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1.
BMJ ; 372: n254, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in household purchases of drinks and confectionery one year after implementation of the UK soft drinks industry levy (SDIL). DESIGN: Controlled interrupted time series analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Members of a panel of households reporting their purchasing on a weekly basis to a market research company (average weekly number of participants n=22 183), March 2014 to March 2019. INTERVENTION: A two tiered tax levied on manufacturers of soft drinks, announced in March 2016 and implemented in April 2018. Drinks with ≥8 g sugar/100 mL (high tier) are taxed at £0.24/L and drinks with ≥5 to <8 g sugar/100 mL (low tier) are taxed at £0.18/L. Drinks with <5 g sugar/100 mL (no levy) are not taxed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Absolute and relative differences in the volume of, and amount of sugar in, soft drinks categories, all soft drinks combined, alcohol, and confectionery purchased per household per week one year after implementation of the SDIL compared with trends before the announcement of the SDIL. RESULTS: In March 2019, compared with the counterfactual estimated from pre-announcement trends, purchased volume of drinks in the high levy tier decreased by 155 mL (95% confidence interval 240.5 to 69.5 mL) per household per week, equivalent to 44.3% (95% confidence interval 59.9% to 28.7%), and sugar purchased in these drinks decreased by 18.0 g (95% confidence interval 32.3 to 3.6 g), or 45.9% (68.8% to 22.9%). Purchases of low tier drinks decreased by 177.3 mL (225.3 to 129.3 mL) per household per week, or 85.9% (95.1% to 76.7%), with a 12.5 g (15.4 to 9.5 g) reduction in sugar in these drinks, equivalent to 86.2% (94.2% to 78.1%). Despite no overall change in volume of no levy drinks purchased, there was an increase in sugar purchased of 15.3 g (12.6 to 17.9 g) per household per week, equivalent to 166.4% (94.2% to 238.5%). When all soft drinks were combined, the volume of drinks purchased did not change, but sugar decreased by 29.5 g (55.8 to 3.1 g), or 9.8% (17.9% to 1.8%). Purchases of confectionery and alcoholic drinks did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with trends before the SDIL was announced, one year after implementation, the volume of soft drinks purchased did not change. The amount of sugar in those drinks was 30 g, or 10%, lower per household per week-equivalent to one 250 mL serving of a low tier drink per person per week. The SDIL might benefit public health without harming industry. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN18042742.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Alimentícia/economia , Política de Saúde/economia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/economia , Impostos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido
2.
Rev. esp. nutr. comunitaria ; 26(4): 0-0, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200108

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTOS: El consumo de gaseosas se asocia positivamente al padecimiento de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Dicho consumo difiere entre países de distinto nivel de ingreso y entre individuos de distinto nivel socioeconómico. A pesar de gravar el consumo de estas bebidas, Argentina se ubica entre lospaíses de mayor consumo de gaseosa per cápita, lo que motiva estudiar su distribución según región y nivel socioeconómico. MÉTODOS: A partir de 3 encuestas nacionales de gastos de los hogares (1996-2013) se efectúan pruebas de diferencia de medias (test de Welch y Games-Howell al 5%) entre 12 sub-regiones del país y entre deciles de gasto per cápita para el consumo mensual de gaseosa por adulto equivalente. Asimismo, se verifica la presencia de inequidad a partir del cómputo del índice de concentración de Wagstaff. RESULTADOS: Entre las provincias que conforman el noroeste argentino no se encuentran diferencias significativas en el consumo, pero sí entre ellas y las que conforman la Patagonia. Valores positivos del índice de concentración indican que no existe inequidad en el consumo de gaseosas. CONCLUSIONES: Si bien no se verificó inequidad en el consumo en ningún período, la evolución decreciente del índice de concentración indicaría un aumento del consumo entre hogares más pobres


BACKGROUND: Carbonated beverage consumption is positively associated with cardiovascular disease. Such consumption differs between countries of different income levels and between individuals of different socioeconomic levels. Despite taxing the consumption of these drinks, Argentina is among the countries with the highest consumption of soda per capita, which motivates studying its distribution according to region and socioeconomic level. METHODS: From 3 national surveys of household expenditures (1996-2013), mean difference tests (Welch and Games-Howell test at 5%) are carried out between 12 sub-regions of the country and between deciles of per capita spending for the monthly consumption of soda per equivalent adult. Likewise, the presence of inequity is checked from the computation of the Wagstaff concentration index. RESULTS: Among the provinces that are part of the Argentine northwest, there are no significant differences in consumption, but there are differences between them and those that are part of Patagonia. Positive values of the concentration index indicate that there is no inequity in the consumption of carbonated beverage. CONCLUSIONS: Although there was no inequity in consumption in any period, the decreasing evolution of the concentration index would indicate an increase in consumption among poorer households


Assuntos
Humanos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Consumo de Alimentos , Argentina
3.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(5): 895-901, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198003

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: la erosión dental es la pérdida patológica, crónica, localizada e indolora de los tejidos dentarios, producida por la acción química de ácidos y sin la intervención de la acción de microorganismos. En los últimos años se ha observado un incremento significativo de la prevalencia de esta patología, especialmente en niños y adolescentes. OBJETIVOS: determinar la prevalencia de la erosión dental en la dentición temporal mediante el índice Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) en niños de entre 5 y 12 años, y determinar los hábitos de alimentación que pueden favorecer en ellos el desarrollo de lesiones. MÉTODOS: se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en una muestra de 391 niños. Se realizó una encuesta donde se analizaron los hábitos de alimentación, y se realizó una exploración clínica de los dientes temporales empleando el índice BEWE. RESULTADOS: la prevalencia de la erosión dental en la muestra estudiada fue del 19,7 %, presentándose con mayor frecuencia lesiones iniciales. CONCLUSIONES: el 30,62 % de la población estudiada presentaba riesgo bajo de erosión dental, observándose un aumento del riesgo a medida que aumentaba el consumo de bebidas ácidas (bebidas gaseosas, bebidas isotónicas y zumos de frutas) y frutas ácidas, como naranjas, uvas y manzanas


INTRODUCTION: dental erosion is the pathological, chronic, localized and painless loss of dental tissues, produced by the chemical action of acids, where the action of microorganisms is not involved. In recent years, a significant increase in the prevalence of this pathology has been observed, especially in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: to determine the prevalence of dental erosion in temporary dentition using the Basic Erosive Wear Examination Index (BEWE) in children between 5 and 12 years of age, and to determine the eating habits that may favor the development of these lesions. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 391 children. A survey was conducted where eating habits were analyzed and a clinical examination of the temporary teeth was performed using the BEWE index. RESULTS: the prevalence of dental erosion in the studied sample was 19.7 %, with mild lesions being most common. CONCLUSIONS: in all, 30.62 % of the studied population had a low risk of dental erosion, and risk was seen to increase with consumption of acidic beverages (soft drinks, isotonic drinks and fruit juices) and acidic fruits such as oranges, grapes and apples


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Comportamento Alimentar , Erosão Dentária/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Erosão Dentária/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/estatística & dados numéricos , Desgaste dos Dentes/diagnóstico
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239217, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide population has been increasingly exposed to ultra-processed foods, which are associated with obesity. Adolescence is a transition period of life and WHO recommends the surveillance of risk factors to the adolescents' health, such as diet, because experiences in this phase can result in health risks. OBJECTIVE: To assess the trends in food consumption of adolescents from Brazilian capitals according to sociodemographic variables, based on data from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE). METHODS: Data from in 2009, 2012 and 2015 of a total of 173,310 9th graders enrolled in public and private schools in Brazilian capitals and in the Federal District were assessed. Food consumption was assessed from regular consumption (five or more times a week) of healthy eating markers (beans; vegetables; fruit) and unhealthy eating markers (sweets; soft drinks; fried salty snacks). For sociodemographic variables, we considered macro regions; age; race/ skin color; gender; school administrative status. We assessed these markers trends for the population and, additionally, the analyses were stratified by gender, race/ skin color, and school administrative status. Statistical significance of the temporal trends was assessed by linear regression model. RESULTS: Over six years, three types of change in Brazilian adolescents' diet were observed: decreasing regular consumption of beans, sweets and soft drinks, increasing regular consumption of vegetables, and stable consumption of fruit and fried salty snacks. CONCLUSION: Brazilian adolescents' diet composition has changed in a short period, and therefore it is necessary to monitor it to propose actions aimed at this public.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Brasil , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/ética , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tempo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324818

RESUMO

Various diets and food components have been implicated as one of the environmental factors associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients are often recommended nutritional guidelines to manage disease symptoms. However, the current food consumption pattern of US adults with IBD that are nationally representative is unclear. A secondary analysis of National Health Interview Survey 2015 was performed to characterize the estimated US adults with IBD and their food intake and consumption frequency using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Fries were consumed by a greater number of people with IBD. IBD population drank less 100% fruit juice and ate more cheese and cookies than non-IBD population. Intake of fries (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.14-2.25) and sports and energy drinks (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07-1.97) and more frequent drinking of regular soda were significantly associated with the likelihood of having been told one have IBD, while popcorn (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.548-0.971) and milk (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.497-0.998) were associated with smaller odds, adjusting for covariates. Foods typically labeled as junk food were positively associated with IBD. Nonetheless, of the assessed 26 foods, we found eating patterns between IBD and non-IBD population to be mostly analogous. It is unclear whether the results reflect potential change in food intake in IBD population long before the survey interview. Understanding the role of food intake in IBD risk/prevalence would benefit from identifying other environmental factors (i.e. food desert), food processing (i.e. frying), and potential bioactive food components that can induce intestinal inflammation that can increase the individual's susceptibility to IBD.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Energéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 74, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With regard to the increasing consumption rates of unhealthy beverages among adolescents, the main purpose of the present study was to determine the association between beverage intake pattern and dental caries and tooth erosion in this age group. METHODS: A total sample of 600 adolescents was recruited in this study using a multistage cluster random sampling method in the city of Kerman, in the southeast of Iran, in 2017. Then, the Decayed, Missed and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index and the Tooth Wear Index (TWI) were registered for each participant. A Beverage Frequency Questionnaire was also employed to estimate typical beverage intake frequency. Correspondingly, negative binominal regression and logistic regression were performed to determine the independent variables associated with the DMFT index and the TWI. RESULTS: The findings revealed that the highest consumed beverage in daily living was tea in both genders, followed by sweetened soft beverages, as well as milk and kefir/yogurt drink. The results of the DMFT index were also significantly different in participants that had never consumed milk compared with those who had used milk on a daily basis. Moreover, the DMFT index in participants who had never consumed sweetened soft beverages was 39%, less than those who had had a daily intake of such beverages. Also, the chance of tooth erosion for participants who had never used sweetened soft beverages was 94%, lower than that in daily consumers. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study revealed that adolescents had an unhealthy beverage intake pattern. Furthermore, milk consumption was beneficial to dental caries, whereas use of soft drinks associated with more dental caries and tooth erosion.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino
7.
Nutr Health ; 26(1): 3-8, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intake of sugar sweetened soft drinks (SSSD) has decreased among adolescents, but trends in social inequality in SSSD intake are unknown. AIM: Examine trends in social inequality in SSSD intake among adolescents in Denmark during 2002-2018. METHODS: Five Health Behaviour in School-aged Children surveys with data on SSSD intake and parents' occupational social class (OSC) from nationally representative samples of 11, 13 and 15 year olds, n =20,112. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of daily SSSD intake decreased from 10.1% in 2002 to 6.4% in 2018. The prevalence decreased in both high OSC (from 8% to 5%) and middle OSC (from 10% to 6%) but remained around 12% in low OSC. The odds ratio (OR) estimates of low compared with high OSC increased over the years around an overall OR of 2.01 (1.74-2.34). CONCLUSIONS: Danish adolescents' SSSD intake decreased during 2002-2018 and was higher the lower the parents' OSC. Thus, social inequality increased during 2002-2018.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Classe Social , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Pais , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Am J Prev Med ; 58(1): 69-78, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761517

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program is the largest U.S. federally funded nutrition assistance program, providing food assistance to more than 40 million low-income Americans, half of whom are children. This paper examines trends in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among U.S. children and adolescents by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation status. METHODS: Dietary data from 15,645 participants (aged 2-19 years) were obtained from the 2003-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination surveys. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation was categorized as: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participant, income-eligible nonparticipant, lower income-ineligible nonparticipant, and higher income-ineligible nonparticipant. Survey-weighted logistic regressions estimated predicted probabilities of daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and negative binomial regressions estimated predicted per capita daily consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage calories. Data were analyzed in 2019. RESULTS: From 2003 to 2014, there were significant declines across all Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation categories for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (participants: 84.2% to 75.6%, p=0.009; income-eligible nonparticipants: 85.8% to 67.5%, p=0.004; lower income-ineligible nonparticipants: 84.3% to 70.6%, p=0.026; higher income-ineligible nonparticipants: 82.2% to 67.7%, p=0.001) and per capita daily sugar-sweetened beverage calories (participants: 267 to 182 kilocalories, p<0.001; income-eligible nonparticipants: 269 to 168 kilocalories, p<0.001; lower income-ineligible nonparticipants: 249 to 178 kilocalories, p=0.008; higher income-ineligible nonparticipants: 244 to 161 kilocalories, p<0.001). Per capita sports/energy drink consumption increased among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants (2 to 15 kilocalories, p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption has declined for children and adolescents in all Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation categories, but current levels remain high. There were fewer favorable trends over time for consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage subtypes among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants relative to other participant categories.


Assuntos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza , Edulcorantes , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Definição da Elegibilidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Estados Unidos
9.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(12): 1817-1821, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate unhealthy and healthy food consumption and their association with perceived stress in teenagers. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2017 at five educational institutions in Faisalabad, Pakistan, and comprised individuals of either gender aged 13-19 years. Dietary habits were recorded on a proforma and perceived stress scores were calculated using Cohen's perceived stress scale. Multiple regression analysis was used to predict perceived stress scores. RESULTS: Of the226 subjects, 96(42.5%) were males and 130(57.5%) were females. The frequency of consumption per week of sweet snacks, fried foods, soft drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks and vegetables was significantly more in males compared to the females (p<0.05 each). The consumption of such unhealthy food had significant positive relationship with perceived stress scores, while consumption of healthy food, like fresh fruits and vegetables, had a significant negative relationship with it in males only (p<0.05 each). Perceived stress score was primarily predicted by higher consumption of sports drinks (p<0.05) and lower consumption of fresh fruits (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Increased consumption of unhealthy food items and low intake of healthy food could lead to stress in young individuals, especially in males.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Dieta/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Menopause ; 26(11): 1234-1241, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High consumption of soft drinks has been associated with lower bone mineral density among postmenopausal women. This study explores the association of soft drink consumption, osteoporosis, and incidental fractures in this population. METHODS: Cross-sectional (at baseline) and cohort combined designs, over 11.9 years of median follow-up for 72,342 postmenopausal women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between soft drink consumption and hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the association of soft drink consumption with incident hip fractures. RESULTS: There were no associations between soft drink consumption and hip or lumbar spine t scores. During 700,388 person-years of follow-up, 2,578 hip fractures occurred. Adjusted hazard ratios for incident hip fracture for the highest consumption category compared with no consumption were 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.56) for total soda and 1.32 (95% CI 1.00-1.75) for caffeine-free soda. There was no association between caffeinated soda and incident hip fracture (hazard ratio = 1.16; 95% CI 0.86-1.57). There was no apparent linear trend in the risk of hip fracture across categories of soda consumption in the fully adjusted models, suggesting a threshold effect. A sensitivity analysis using adjudicated hip fractures showed significant associations for all three soda exposures in the highest intake groups. CONCLUSIONS: Consuming more than two servings of soft drinks per day on average showed potential associations with higher risk of hip fracture among postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Idoso , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/epidemiologia , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/etiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Saúde da Mulher
11.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 16: E142, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625869

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Each year, millions of people purchase food at highway rest areas. Rest areas are potential sites for health promotion because they are operated by the public sector; they are frequently visited by professional truck drivers, who have a disproportionate burden of chronic disease; and they are easily accessible. To our knowledge, no research has systematically examined the healthfulness of food offerings at rest areas. The objective of this study was to determine the accessibility and healthfulness of food and beverages offered at highway rest areas in North Carolina using a mixed-methods audit and geospatial approach. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional audit of all rest areas offering foods and beverages in North Carolina (N = 30) in summer 2018. We used the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending (NEMS-V) to record the 1) type, price, and size of all foods and beverages and 2) healthfulness of items offered (based on NEMS-V categorization). Two researchers independently double coded NEMS-V data. We used geospatial analysis to examine proximity of rest areas to food stores. We analyzed data by using univariate and bivariate analysis. RESULTS: The mean number of vending machines per site was 8.0 (range, 2-12, standard deviation, 2.8). The healthfulness of offerings varied across sites. Most food items (88.1%; 2,922 of 3,315) and beverage items (63.7%; 1,567 of 2,459) were classified as least healthful. Cold beverage machines had a greater percentage of healthful items (38.2%; 778 of 2,036) than snack machines (11.4%; 374 of 3,270) (P < .001), mainly because of water and diet soda in beverage machines. CONCLUSION: Policy changes are needed to increase the number and presentation of healthful food options at highway rest areas. Policy changes could provide travelers with more healthful options conveniently located along their travel route.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuidores Automáticos de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Valor Nutritivo , Lanches , Bebidas Gaseificadas/normas , Estudos Transversais , Fast Foods/normas , Humanos , North Carolina
12.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223912, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite recent declines in consumption of sugary beverages, energy drinks (ED) and sodas continue to contribute a substantial amount of sugar and caffeine to the diet of youth. Consumption of these beverages has been linked with electronic device use, however in-depth associations between sugar and caffeine intake from energy drinks and sodas with various electronic devices are not clear. OBJECTIVE: Describe the relationship of soda and energy drink consumption and associated added sugar and caffeine intake with electronic device use among adolescents. METHODS: Secondary data from the 2013-2016 cycles of Monitoring the Future Survey, a national, repeated, cross-sectional study, were analyzed. Information on energy drink and soda consumption by students in grades 8 and 10 (n = 32,418) from 252-263 schools randomly sampled from all US states was used. RESULTS: Soda and energy drink consumption decreased each year from 2013-2016 while daily use of electronic devices remained stable. An additional hour/day of TV was linked to a 6.92g (6.31,7.48; p<0.001) increase in sugar intake and a 32% (OR = 1.32; 1.29,1.35; p < .001) higher risk of exceeding World Health Organization (WHO) recommended sugar intakes. Further, each hour/day of TV was linked to a 28% increased risk of exceeding caffeine recommendations (OR = 1.25-1.31; p<0.001). Each hour per day talking on a cellphone was associated with an increased risk of exceeding WHO sugar and caffeine intakes by 14% (OR = 1.11-1.16; p<0.001) and 18% (OR = 1.15-1.21; p<0.001) respectively. Video game use was only weakly linked to caffeine intake. Computer use for school was associated with lower likelihood of exceeding sugar intake cut-offs. CONCLUSION: While a trend towards reduced energy drink and soda intake from 2013-2016 was evident, greater electronic device use, especially TV time, was linked to higher intake of beverage-derived added sugar and caffeine amongst adolescents. Addressing these behaviours through counselling or health promotion could potentially help to reduce excess sugar and caffeine intake from sodas and energy drinks among this population.


Assuntos
Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Eletrônica/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Energéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Açúcares/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Estados Unidos
13.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 13(4): 352-357, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rs9939609 SNP in fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene influence obesity, whose effects might be mediated by lifestyle factors. However, evidence was lacked in early adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the interactions effects of FTO rs9939609 and lifestyle factors on obesity indices in early adolescence. METHODS: The study included 1149 children aged 10-12 years. Their body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) were measured, and lifestyle factors were surveyed through questionnaires. The rs9939609 SNP in the FTO gene was genotyped. RESULTS: Significant associations were found between FTO rs9939609 and obesity indices after adjusting for confounding factors. An interaction effect between rs9939609 and soft drinks was observed with p=0.019 for BMI after adjustment for confounding factors. The children carrying risk allele A had a significantly higher mean BMI (mean=19.67kg/m2) than those carrying only the wild allele T (mean=17.987kg/m2) when they reported a higher intake of soft drinks (≥3 times/week), but the association was not observed among children with a lower intake of soft drinks. No significant interactions were established between appetite, weekday TV viewing, sleep, exclusive breast feeding in the first four months and FTO rs9939609 on BMI or BF%. Bioinformatics revealed that rs9939609 and its linkage disequilibrium (LD) SNPs are potentially implicated in the regulation of gene expression in blood, pancreatic and brain tissue cells. CONCLUSION: FTO rs9939609 had an obvious and independent effect on obesity-related indices in early adolescents. Soft drinks may exert a modifying effect on the relationship between FTO rs9939609 and BMI.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adiposidade/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 32(4): 601-606, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major source of calories, and are associated with adverse health outcomes. Because the majority of studies are undertaken in urban areas, the rural intake of SSB presents a significant gap in current knowledge. The objective of our study was to assess SSB intake in a rural primary care clinic. METHODS: The Beverage Intake Questionnaire is a 15-item self-reported questionnaire and has been extensively validated to assess habitual SSB consumption. The survey was administered to adult primary care clinic patients presenting for routine care over a 6-week period at a clinic in a rural central Nebraska community (population < 1,000). RESULTS: Survey participants (n = 121) were primarily white with an average age of 61 years (SD = 18.0) and an average body mass index (BMI) of 29.9 kg/m2 (SD = 7.5). Participants consumed an average of 1.05 SSBs per day (SD = 1.3), and 33.5% of respondents consumed one or more SSBs per day. The average daily caloric intake from SSBs was 153 Kilocalories (Kcals) compared the national average intake of 145 Kcals. The most commonly consumed caloric beverages, based on Kilocalories consumed, were 100% juice and regular soda. SSB consumption was not related to with BMI. DISCUSSION: In a rural primary care clinic, the daily consumption of SSB by patients was found to be a noteworthy source of calories, with no significant difference in consumption across BMI categories. Mitigation of SSB consumption by rural primary care clinicians is imperative for optimizing health.


Assuntos
Medicina de Família e Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População Rural , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nebraska , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Salud Publica Mex ; 61(4): 486-494, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We tested the effectiveness of the I prefer plain water educational strategy used to increase water consumption in elementary school children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A community intervention trial was performed in eight public elementary schools in Mexico City. The schools were randomized into an intervention (IG) and a control (CG) group. Each school was provided water dispensers inside the classrooms. The IG received the educational strategy. The strategy was considered effective if the students increased their water consumption by ≥220 ml. RESULTS: Water consumption in the IG increased 167 ml vs. 37 ml in CG (p < 0.001). The goal of the educational strategy for water consumption was achieved in 166/413 children in the IG and 95/364 children in the CG (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: I prefer plain water, associated with free access to water inside the classrooms, proved to be effective to increase water consumption.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Ingestão de Líquidos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Estudantes , Animais , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Leite/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 35(8): e3199, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is encouraged by low physical activity (PA), time spent using screens (screen time, ST), and by sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (SSBc). It is also influenced by unfavorable parents' characteristics, such as a high body mass index (BMI) and low education level (EL). Our aim was to evaluate the overall and specific influence of these factors on childhood adiposity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anthropometric parameters including BMI z-score, waist circumference (WC), waist to height ratio (WtHR), and fat mass were measured in a cohort of 1702 schoolchildren (6.0-14.5 years, mean 10.7 ± 1.8) and questionnaires concerning children's PA, ST, and SSBc, and parent's BMI and EL were administered to parents. RESULTS: Overweight/obesity prevalence was higher (P < .0001) in males (57%) than in females (43%). Less physically active children (28.9%) had a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity and higher BMI z-score, WC, WtHR, and fat mass relative to more physically active children (P < .05). PA was negatively associated with the BMI z-score (r = 0.18, P < .0001) and fat mass percentage (r = 0.18, P < .0001). Children with more ST had higher WC and WtHR than non-ST viewers (P < .05) but not BMI. Moreover, SSBc did not influence the anthropometric parameters. At multivariate analysis, male gender, less PA, and parental risk factors (parent's overweight/obesity and low/medium EL) were independently associated with overweight and obesity among childhood with a progressively increasing odds ratio (1.65, 1.40, and 1.80, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Male gender, behavioral risk factors (particularly low PA), and parent's characteristics are important correlates of obesity in children.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Exercício Físico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pais , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Sicília/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Circunferência da Cintura
17.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(9): 1713-1722, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063186

RESUMO

Measurement of neighborhood dietary patterns at high spatial resolution allows public health agencies to identify and monitor communities with an elevated risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Currently, data on diet are obtained primarily through nutrition surveys, which produce measurements at low spatial resolutions. The availability of store-level grocery transaction data provides an opportunity to refine the measurement of neighborhood dietary patterns. We used these data to develop an indicator of area-level latent demand for soda in the Census Metropolitan Area of Montreal in 2012 by applying a hierarchical Bayesian spatial model to data on soda sales from 1,097 chain retail food outlets. The utility of the indicator of latent soda demand was evaluated by assessing its association with the neighborhood relative risk of prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus. The indicator improved the fit of the disease-mapping model (deviance information criterion: 2,140 with the indicator and 2,148 without) and enables a novel approach to nutrition surveillance.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Teorema de Bayes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Indústria Alimentícia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Quebeque , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 16: E62, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095919

RESUMO

Consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages (including soda) has declined nationally, but trends by state are unknown. We used data from the California Health Interview Survey to assess overall changes in soda consumption among adults aged 18 or older from 2011 through 2016 and identified differences by education and income level. Frequency of soda consumption (times per week) declined from 2011 through 2014 by 16.5% but returned to 2011 levels in 2015 and 2016; trends did not differ by education or income. The proportion of the population that consumed soda did not change among adults with less than a high school diploma or equivalent, but declined significantly among those with at least a high school diploma. Our findings suggest that soda consumption remains a pressing public health problem in California.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7162, 2019 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073127

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study utilized the National School Health Survey 2015 database to assess the association between school cafeterias; the meals offered by the Brazilian School Food Program (PNAE); and the consumption of industrialized/ultra-processed salty foods, sweets, and soft drinks among Brazilian adolescents. A sample of 102,072 adolescents, aged 11-19 years, who were enrolled in the 9th grade completed the survey. The evaluated outcome was the consumption of industrialized/ultra-processed salty foods, sweets, and soft drinks. A Poisson regression model-based multivariate analysis was performed. The effect measure was the prevalence ratio (PR) with its respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The results indicated that Brazilian adolescents who attended schools without meals offered through the PNAE had a higher probability of regularly (≥5 times/week) consuming ultra-processed salty foods [PR = 1.06, CI = 1.01-1.11] and soft drinks [PR = 1.08, CI = 1.03-1.14] compared to those who attended schools that offered PNAE meals. Moreover, the presence of a school cafeteria was associated with a higher probability to consume industrialized/ultra-processed salty foods [PR = 1.05, CI = 1.02-1.08], sweets [PR = 1.09, CI = 1.07-1.11], and soft drinks [PR = 1.10, CI = 1.07-1.13]. School meals appear to be associated with the consumption of ultra-processed foods by Brazilian adolescents, indicating areas for health promotion programs.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Refeições , Adolescente , Brasil , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutr Health ; 25(3): 167-171, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alternate-day fasting (ADF) involves a 'famine day' (25% energy intake) and a 'feast day' (ad libitum intake). This secondary analysis examined changes in beverage intake in relation to energy intake and body weight during 12 months of ADF versus daily calorie restriction (CR). METHODS: Obese subjects (n = 100 enrolled, n = 69 completers) were randomized to one of three groups for 12 months: (a) ADF; (b) CR; or (c) control. RESULTS: At baseline, intakes of diet soda, caffeinated beverages, sugar-sweetened soda, alcohol, juice, and milk were similar between groups. There were no statistically significant changes in the intake of these beverages by month 6 or 12 between ADF (feast or famine day), CR, or control groups. Beverage intake was not related to energy intake or body weight at month 6 or 12 in any group. CONCLUSION: These pilot findings suggest that intermittent fasting does not impact beverage intake in a way that affects energy intake or body weight.


Assuntos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Jejum/fisiologia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos Piloto , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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