containing soft drinks on teeth and general health. These include banning the sale of soft drinks in schools, restricting soft drinks advertising, modifying the composition of soft drinks and introducing tax on sugar-containing soft drinks. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of soft drinks with high sugar content and acidity can contribute to detrimental oral health and may also affect general health. Therefore, it is necessary to educate patients about the harmful effects of different types of soft drinks as it is not always easy for individuals to identify from drink labelling the ingredients which they contain.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Saúde Bucal
9.
Magn Reson Chem ; 58(2): 186-190, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663181

RESUMO

High sodium dietary intake has a positive association with an increase in blood pressure and can be correlated with risk factors of disease. Considering that the World Health Organization recommends a sodium intake lower than 2 g day-1 for adults, the hidden sodium content in processed foods is an important factor that compromises the assessment of a healthy diet. Accordingly, the present paper aimed to quantitate the sodium content of conventional soft drinks and their diet versions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a quantitative analytical technique (23 Na qNMR). The results show one free sodium signal (Na+ ) displayed as a singlet at 0 ppm in the 23 Na NMR spectrum, making its quantitation highly specific. This signal alone was used to directly determine the concentration of sodium in soft drinks. Flame photometry analysis was used to validate the method, and an excellent linearity was found in qNMR analysis (r = 0.9994) in comparison with flame photometry (r = 0.9958). In addition, a good correlation was found between sodium concentrations obtained by 23 Na NMR and flame photometry in the evaluated commercial soft drinks. Since the intensity of the resonance line is directly proportional to the number of nuclei (spins), the concentration of sodium in soft drinks can be determined via this straightforward method without the need for external calibration. The experimental acquisitions are fast (approximately 15 min), allowing the analysis of several samples in a short period of time. This is a novel alternative for sodium quantitation using an efficient NMR methodology.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Sódio na Dieta/análise , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Spec Care Dentist ; 40(1): 97-105, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the association between soft drink consumption, gastric reflux, dental erosion, and obesity among special care children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 350 special care children (male-131, female-219) mean age of 12.6 (± 2.6) years were included. Detection of dental erosion was performed according to the World Health Organization criteria. The medical evaluation assessed body mass index (BMI). With appropriate sample weighting, relationships between dental erosion prevalence and obesity were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of dental erosion was 36%. Mean BMI for entire study population was 24.7 (± 7.8). Regression analysis showed strong association between dental erosion prevalence and consumption of soft drinks (adjusted odds ratio = 1.8; 95% CI = 0.71-2.92, P < .05), bulimia (adjusted odds ratio = 2.27; 95% CI = 0.99-4.28, P < .001), and gastric reflux (adjusted odds ratio = 2.24; 95% CI = 0.82-4.1, P < .001). Bivariate analysis showed high prevalence of dental erosion among obese children compared to children with normal weight (P = .04). CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated a significant association between dental erosion prevalence and consumption of soft drinks and gastric reflux among special care children.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Erosão Dentária , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Prevalência
11.
Talanta ; 206: 120209, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514865

RESUMO

A novel approach for dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the use of deep eutectic solvent as a disperser was presented for the first time. The procedure was automated based on an in-syringe flow system coupled with UV-Vis detection and demonstrated by the determination of chromium (VI) in beverages. This analytical task was used as a proof-of-concept example. The automated extraction procedure involved the aspiration of aqueous sample into a syringe pump with homogeneous mixture of extraction solvent (1-oсtanol) and deep eutectic solvent (tetrabutylammonium bromide - formic acid) containing color-forming reagent (1,5-diphenylcarbazide). This led to decomposition of deep eutectic solvent in aqueous phase resulting in dispersion of extraction solvent, oxidation of 1,5-diphenylcarbazide to 1,5- diphenylcarbazone in the presence of chromium (VI), and formation of colored chromium (III) complex with 1,5-diphenylcarbazone and its fast extraction. In this case composition of deep eutectic solvent played a key role for analyte extraction. Tetrabutylammonium bromide promoted mass transfer between aqueous phase and the extraction solvent droplets as a salting out agent, bromide ion acted as an ion-pare agent for analyte complex extraction, formic acid provided required pH value for analyte complex formation. Under the optimal conditions the limit of detection, calculated from a blank test based on 3s, was 0.2 µg L-1. The automated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using deep eutectic solvent as disperser can be considered as an available, efficient, rapid and environmentally friendly sample pretreatment approach.


Assuntos
Cromo/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , 1-Octanol/química , Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Água Potável/análise , Formiatos/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Limite de Detecção , Microextração em Fase Líquida/instrumentação , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Malus/química , Prunus avium/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Solventes/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Seringas
12.
Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther ; 54(11-12): 704-707, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805588

RESUMO

Phytobezoars are rare causes for intestinal obstruction. Therapy options include surgical removal, enzyme treatment, endoscopic removal and lyis with Coca-Cola®. While there is ample literature about successful Coca-Cola®-lysis, little is to be found concerning intestinal beozars. In our case, neither surgical nor endoscopic treatment of the intestinal obstruction was possible, which is why we opted for a Coca-Cola®-lysis.


Assuntos
Bezoares , Bezoares/terapia , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Endoscopia , Humanos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878104

RESUMO

Carbonated soft drink (CSD) intake has been associated with various risk behaviors in adolescents in high-income countries, but there is lack of evidence of this association in cross-nationally representative samples of school adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to assess the association between CSD intake, health risk behavior, and poor mental health behavior among school-going adolescents in six Southeast Asian countries. Cross-sectional national "Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS)" data from 36173 school-going adolescents from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Laos, Philippines, Thailand, and Timor-Leste were analyzed. Results indicate that across all six Southeast Asian countries, in the past 30 days 23.9% of study participants had consumed no CSD, 38.8% had consumed CSD

Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Bullying , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Suicídio
14.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 43, November 2019
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51684

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. El objetivo de esta investigación es estudiar la fuerza de traslado, la transición y la persistencia del impuesto especial sobre productos y servicios (IEPS) a alimentos y bebidas de densidad energética alta, sobre la tasa de inflación anual de estos alimentos y sobre las bebidas gaseosas, en vigencia desde enero de 2014. Métodos. Se calcularon las tasas de inflación anualizadas para cada alimento y bebida desde enero de 2010 hasta diciembre de 2016 a partir de datos mensuales del índice nacional de precios al consumidor (INPC). Se empleó un modelo de regímenes cambiantes para estimar el impacto del impuesto sobre la dinámica inflacionaria de las bebidas y los alimentos, así como su transición, persistencia y las posibles rupturas. Resultados. La dinámica inflacionaria de los alimentos de contenido calórico alto y las bebidas gaseosas sujetas a impuesto tiene una varianza alta. El impuesto fue trasladado a la inflación de algunos productos de densidad calórica alta de manera gradual, antes de regresar a los niveles inflacionarios previos al impuesto. La continuidad del impuesto no afecta la dinámica inflacionaria de los alimentos a partir de 2015. Conclusiones. El impuesto debe ir acompañado de medidas que faciliten su persistencia y traslado a la dinámica inflacionaria de los productos con impuesto. La recaudación de estos impuestos debe fomentar y facilitar el consumo de alternativas saludables, así como acompañarlo de medidas educativas que modifiquen los hábitos de consumo de manera sostenida en el mediano plazo y el largo plazo.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. The objective of this research is to study the strength of transfer, the transitions, and the persistence of the special excise tax on products and services (known by its Spanish acronym, IEPS) applicable since January 2014 to high-energy foods and soft drinks, and the effect of the tax on the annual inflation rates for these foods and beverages. Methods. Annual inflation rates for each food and beverage were calculated from January 2010 to December 2016, based on monthly data from the national consumer price index. A model of variable regimes was used to estimate the impact of the tax on the inflationary dynamics of the foods and beverages, as well as its transitions, persistence, and the possible ruptures. Results. There was high variance in the inflationary dynamics of the high-calorie foods and soft drinks subject to the tax. The tax contributed gradually to price inflation for some high-calorie products, before returning to pre-tax inflation levels. The continuity of the tax did not affect the inflationary dynamics of the food after 2015. Conclusions. The tax should be accompanied by measures that facilitate its persistence and transfer to the inflationary dynamics of the taxed products. The taxes collected should be used to promote and facilitate the consumption of healthy alternatives, and this should be accompanied by educational measures aimed at continuing to change consumption habits in the medium and long term.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Estudar a força de transferência, transição e persistência do imposto especial sobre produtos e serviços (IEPS) para alimentos e bebidas de alta densidade calórica na taxa anual de inflação destes alimentos e refrigerantes, em vigor desde janeiro de 2014. Métodos. As taxas anuais de inflação foram calculadas para cada alimento e bebida para o período de janeiro de 2010 a dezembro de 2016 com base em dados mensais do índice nacional de preços ao consumidor (INPC). Um modelo de mudança de regime foi usado para estimar a repercussão do imposto na dinâmica inflacionária de alimentos e bebidas bem como a transição, persistência e possíveis suspensões do imposto. Resultados. A dinâmica inflacionária dos alimentos de alta densidade calórica e de refrigerantes sobre os quais incide o imposto apresenta grande variação. O imposto foi gradualmente transferido à dinâmica inflacionária de alguns produtos de alta densidade calórica e, posteriormente, houve um retorno aos níveis inflacionários anteriores à tributação. A continuidade do imposto não tem influenciado a dinâmica inflacionária dos alimentos desde 2015. Conclusões. O imposto deve vir acompanhado de medidas para facilitar sua persistência e transferência à dinâmica inflacionária dos produtos tributados. A arrecadação destes impostos deve estimular e facilitar o consumo de alternativas de alimentos saudáveis, bem como vir acompanhado de medidas educativas para mudar os hábitos de consumo de forma sustentada a médio e longo prazo.


Assuntos
Impostos , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Alimentos , Inflação , México , Impostos , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Alimentos , Inflação , México , Impostos , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Inflação
16.
Eur J Paediatr Dent ; 20(3): 189-193, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489816

RESUMO

AIM: To establish the relationship between dental erosion prevalence in children aged 6-14 and all the aetiological factors that lead to the development of the lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study design: A correlational cross-sectional study of a sample of 400 Valencian children was conducted. First, a questionnaire was completed to analyse the patients' health status, their dietary and oral hygiene habits, the kind of school they attended and their parents' academic level. Then, a clinical exploration of the permanent dentition was done, calculating the BEWE index and the risk of erosion for each patient. RESULTS: The prevalence of dental erosion of the studied sample was 22.3%. A positive correlation was observed between the presence of dental erosion and the frequent intake of fruit juices, carbonated and isotonic drinks (p<0.05), presenting a higher correlation if the liquid was kept in the mouth before swallowing. Aetiological factors such as the use of inhalers in patients with asthma (p=0.006), frequency of vomiting and regurgitation (p<0.001), frequent swimmers (p<0.001) or a low socioeconomic status (p<0.05) were also positively associated to the development of erosive lesions. STATISTICS: A descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was performed, using the Mann-Whitney U and the Kruskal-Wallis tests in the latter. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the frequent intake of fruit juices, carbonated and isotonic drinks, the use of inhalers and belonging to a low socioeconomic level family are factors positively associated to the development of erosive lesions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Erosão Dentária , Adolescente , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
17.
Acta méd. costarric ; 61(3): 111-118, jul.-sep. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019302

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo : El objetivo del estudio fue analizar el consumo de azúcares añadidos por la población urbana costarricense y los factores asociados a este. Método: Estudio transversal donde se analizan los datos de 798 participantes del Estudio ELANS-Costa Rica, que constituyen una muestra representativa de la población urbana costarricense, (con edades entre 15 y 65 años). Para conocer el consumo de azúcares añadidos, se realizan dos recordatorios de 24 horas, en días no consecutivos. Se recolectan variables sociodemográficas, cantidad, lugar y momento del consumo. Resultados: El consumo de azúcares añadidos representa el 14,7% de la energía consumida por la población urbana costarricense, siendo este porcentaje mayor en las mujeres y en las personas más jóvenes. La mayor cantidad de azúcares añadidos se consume en el hogar y durante las meriendas. Las bebidas azucaradas constituyen la principal fuente de azúcares añadidos en la dieta costarricense, y las bebidas gaseosas son la fuente más importante en el quintil de mayor consumo. Conclusión: La ingesta de energía obtenida de los azúcares añadidos supera la recomendación máxima establecida por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, por lo tanto, es necesario establecer políticas públicas dirigidas a reducir su consumo y a la modificación de conductas asociadas a la preparación e ingesta de alimentos fuente de azúcares añadidos.


Abstract Aim: High consumption of added sugars has been associated with a greater risk of chronic diseases, appearance of caries and weight gain, which implies a lower quality of life for the population and an increase in costs for the health system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of added sugar and its related factors in urban Costa Rican population. Methods : This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a representative sample of the Costa Rican urban population (798 participants aged between 15 and 65 years). To determine the consumption of added sugars, two 24 hours recalls were conducted, in non-consecutive days. Sociodemographic variables, quantity of food consumed, place and time of consumption were collected. Results: The consumption of added sugars represents 14.7% of total energy intake for the Costa Rican urban population. This consumption is higher among women and younger people. The greater amount of added sugars was consumed in the home and during snacks. Sugar-sweetened beverages were the main source of this added sugar in the Costa Rican diet and soft drinks were the most important source in the highest consumption quintile. Conclusions: The intake of energy obtained from the added sugars exceeds the máximum recommendation established by the World Health Organization, therefore it is necessary to establish public policies aimed at reducing consumption and modifying behaviors associated with the preparation and intake of food source of added sugars.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Açúcares/análise , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Costa Rica
18.
Health Policy Plan ; 34(7): 520-528, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381805

RESUMO

In response to Mexico's burgeoning industrial epidemics of obesity and type-2 diabetes, triggered in part by sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages' ability to readily market their products and influence consumption, the government has responded through a variety of non-communicable disease (NCD) policies. Nevertheless, major industries, such as Coca-Cola, have been able to continuously obstruct the prioritization of those policies targeting the consumption, marketing and sale of their products. To better understand why this has occurred, this article introduces a political science agenda-setting framework and applies it to the case of Coca-Cola in Mexico. Devised from political science theory and subsequently applied to the case of Coca-Cola in Mexico, my framework, titled Institutions, Interests, and Industry Civic Influence (IPIC), emphasizes Coca-Cola's access to institutions, supportive presidents and industry efforts to hamper civic mobilization and pressures for greater regulation of the soda industry. Methodologically, I employ qualitative single case study analysis, combining an analysis of 26 case study documents and seven in-depth stake-holder interviews. My proposed analytical framework helps to underscore the fact that Coca-Cola's influence is not solely shaped by the corporation's increased economic importance, but more importantly, its access to politicians, institutions and strategies to divide civil society. Additionally, my proposed framework provides several real-world policy recommendations for how governments and civil society can restructure their relationship with the soda industry, such as the government's creation of laws prohibiting the industry's ability to influence NCD policy and fund scientific research.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Política , Bebidas Gaseificadas/economia , Comércio/economia , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Humanos , México , Obesidade/prevenção & controle
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indonesia has the largest population of all countries in southeast Asia. However, little information is available on the oral health status of Indonesian children. The aims of this study were to assess dental caries and erosive tooth wear in 12-year-old children in Jakarta, Indonesia and to investigate the associated risk factors. METHODS: Samples were selected using cluster sampling. Parents were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire regarding their oral health knowledge, demographic information, their child's dietary habits, and oral health-related behaviors. Experience of caries and erosive tooth wear were recorded using the Decayed, Missing (due to caries), and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index and the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) index, respectively. RESULTS: Of 779 children invited, 696 participated in the survey. Of these, 61% had experienced caries, and the mean DMFT score was 1.58. Almost all decay was untreated. Children who were female, who had a high frequency of soft drink intake, and whose father's educational level was low were more likely to have dental caries. Most children had at least one lesion of erosive tooth wear. Children whose mother's educational level was low were more likely to have erosive tooth wear. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental caries and erosive tooth wear was high in 12-year-old children in Jakarta. Their dietary habits and parental level of education were associated with the presence of these dental conditions.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Erosão Dentária , Desgaste dos Dentes , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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