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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3825-3837, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468676

RESUMO

The study aims to describe the consumption of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages according to sociodemographic, health and location variables. Cross-sectional study with ELSA-Brasil data (2008-2010). A questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, food, health data and anthropometry. Descriptive analysis and association with variables of interest were carried out. In the sample, 8% of the total caloric value comes from non-alcoholic beverages (5.6%: sugary drinks), and 4% from alcoholic beverages (2.7%: beer). Consumers of unsweetened and artificially sweetened beverages reported moderate/strong physical activity, former smokers and higher education. The opposite was true for sugary drinks. Eutrophic people reported higher consumption of sugary drinks and those obese, artificially sweetened and beer. Alcohol consumption varied with age (young: beer; elderly: wine/spirits) and education (low education: beer/spirits; higher education: wine). Coffee, natural juice and soda were the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and beer was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage. Consumption variation was observed according to geographic location. The consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages is high in Brazil and public health strategies are required.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Edulcorantes , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
2.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1177: 338844, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482892

RESUMO

In this work, we describe for the first time the synthesis of a thiocarbazone for the selective determination of Cu2+ in distilled beverages. The method was based on the complexation reaction of Cu2+ with the thiocarbazone, and the colored product was analyzed using a smartphone application. The thiocarbazone reacts with Cu2+ to form a 1:1 (metal:ligand) complex. The Cu2+ complex was characterized by UV, IR and NMR spectral analyses. The proposed reaction yields a yellow color, and therefore, channel B of the RGB system was used in the analysis. After optimizing the reaction conditions, an analytical curve was obtained to determine Cu2+ concentrations ranging between 0.25 and 6.75 mg L-1; the use of 400 µL sample volumes led to a relative standard deviation (n = 5) of 3.2% and a detection limit of 0.18 mg L-1. Recovery experiments were performed with sugar cane spirits, whiskies and tequilas to evaluate the accuracy of the method, and the recovery obtained ranged from 80.5 to 112.2%.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação , Saccharum , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bebidas , Cobre/análise , Grão Comestível/química
3.
J Law Med ; 28(3): 883-904, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369135

RESUMO

This article examines the diverse and sometimes debatable underpinning causes of the growing obesity epidemic both in Australia and globally in order to provide a background that supports and legitimises the implementation of population-based strategies to address the associated negative impacts for both individuals and broader society. Particular focus is given to the consumption of Highly Processed Foods, and Sweetened Sugary Beverages, and the impact that the over-consumption of these products has on obesity and overweight issues. In order to address and mitigate against the negative consequences that emanate from the consumption of such products for both individuals and for broader society, taxation, as one population-based initiative that policymakers can implement is explored by reference to economic based theories. These include the Consumer Choice Constraint Theory, the Indifference Curve approach and the Pigouvian Theory of taxation. These economic theories provide a supportive basis upon which policymakers can effectively implement such an approach.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Epidemias , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Política Pública , Impostos
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(8): 3135-3145, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378704

RESUMO

The study analyzed and compared the types of food sold in the surroundings of 30 private and 26 public elementary schools in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected by audit using a checklist instrument to characterize establishments (formal or informal) and identify the types of food and beverages sold, which were classified by processing level (fresh, processed, and ultraprocessed). Mann-Whitney statistical tests were used to verify the difference in the type of trade outlets d the categories of food sold between schools. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to verify the difference in the amount of food traded between the categories. The amount of ultraprocessed food in the surroundings of public and private schools was statistically higher (p=0.0001) than the other categories. Some culinary preparations had a high rate of energy contribution from ultraprocessed foods (above 15%). There was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.478) in the categories of food sold between public and private schools. The sale of ultraprocessed products predominates around public and private schools, favoring the exposure of children to an environment that encourages the consumption of these products.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Instituições Acadêmicas , Bebidas , Brasil , Criança , Alimentos , Humanos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360482

RESUMO

Canadian, municipally funded recreation/sport facilities typically have unhealthy food environments. Ontario, unlike some provinces, lacks a voluntary recreation facility nutrition policy. This study assessed the healthfulness of food environments and vending sales in 16 Ontario recreation/sport facilities and, secondarily, compared data from facilities within municipalities that banned versus permitted plastic bottled-water sales (water-ban, n = 8; water, n = 8) to test the nutritional effects of environmental policy. Concession and vending packaged food/beverage offerings and vending sales were audited twice, eighteen months apart. The products were categorized using nutrition guidelines as Sell Most (SM), Sell Sometimes (SS), and Do Not Sell (DNS). Both water and water-ban facilities offered predominantly (>87%) DNS packaged food items. However, proportions of DNS and SM concession and vending beverages differed (p < 0.01). DNS beverages averaged 74% and 88% of vending offerings in water and water-ban facilities, respectively, while SM beverages averaged 14% and 1%, respectively. Mirroring offerings, DNS beverages averaged 79% and 90% of vending sales in water versus water-ban facilities. Ontario recreation/sport facilities provided unhealthy food environments; most food/beverage offerings were energy-dense and nutrient-poor. Water bans were associated with increased facility-based exposure to DNS beverage options. A nutrition policy is recommended to make recreation facility food/beverage environments healthier and to mitigate unintended negative consequences of bottled-water bans.


Assuntos
Distribuidores Automáticos de Alimentos , Esportes , Bebidas , Alimentos , Humanos , Política Nutricional , Ontário , Recreação
6.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371971

RESUMO

Although physiologically pain has a protective function, in many diseases, it is one of the most prominent symptoms. Today, new trends are focused on finding more natural alternatives to conventional treatments to alleviate it. Thereby, the purpose of this investigation was to obtain preclinical data of the antinociceptive properties of a lyophilized obtained from a newly designed maqui-citrus beverage alone and added with different sweeteners. To achieve this objective, maqui berry and citrus pharmacological activity were studied separately, as well as the interaction of both ingredients. In addition, due to the controversy generated regarding the intake of sugars, related to different metabolic diseases, the influence of different sweeteners (stevia, sucralose, or sucrose) was studied to determine their possible influence on the bioactive compounds of this product. For the attainment of our goals, a pharmacological evaluation, using the 1% formalin test, a nociceptive pain model in mice, was performed by using a sub-efficacious dosage of Maqui (25 mg/kg, i.p.) alone and combined with citrus, and then compared with the effects obtained in the presence of the different sweeteners. As a result, the antinociceptive response of the maqui was synergized in the presence of citrus in the neurogenic and inflammatory phases of the formalin test. However, this response was partially or totally reduced in the presence of the sweeteners. Our study gives preclinical evidence that a combination of maqui and citrus might exert beneficial actions to relieve pain, whereas the presence of sweeteners could reduce or avoid it.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Citrus , Elaeocarpaceae , Frutas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Analgesia , Animais , Antocianinas/análise , Bebidas , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Flavanonas/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Stevia , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Sacarose/farmacologia
7.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110482, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399478

RESUMO

In Mexico, close to 200 fermented products have been described, of which, approximately 20 are beverages. They were obtained through rustic and ancestral fermentation methods by different indigenous Mexican communities; most of them were used in ceremonies, agricultural work, and other occasions. For their elaboration, different substrates obtained from plants are used, where uncontrolled and low-scale spontaneous anaerobic fermentation occurs. In Mexico, some of these products are considered as nutritional sources and functional beverages; the study of those products has revealed the presence of multiple compounds of biological importance. Additionally, elder generations attribute healing properties against diverse illnesses to these beverages. The aim of this review is to highlight the available information on twelve traditional Mexican fermented beverages, their traditional uses, and their fermentation processes along with toxicological, chemical, nutritional, and functional studies as seen from different areas of investigation. In the literature, pulque, cocoa, and pozol were the beverages with the greatest amount of described health properties; sendechó and guarapo were less characterized. Polyphenols, gallic and ferulic acid, anthocyanins and saponins were the most abundant molecules in all beverages. Finally, it is important to continue this research in order to determine the microorganisms that are involved in the fermentation process, as well as the organoleptic and beneficial properties they lend to the traditional Mexican fermented beverages.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Bebidas , Fermentação , México
8.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110488, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399484

RESUMO

Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is of interest as functional food because of the presence of compounds in its composition with potential health benefits, such as fatty acid omega-3, fiber, lignans and flavonoids. The bioactivity of lignans and flavonoids depends greatly on bacterial metabolism. Previously, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains were described to produce enterolignans and bioactive flavonoids (herbacetin, quercetin, quercetagetin, kaempferol, naringenin and eriodictyol) from flaxseed extracts and/or from secoisolariciresinol (SECO) in culture medium. In this work, cow's milk and soy beverage were supplemented with flaxseed extracts and fermented with selected lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus INIA P224, Limosilactobacillus mucosae INIA P508 and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ESI 144 were capable of producing enterolactone (ENL) in both beverages supplemented with flaxseed, in addition to matairesinol and the flavonoids daidzein, genistein, glycitein, quercetin, naringenin, kaempferol and eriodictyol. On the other hand, Bifidobacterium breve INIA P367, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum INIA P815 and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum INIA P946 were able to produce quercetin, quercetagetin and high concentrations of herbacetin and SECO, in addition to pinoresinol, matairesinol, daidzein, genistein, naringenin, kaempferol and eriodictyol. The co-incubation of Lacticaseibacillus paracasei INIA P74 and Ligilactobacillus salivarius INIA P183 with Lactococcus lactis MG1363 harboring the food grade vector pLEB590.gly913, facilitated the production of ENL in soy beverage enriched with flaxseed. In this work, it is demonstrated how lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains can improve the nutritional properties of flaxseed-enriched beverages, providing metabolites of great interest for human health.


Assuntos
Linho , Lignanas , Animais , Bebidas , Bifidobacterium , Bovinos , Flavonoides , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Lignanas/análise
9.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110493, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399489

RESUMO

Pungency is increasingly being recognized as an important factor of overall sensory quality, palatability, and consumer preference of distilled spirits. The characterization of pungency is necessary to evaluate the potential sensory quality of distilled spirits. In this study, the temporal profiles of pungency of Baijiu with different aging times were evaluated using time-intensity (TI) and temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) methods, considering both pungency intensity and pungency sub-qualities. TI results indicated significant differences in release rate of pungency during Baijiu consumption. Compared to young Baijiu, old Baijiu tend to show higher release rate of pungency, the areas under the curve and duration of pungency were significantly decreased in old Baijiu. The TDS results showed significant differences in the combination of dominant sub-qualities, as well as in the maximum dominance rates and the dominant duration of sub-qualities among Baijiu. The young Baijiu were mainly characterized by the dominant sub-qualities of "burning" and "numbing", whereas for old Baijiu, "burning", "prickle", and "drying" were dominant. The application of TI and TDS provided dynamic and temporal profiles of pungency to fully characterize pungency differences of distilled beverages.


Assuntos
Sensação , Paladar , Bebidas , Comportamento do Consumidor
10.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 59, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sport-related nutritional supplements (SRNSs) include sport drinks, sport bars, and sport gels. Previous studies indicate that 25-35 % of athletes and 25-50 % of military personnel report using these supplements. This study examined prevalence, factors associated with use, and adverse effects (AEs) of SRNSs among United States military service members (SMs). METHODS: A stratified random sample of 200,000 SMs was obtained from military workforce records, and asked to complete a survey on demographics, SRNS use, and AEs experienced. About 18 % (n = 26,681) of contacted SMs (n = 146,365) completed the survey between December 2018 and August 2019. RESULTS: Overall, 45 % of SMs used ≥ 1 SRNS at least once per week in the past 6 months. Prevalence of use (± standard error) for sport drinks, bars, and gels were 32 ± 0.3, 27 ± 0.3, and 3 ± 0.1 %, respectively. Use of 1, 2, or 3 SRNSs was 28.9 ± 0.5, 13.6 ± 0.6, and 2.2 ± 0.6 %, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression indicated greater use of any SRNS was independently associated with male gender, younger age, single marital status, more weekly aerobic or resistance training, tobacco use, higher alcohol intake, officer status, combat arms occupations, and service in the Marine Corps or Navy (compared to the Air Force). Overall, the proportion of users reporting ≥ 1 AE was 2.0 ± 0.1 %, with 1.3 ± 0.1 % for sport drinks, 1.6 ± 0.2 % for sport bars, and 2.8 ± 0.6 % for sport gels. CONCLUSIONS: This large study of a stratified random sample of SMs found that nearly half of SMs consumed SRNSs weekly, and self-reported AEs were comparatively low. The AE incidence for SRNSs was much lower than typically found for dietary supplements, possibly because of more rigorous regulatory oversight for SRNSs.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebidas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Géis , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371952

RESUMO

The distinct Tibetan regional diet is strongly influenced by the regional biogeography, indigenous traditions, popular religious beliefs and food taboos. In the context of the nutritional transition in Tibet, studies seldom report on the food consumption and dietary patterns of Tibetan residents. This is a cross-section study of 552 local adults (≥18 years old, 277 men and 275 women) living in 14 agricultural countries along the Yarlung Tsangpo River. Dietary intakes were assessed by a culturally specific FFQ and compared with the Chinese Dietary Pagoda (2016). Dietary Patterns were extracted by using PCA method. The binary logistic regression model was applied to assess the association between independent variables (genders, regions and age groups) and adherence to dietary patterns. With the exception of meat (100 ± 260 g/day) and soybean nuts (42 ± 12 g/day), which exceeded the recommended dietary intakes of CDP, the dietary intake of other foods were not up to the recommended value. In particular, the intake of aquatic products (2 ± 0.1 g/day), vegetables (90 ± 19 g/day), dairy products (114 ± 29 g/day), cereals (117 ± 27 g/day) and fruits (97 ± 25 g/day) were seriously inadequate, which were 95%, 70%, 62%, 53.2% and 51.5% lower than the recommended intakes, respectively. Four dietary patterns were identified. "Local traditional diet" was characterized by a high intake of tsampa (roasted highland barley flour), culturally specific beverages (sweet tea and yak buttered tea), potato and yak beef and was associated with female, rural and older adults (≥51 years old). The male, urban and 18~30 years old group had a higher adherence score with the "Han diet", which was comprised of rice, pork, dumplings, eggs, milk and cabbage. The "Beverage diet", which mainly include tsampa, chang (homemade barley wine) and sweet tea, was associated with the following group: female, urban and aged 18~30 years. The "Out-sourced diet" pattern, consisting of mainly rice, steam bread and some processed meat, was associated with being male, urban and 18-30 years of age. These findings indicate that the dietary practice of the Tibetan people still has strong local characteristics, but it is also undergoing a dietary transition with the penetration of the Chinese Han diet and the increased consumption of outsourced (processed) foods. The unbalanced dietary intake of Tibetan residents should be taken seriously by all parties.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Bebidas , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Recomendações Nutricionais , Rios , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , Tibet , População Urbana , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371960

RESUMO

Adolescence is a time in life when lifestyle behaviours are acquired. One indicator of poor diet quality is the intake of foods and beverages with a relatively low nutritional value. Using the Australian classification of such foods, termed "discretionary", we classified the intakes of Swedish adolescents who participated in the Riksmaten Adolescent 2016-17 national dietary survey. From selected schools, 3099 adolescents in age groups 11-12, 14-15 and 17-18 years provided two 24-h recalls. Intakes and healthy dietary scores were calculated. Plasma ferritin, folate and 25(OH)D were available for a third. Almost 40% of total energy came from discretionary foods/beverages. Adolescents with higher intakes were more likely to be female, older, from a low socioeconomic position-household and born in Sweden. Most discretionary foods/beverages were consumed on weekend days and during in-between meals, outside of the home and at school. Percent energy from discretionary intake was associated with healthy dietary scores but not nutritional status. A substantial amount of energy was obtained from discretionary foods/beverages, and we found that consumption is pervasive across sociodemographic factors, time and place. Addressing this pattern will require a comprehensive approach to food environments and behaviours to reach all adolescents in an equitable manner.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Nutrientes , Valor Nutritivo , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável , Gorduras na Dieta , Açúcares da Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Estado Nutricional , Lanches , Suécia
13.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444720

RESUMO

Beta glucan is a type of soluble dietary fibre found in oats and barley with known cholesterol-lowering benefits. Many countries globally have an approved beta glucan health claim related to lowering blood cholesterol, an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. However, the use of these claims has not been examined. The aim of this study was to explore the range and variety of oat and barley products in the Australian and global market within a defined range of grain food and beverage categories and examine the frequency of beta glucan health claims. Australian data were collected via a recognised nutrition audit process from the four major Australian supermarkets in metropolitan Sydney (January 2018 and September 2020) and Mintel Global New Product Database was used for global markets where a claim is permitted. Categories included breakfast cereals, bread, savoury biscuits, grain-based muesli bars, flour, noodles/pasta and plant-based milk alternatives and information collected included ingredients lists and nutrition and health claims. Products from Australia (n = 2462) and globally (n = 44,894) were examined. In Australia, 37 products (1.5%) made use of the beta glucan claim (84% related to oat beta glucan and 16% related to barley beta glucan, specifically BARLEYmax®). Of products launched globally, 0.9% (n = 403) displayed beta glucan cholesterol-lowering claims. Despite the number of products potentially eligible to make beta glucan claims, their use in Australia and globally is limited. The value of dietary modification in cardiovascular disease treatment and disease progression deserves greater focus, and health claims are an opportunity to assist in communicating the role of food in the management of health and disease. Further assessment of consumer understanding of the available claims would be of value.


Assuntos
Avena , Colesterol/sangue , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Alimentos , Hordeum , Grãos Integrais , beta-Glucanas , Austrália , Bebidas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta , Alimentos/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444077

RESUMO

The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Strategic Plan 2020-2025 committed to reduce children's consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor food and beverage products high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) and promote healthy eating patterns to reduce malnutrition in all forms. This paper describes the capacity-building needs in PAHO's Member States to restrict the marketing of HFSS food and beverages to children. We asked Ministries of Health officials or national institutes/departmental representatives (n = 35) to complete a 28-item web-based survey (January to July 2020). Capacity-building needs were assessed using an adapted version of the World Health Organization's government capacity-building framework with three modules: public health infrastructure, policies and information systems. Notable achievements for the PAHO's Plan of Action were identified. State representatives reported strong infrastructure and information systems; however, policy improvements are needed to increase comprehensive national responses. These include using a constitutional health and human rights approach within the policies, policies that document conflict of interest from non-state actors, and strengthening regulatory oversight for digital media platforms. These findings provide baseline data and we suggest priorities for further action to strengthen national governments' capacity-building and to accelerate the development, implementation, and monitoring systems to restrict the marketing of HFSS food and non-alcoholic beverages to children in the region of the Americas.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional , Internet , Bebidas , Criança , Alimentos , Governo , Humanos , Marketing
15.
Analyst ; 146(18): 5601-5609, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378566

RESUMO

Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault (DFSA) is a problem of considerable dimensions on a global scale. Among the different compounds used in DFSA assaults, 4-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is one of the most elusive due to its physical and biological characteristics. Therefore, the development of real-time detection methods to detect GHB not only in drinks but also in urine is very important for personal and social security. Here, we report two new heteroditopic chemosensors capable of recognizing and detecting GHB in soft drinks, alcoholic beverages and synthetic urine. The compounds have two moieties: a trifluoroacetyl group and a thiourea, which are able to interact respectively with the hydroxyl and the carboxylic groups present in the GHB structure. In addition, the distance between these two groups has been optimized to allow a double interaction which guarantees the recognition even in very competitive media such as beverages or urine samples.


Assuntos
Oxibato de Sódio , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bebidas/análise , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Hidroxibutiratos/análise
16.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444690

RESUMO

Snacking contributes a significant portion of adolescents' daily energy intake and is associated with poor overall diet and increased body mass index. Adolescents from low socioeconomic status (SES) households have poorer snacking behaviors than their higher-SES counterparts. However, it is unclear if the types of food/beverages and nutrients consumed during snacking differ by SES among adolescents. Therefore, this study examines SES disparities in the aforementioned snacking characteristics by analyzing the data of 7132 adolescents (12-19 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2018. Results reveal that adolescents from low-income households (poverty-to-income ratio (PIR) ≤ 1.3) have lower odds of consuming the food/beverage categories "Milk and Dairy" (aOR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.58-0.95; p = 0.007) and "Fruits" (aOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.50-0.78; p = 0.001) as snacks and higher odds of consuming "Beverages" (aOR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.19-1.76; p = 0.001) compared to those from high-income households (PIR > 3.5). Additionally, adolescents from low- and middle-income (PIR > 1.3-3.5) households consume more added sugar (7.98 and 7.78 g vs. 6.66 g; p = 0.012, p = 0.026) and less fiber (0.78 and 0.77 g vs. 0.84 g; p = 0.044, p = 0.019) from snacks compared to their high-income counterparts. Future research is necessary to understand factors that influence snacking among adolescents, and interventions are needed, especially for adolescents from low-SES communities.


Assuntos
Bebidas/economia , Dieta/economia , Alimentos/economia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Lanches , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Criança , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444509

RESUMO

Point-of-sale policies such as warnings and taxes are promising tools for improving the nutritional quality of food purchases. Research studies conducted in naturalistic store laboratories could improve the quality of evidence about point-of-sale interventions by allowing for realistic exposure in a controlled setting. This study aimed to assess whether purchasing behavior in a naturalistic store laboratory setting was similar to real-life purchasing behavior and to evaluate participants' perceptions of store realism and the acceptability of research study protocols in this setting. In a longitudinal observational study in 2019, Latinx parents in North Carolina (n = 61) attended five weekly visits at the UNC Mini Mart, a naturalistic store laboratory that resembled a small convenience store. At each visit, participants purchased a week's supply of beverages. Purchases of beverages in the Mini Mart were compared to participants' purchases from receipts submitted the week prior to the study. Analyses compared the percentage of participants buying sugary drinks and non-sugary drinks in the Mini Mart vs. in real stores using Chi-Square tests with Fisher's p. The percentage of parents who purchased sugary drinks in the Mini Mart (93%) was not significantly different from the percentage who purchased sugary drinks during the week before the study (74%, p = 0.28). The percentage purchasing non-sugary drinks was similar in the two settings (85% in the Mini Mart vs. 85% from receipts, p = 0.33). Nearly all participants reported that their Mini Mart purchases were similar to real-life purchases (96%); the Mini Mart felt like a real store (94%); they could find all the beverages they were looking for (92%); and they could imagine doing their real-life beverage shopping in the Mini Mart (92%). Moreover, retention was high, with 97% of participants attending the final study visit. These results indicate that naturalistic store laboratories are a promising method for increasing the ecological validity of trials to evaluate point-of-sale interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Laboratórios , Bebidas , Comércio , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Política Nutricional
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444223

RESUMO

Among U.S. adolescents, foods/beverages that are store-bought (i.e., from grocery and convenience stores) are significant contributors of energy intake. However, it remains unclear (1) what foods/beverages are consumed by U.S. adolescents from grocery and convenience stores and (2) if there are differences in foods/beverages consumed by store type. Therefore, we analyzed 29,216 eating occasions from adolescents (12-19 years; n = 4065) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2018 to report food/beverage groups and nutrients consumed from grocery and convenience stores. Differences in food/beverage groups and nutrient densities by store type were calculated using multiple logistic and linear regressions. Adolescents were more likely to consume "Beverages" and "Snacks and Sweets" and less likely to consume "Grains", "Protein", "Milk and Dairy", "Condiments and Sauces", and "Fruits" from convenience compared to grocery stores (all p < 0.0025). Foods/beverages from convenience stores were higher in carbohydrates, total sugar, and added sugar and lower in protein, fat, saturated fat, sodium, and fiber than those from grocery stores (all p < 0.0025). In conclusion, while foods/beverages from convenience stores are more energy-dense and nutrient-poor, there is a critical need to increase the availability, accessibility, and affordability of healthier foods/beverages in both store types to encourage healthier dietary behaviors among U.S. adolescents.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Ingestão de Energia , Adolescente , Comércio , Dieta , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Lanches
19.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444862

RESUMO

Recent studies using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) have used inconsistent approaches to identify and categorize beverages, especially those containing low-calorie sweeteners (LCS), also referred to as low-calorie sweetened beverages (LCSBs). Herein, we investigate the approaches used to identify and categorize LCSBs in recent analyses of NHANES data. We reviewed published studies examining LCS consumption in relation to dietary and health outcomes and extracted the methods used to categorize LCS as reported by the authors of each study. We then examined the extent to which these approaches reliably identified LCSBs using the Internet Archive Wayback Machine to examine beverage ingredients lists across three NHANES cycles (2011-2016). None of the four general strategies used appeared to include all LCSBs while also excluding all beverages that did not contain LCS. In some cases, the type of sweetener in the beverage consumed could not be clearly determined; we found 9, 16, and 18 of such "mixed" beverage identifiers in the periods 2011-2012, 2013-2014, and 2015-2016, respectively. Then, to illustrate how heterogeneity in beverage categorization may impact the outcomes of published analyses, we compared results of a previously published analysis with outcomes when "mixed" beverages were grouped either all as LCSBs or all as sugary beverages. Our results suggest that caution is warranted in design and interpretation of studies using NHANES data to examine dietary and health correlates of sweetened beverage intake.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente/classificação , Bebidas/classificação , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Edulcorantes/análise , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente/análise , Bebidas/análise , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estados Unidos
20.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208742

RESUMO

Nutritional ketosis is a state of mildly elevated blood ketone concentrations resulting from dietary changes (e.g., fasting or reduced carbohydrate intake) or exogenous ketone consumption. In this study, we determined the tolerability and safety of a novel exogenous ketone diester, bis-hexanoyl-(R)-1,3-butanediol (BH-BD), in a 28-day, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial (NCT04707989). Healthy adults (n = 59, mean (SD), age: 42.8 (13.4) y, body mass index: 27.8 (3.9) kg/m2) were randomized to consume a beverage containing 12.5 g (Days 0-7) and 25 g (Days 7-28) of BH-BD or a taste-matched placebo daily with breakfast. Tolerability, stimulation, and sedation were assessed daily by standardized questionnaires, and blood and urine samples were collected at Days 0, 7, 14, and 28 for safety assessment. There were no differences in at-home composite systemic and gastrointestinal tolerability scores between BH-BD and placebo at any time in the study, or in acute tolerability measured 1-h post-consumption in-clinic. Weekly at-home composite tolerability scores did not change when BH-BD servings were doubled. At-home scores for stimulation and sedation did not differ between groups. BH-BD significantly increased blood ketone concentrations 1-h post-consumption. No clinically meaningful changes in safety measures including vital signs and clinical laboratory measurements were detected within or between groups. These results support the overall tolerability and safety of consumption of up to 25 g/day BH-BD.


Assuntos
Butileno Glicóis/farmacologia , Cetose/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Bebidas , Glicemia/análise , Butileno Glicóis/administração & dosagem , Butileno Glicóis/efeitos adversos , Butileno Glicóis/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Corpos Cetônicos/sangue , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
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