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1.
Food Chem ; 398: 133896, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986998

RESUMO

Over the last decade, isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) using up to 5 light stable isotopes (13C/12C, 2H/1H, 15N/14N, 18O/16O, 34S/32S) has become more widely applied for food origin verification as well as food authentication in China. IRMS technology is increasingly used to authenticate a range of food products including organic foods, honey, beverages, tea, animal products, fruits, oils, cereals, spices and condiments that are frequently unique to a specific region of China. Compared to other food authenticity and traceability techniques, IRMS has been successfully used to characterize, classify and identify many Chinese food products, reducing fraud and food safety problems and improving consumer trust and confidence. IRMS techniques also provides scientific support to enhance China's strict government regulatory policies. Isotope testing verifies geographical origin labelling of domestic and imported foods, protects and verifies high value foods that are unique to China, and indicates environmentally friendly farming practices such as 'green' or 'organic' methods. This paper reviews recently published Chinese research to highlight the recent advances of IRMS as a regulatory and verification tool for Chinese food products.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Mel , Animais , Bebidas/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Geografia , Mel/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
2.
Food Chem ; 398: 133951, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987009

RESUMO

In this paper, we developed a sensor for on-site measuring beverage sucrose level based on cascade enzyme particles and a blood glucose meter. The cascade enzyme particles with sucrose hydrolyzing capability were prepared by co-precipitation of manganese carbonate, in which the stability of the enzymes was substantially enhanced by the particle encapsulation effect. The quantitative measurement of glucose produced by the hydrolysis of sucrose was performed using a commercial glucose meter, a commonly owned electrochemical device in homes, greatly improving detection accuracy and expanding applications. Actual sample testing demonstrated the high sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor, allowing for accurate detection of sucrose in beverages. This sensing strategy can also be further expanded to a variety of analytical assays, using blood glucose meters for portable quantitative testing.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Glicemia , Bebidas , Catálise , Glucose , Sacarose
3.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274210, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054131

RESUMO

Increased resting systemic anti-inflammatory responses have previously been reported after a period of progressive resistance training (PRT) with daily consumption of a high-protein dairy beverage. The study aimed to investigate the independent and combined effects of consuming a high protein dairy milk beverage with or without a PRT on markers of intestinal epithelial integrity and selected systemic inflammatory responses in active older (≥50 yrs) adults. Thirty two (males n = 24, females n = 8) active older adults [mean (SD): Age 62 (7) years, weight 74.2 (14.0) kg, height 1.73 (10.0) cm, BMI 24.9 (4.0) kg/m2, and body fat mass: 25.8 (9.1)%)], that reported exercising ≥3/week (211 (91) min/week) were randomly allocated into one of four groups: dairy milk (DM), exercise and dairy milk (EX+DM), exercise alone (EX), and control (CON). Groups with EX underwent 12-weeks whole-body PRT program (x3 sessions/week), groups with DM consumed the beverage twice daily (30g protein/day), and CON was required to carry out their ad libitum dietary and exercise habits. Plasma concentrations of CRP, IL-1ß, IL-1ra, LBP, and sCD14 were determined by ELISA from samples collected at weeks 0, 6, and 12. Data were analyzed (SPSS v25.0) for group and time differences using a two-way repeated-measures ANOVA with post hoc analysis. No significant differences were observed for any of the measured plasma biomarkers. The previously observed increase in anti-inflammatory cytokine response is likely due to a muscular cellular response and not an indication of intestinal epithelial integrity disturbance and/or subsequent translocation of luminal originated pathogenic bacterial compounds.


Assuntos
Leite , Treinamento de Força , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Bebidas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica
4.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(9): 570-577, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062244

RESUMO

The World Health Organization recommends economic measures such as taxes on tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy foods and beverages as part of a comprehensive strategy for prevention of noncommunicable diseases. However, progress in adopting these so-called health taxes has been hampered, in part, by different approaches and perceptions of key issues in different sectors of government. Health promotion is the responsibility of health policy-makers, while taxation is the mandate of finance ministries. Thus, strengthening cooperation between health and finance policy-makers is central to the successful adoption and implementation of effective health taxes. In this paper we identify the shared concerns of finance and health policy-makers about health taxes with the aim of enabling more effective cross-sector cooperation towards both additional financing for health systems and changes in unhealthy behaviours. For example, new approaches to supporting health taxation include the growing priority for health-system financing due to the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases, and the need to address the health and economic damage due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. As a result, high-level efforts to achieve progress on health taxes are gaining momentum and represent important progress towards using the combined expertise of health and finance policy-makers.


L'Organisation mondiale de la Santé recommande l'adoption de mesures économiques telles que des taxes sur le tabac, l'alcool ainsi que les boissons et aliments nocifs pour la santé dans le cadre d'une vaste stratégie de prévention des maladies non transmissibles. Cependant, les progrès en la matière ont rencontré des obstacles, notamment en raison de la différence d'approche et de perception des principaux enjeux à divers niveaux du gouvernement. La promotion de la santé relève de la politique sanitaire, tandis que la taxation est la mission du ministère des Finances. Accentuer la coopération entre les responsables de la santé et des finances est donc indispensable à la réussite de l'instauration et de la mise en œuvre de taxes sanitaires efficaces. Dans le présent document, nous identifions les préoccupations partagées tant par les responsables de la santé que par ceux des finances concernant les taxes sanitaires, dans le but d'intensifier la collaboration entre les secteurs. Objectif: débloquer des fonds supplémentaires pour les systèmes de santé et favoriser l'abandon des comportements nuisibles à la santé. Parmi les nouvelles approches de soutien aux taxes sanitaires, citons par exemple une plus grande priorité accordée au financement du système de santé afin de réduire la charge croissante que font peser les maladies non transmissibles, et la nécessité de réparer les dégâts économiques et sanitaires causés par la pandémie de maladie à coronavirus 2019. Ainsi, les efforts visant à développer les taxes sanitaires gagnent du terrain et représentent une avancée considérable vers une valorisation de l'expertise conjointe entre ministère de la Santé et ministère des Finances.


La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda la adopción de medidas económicas como los impuestos sobre el tabaco, el alcohol y los alimentos y bebidas poco saludables como parte de una estrategia global de prevención de las enfermedades no transmisibles. Sin embargo, los avances en la adopción de estos llamados impuestos saludables se han retrasado, en parte, por los diferentes enfoques y percepciones de las cuestiones clave en los distintos sectores del gobierno. La promoción de la salud es competencia de los responsables de formular las políticas sanitarias, mientras que la fiscalidad es el mandato de los ministerios de Hacienda. Por lo tanto, el fortalecimiento de la cooperación entre los responsables de formular las políticas sanitarias y financieras es fundamental para el éxito de la adopción y aplicación de sistemas fiscales sanitarios eficaces. En este documento, se identifican las preocupaciones que comparten los responsables de formular las políticas financieras y sanitarias en relación con los impuestos saludables, con el fin de permitir una cooperación intersectorial más eficaz, tanto en lo que respecta a la financiación adicional de los sistemas sanitarios como a la modificación de los comportamientos poco saludables. Por ejemplo, entre los enfoques nuevos para apoyar la fiscalidad sanitaria se encuentran la creciente prioridad de la financiación de los sistemas sanitarios debido a una mayor carga de enfermedades no transmisibles, y la necesidad de solucionar los daños sanitarios y económicos debidos a la pandemia de la enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019. En consecuencia, los esfuerzos de alto nivel para lograr avances en materia de impuestos saludables están cobrando impulso y representan un avance importante hacia el uso de la experiencia combinada de los responsables de formular las políticas sanitarias y financieras.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Bebidas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Alimentos , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Impostos
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1753, 2022 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unhealthy diets are a leading contributor to obesity, disability and death worldwide. One factor cited as contributing to rises in obesity rates is the pervasive and ubiquitous marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages (F&Bs) across a variety of mediums, such as sport sponsorship at both professional and amateur levels. Despite increased academic attention on the detrimental impacts of sport sponsorship within the obesogenic environment, this has not been matched by legislative action. One explanation may be the way that F&B corporations' sport sponsorship is framed within policy debates. Framing is the deliberate ways in which (often contested) issues are presented in communication. This paper examines how sport sponsorship by F&B corporations is framed through media reports. METHODS: This study employed a mixed methods content and framing analysis. First, we conducted a quantitative newsprint content analysis (n = 234). This then informed and directed a thematic framing analysis of a sub-set of articles (n = 54) that specifically associated sport sponsorship by F&B corporations with obesity and childhood obesity. RESULTS: The findings suggest that two competing frames are evident within newspaper coverage: 1) public health and 2) industry. The public health frame rejects the sponsorship of sport by High in Fat Sugar and Salt (HFSS) product corporations in particular, calling for such sponsorship to be restricted or banned. The industry frame characterises sponsorship of sport as a form of corporate social responsibility, positioning industry as good moral actors and part of the solution to childhood and adult obesity. These frames are evident across other Unhealthy Commodity Industries (UCIs) policy debates. However, the prominence of industry actors within the sample is potentially indicative of their discursive power within this space, particularly with their emphasis on the financial maintenance of sport as well as encouraging physical activity, contributing to the lack of regulatory development of sport sponsorship by F&B corporations. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study are particularly useful for public health organisations who seek regulatory change, as it may provide further insight into countering industry framing practices, raising the salience of regulation of sport sponsorship and thus increasing the likelihood of regulatory development that seeks to improve population health.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Esportes , Adulto , Bebidas , Criança , Alimentos , Humanos , Açúcares
6.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(9): 803-815, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098082

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> Beetroot juice is a biological antioxidant and acts as health-promoting minerals as well as soluble fibres and vitamins. This study aimed to encapsulate the Beetroot Juice Powder (BJP) by the conjugate sodium caseinate (NaCas) and Maltodextrin (MD) to protect it from environmental conditions. Produced flavoured acid beverage using BJP encapsulated using conjugates. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> Nano-encapsulation of BJP (20, 30, 40 mg g<sup></sup><sup>1</sup>) and determine the encapsulation efficiency, size and zeta potential. Rats were divided into 4 groups as follows, negative control, positive control and 2 test groups that received free BJP or encapsulated BJP. All rats except the negative control group were injected with CCl<sub>4</sub> twice a week. <b>Results:</b> The NaCas-MD conjugate has the advantage over the NaCas-MD complex of higher stability and BJP binding, also showing high encapsulation efficiency (>93.75%) of different levels of BJP. The flavoured beverage from the addition of BJP encapsulated by conjugate has better sensory and technological properties than fortified with BJP in the complex. Injection with CCl<sub>4</sub> leads to a decrease in body weight, serum parameters including, protein, albumin, GSH, CAT and SOD, also increase ALT, AST, ALP and liver weight. Moreover, a variable pathological alteration in liver tissue was found. At the end of the experiment receiving encapsulated beetroot juice led to improvement in all above body and liver weight, all biochemical parameters and histopathological elevation. <b>Conclusion:</b> Thus, it could be concluded that flavoured beverage containing BJP encapsulated by conjugate is of acceptable quality and high antioxidant activity. Also, it has a remarkable protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Substâncias Protetoras , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bebidas , Aromatizantes/farmacologia , Fígado , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos , Verduras
7.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 118, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Participatory approaches to develop community-based system dynamics models to tackle complexity are promising, but research is needed in how simulation models can be developed with community stakeholders to yield significant system insights. This study presents the results of a community-based system dynamics modelling process to increase water consumption and decrease sugar sweetened beverage consumption in Portland, Victoria, a regional town in Australia. METHODS: A series of group model building workshops with 11 community stakeholders addressing the topic of water and sugar sweetened beverage consumption was conducted in Portland. A simulating system dynamics model was built with stakeholders to inform action planning. RESULTS: A system dynamics model was created to provide insight into water and sugar sweetened beverage consumption in Portland. The model included six feedback loops describing the causal effects of sugar sweetened beverage consumption habits and norms, water taste, water consumption norms, public water availability, and public health benefits. For example, the sugar sweetened beverage consumption norm loop modelled how people overestimating others' consumption may motivate an increase in their own consumption, feeding back and further amplifying an increase in sugar sweetened beverage consumption. The model contributed to the foundation of a strong partnership to improve the taste of water and educate the public on water consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Engaging stakeholders in system dynamics modelling about water and sugar sweetened beverage consumption increased engagement and collaboration to address the problem among community stakeholders.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Bebidas , Ingestão de Líquidos , Humanos , Vitória , Água
8.
Pediatr Ann ; 51(9): e370-e372, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098611

RESUMO

The obesity epidemic remains a major public health issue worldwide, and it is pronounced in the United States. As rates of obesity continue to increase, children now experience obesity at younger ages, which predisposes them to early-onset obesity-related diseases. Of note, Black and Hispanic children experience obesity at higher rates compared with their White counterparts. Although there are many factors that contribute to higher rates of obesity, the increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is one such contributor. Despite the dire state of obesity in these populations, sugar-sweetened beverage companies continue to increase their advertisements to Black and Hispanic children, which can negatively influence the childhood obesity epidemic. This article discusses the effect that sugar-sweetened beverages and their advertisements have on children in underrepresented communities. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51(9):e370-e372.].


Assuntos
Publicidade , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas/análise , Criança , Sacarose na Dieta , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Açúcares/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078625

RESUMO

The promotion of nutritionally poor food and beverages (F&B) has a proven effect on children's eating preferences and, therefore, plays a significant role in today's childhood obesity epidemic. This study's objective was to assess the prevalence (exposure) and context (power) of the F&B cues in influencer content across three platforms: TikTok, YouTube, and Instagram. The selected influencers were popular with adolescents, with a combined total of more than 34 million followers/subscribers. We employed the YouTube Influencer Marketing Protocol from the World Health Organization (WHO) as our basis for coding. We analysed a total of 360 videos/posts and, of these, 24% contained F&B cues, which is equivalent to 18.1 F&B cues/hour. In total, 77% of the cues were not permitted for children's advertising, according to WHO criteria, and this was stable across all platforms, with chocolate and sugary confectionery (23%) as the most frequently featured products. Not-permitted F&B had a four-times higher chance of being branded, a five-times higher chance of being described positively, and received significantly more 'likes'. In 62% of the analysed presentations, the branded product was mentioned, yet only 6% of the content was labelled as advertising. The present analysis delivers further grounds for discussion for policies and regulations of influencer marketing.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Publicidade , Bebidas , Criança , Alimentos , Humanos , Marketing , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia
10.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079788

RESUMO

Selenium is a trace element essential for the proper functioning of human body. Since it can only be obtained through our diet, knowing its concentrations in different food products is of particular importance. The measurement of selenium content in complex food matrices has traditionally been a challenge due to the very low concentrations involved. Some of the difficulties may arise from the abundance of various compounds, which are additionally present in examined material at different concentration levels. The solution to this problem is the efficient separation/preconcentration of selenium from the analyzed matrix, followed by its reliable quantification. This review offers an insight into cloud point extraction, a separation technique that is often used in conjunction with spectrometric analysis. The method allows for collecting information on selenium levels in waters of different complexity (drinking water, river and lake waters), beverages (wine, juices), and a broad range of food (cereals, legumes, fresh fruits and vegetables, tea, mushrooms, nuts, etc.).


Assuntos
Água Potável , Selênio , Oligoelementos , Bebidas/análise , Água Potável/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Água Doce/análise , Humanos , Selênio/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Verduras/química
11.
Rev. flum. odontol ; 3(59): 107-116, set.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1390758

RESUMO

Nowadays there is an increase in the consumption of acidic drinks, especially the fermented ones. Its ingestion is closely associated with the demineralization of superficial dental tissues, which characterizes dental erosion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pH of industrialized and natural drinks. The sample consisted of soft drinks, natural and artificial juices, fermented drinks, isotonic drinks and energy from different commercial brands acquired in the city of Niterói (RJ). The products were kept at room temperature (25oC) for 1 hour and were aliquoted 3 mL of each drink to a Becker to measure pH in a specific electrode coupled to a potentiometer. The readings were performed in triplicate. The mean pH ranged from 2.34 to 4.31, the most acidic drink was the refrigerant and the less acidic, the curd. It was found that all drinks analyzed had an acidic pH. Thus, potentially erosive dental structures.


Atualmente, há um aumento no consumo de bebidas ácidas, especialmente as fermentadas. Sua ingestão está intimamente associada à desmineralização dos tecidos dentários superficiais, o que caracteriza a erosão dentária. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial erosivo de bebidas industrializadas e naturais. A amostra de conveniência foi constituída de refrigerantes, sucos naturais e artificiais, bebidas fermentadas, isotônicos e energéticos de diferentes marcas comerciais adquiridas no município de Niterói (RJ). Os produtos foram mantidos em temperatura ambiente (25oC) durante 1 hora e foram aliquotados 3 mL de cada bebida para um Becker para a mensuração de pH em eletrodo específico acoplado a um potenciômetro. As leituras foram realizadas em triplicata. Os valores médios de pH variaram de 2,34 a 4,31, sendo a bebida mais ácida um refrigerante e a menos ácida, a coalhada. Constatou-se que todas as bebidas analisadas apresentaram um pH ácido e abaixo do crítico para a dissolução do esmalte, sendo estas potencialmente erosivas das estruturas dentárias.


Assuntos
Erosão Dentária , Bebidas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Esmalte Dentário
12.
Nutrients ; 14(16)2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014844

RESUMO

Sugar intake may increase the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dental caries. In Taiwan, people frequently consume sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). This study explored the energy and sugar content of Taiwanese SSBs and evaluated them using the Chilean warning label system (>70 kcal/100 mL and >5 g sugar/100 mL) and the World Health Organization (WHO) sugar guideline (≤25 g sugar). A total of 341 SSBs with volumes ≤600 mL were analyzed. No significant differences were observed in sugar per serving among different types of SSBs, but a great variation in portion size (i.e., package size for individual consumption) was noted. The energy and sugar ratios per serving were lower in soft drinks and coffee and tea containing >1 serving than in those containing only one serving. The calorie and sugar ratios per portion were higher in all types of SSBs containing >1 serving per portion than in those containing exactly one serving. Approximately 70.0% of Taiwanese SSBs were classified as high sugar according to the Chilean criteria, and 41.6% of SSBs exceeded the WHO guideline. Moreover, 40.8% of SSBs that were not considered as high sugar according to the Chilean criteria contained >25 g sugar per portion. For individual consumption, it is more clear that nutrition labeling is based on portion rather than serving. Evaluating SSBs on sugar/portion rather than sugar/100 mL will help consumers make better choices.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Açúcares , Taiwan
13.
Nutrients ; 14(16)2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014849

RESUMO

A high level of sugar intake has been linked to poor dietary quality and a wide range of chronic diseases. However, data on sugar intake are still scarce in China. This study aimed to provide time trends in the total and added sugar intakes among Chinese children and adolescents from 1997 to 2011. A nationwide ongoing open prospective cohort study of Chinese children and adolescents aged 3-17 years (n = 13,212) was conducted by using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 1997-2011 (six 1-year cycles). An individual dietary intake was collected from three consecutive 24-h recalls during randomly allocated home visits. Data for total and added sugar contents were determined based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28 (SR28), the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2015-2016, and the labeled ingredients and nutrient contents. General linear regression was used to estimate time trends. Over the 15-year period, total sugar and added sugar intakes increased among all age groups studied (3-17 years: total sugar increased from 11.2 ± 0.3 g/d to 28.1 ± 0.5 g/d, added sugar increased from 1.0 ± 0.1 g/d to 7.2 ± 0.3 g/d; 3-6 years: 9.5 ± 0.6 g/d to 25.1 ± 0.9 g/d, 1.3 ± 0.2 g/d to 6.9 ± 0.4 g/d; 7-12 years: 11.4 ± 0.5 g/d to 28.1 ± 0.8 g/d, 0.9 ± 0.1 g/d to 7.1 ± 0.5 g/d; 13-17 years: 11.8 ± 0.4 g/d to 31.4 ± 1.1 g/d, 1.0 ± 0.2 g/d to 7.6 ± 0.6 g/d) (all p for trend < 0.001). Adolescents aged 13-17 years had the highest total sugar intake, and children aged 3-6 years had the highest added sugar intake, except for 2011. Children and adolescents living in urban areas and who were overweight had much higher total and added sugar intakes than those residing in rural areas and of non-overweight/obesity. Furthermore, the dietary sources of total and added sugars have become more diverse over the study period. In conclusion, we observed a notable rise in total and added sugar intakes among children and adolescents across all age groups, both genders, both urban and rural areas, and all BMI categories, with dietary sources of total and added sugars becoming more diverse in China over 15 years.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Ingestão de Energia , Adolescente , Bebidas/análise , Criança , China , Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Açúcares
14.
J Nutr Sci ; 11: e64, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35992571

RESUMO

Marketing influences consumers' dietary purchases. However, little is known about marketing environments in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-authorised stores. The present study explored SNAP-authorised store marketing environments in Louisiana by rurality, store ownership and store type (n 42). Sampling methods were designed to include randomly selected stores in each geographic area of the state. The GroPromo was used to measure placement, promotion, and child-focused aspects of marketing strategies used for healthier (fruits and vegetables) and less healthy products (chips, candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, child-focused cereal) in medium- and high-prominence marketing areas. In using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) (P < 0⋅05) for data analysis, variations in GroPromo scores were found among SNAP-authorised stores by rurality (P < 0⋅05) and store ownership (P < 0⋅001); no differences were found by store type (P > 0⋅05). Future research, practice and policy strategies are required to understand the influence of marketing environments on SNAP participants' dietary quality and to design responsive public health interventions.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar , Bebidas , Comércio , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Marketing , Pobreza
15.
N Z Med J ; 135(1560): 67-76, 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35999800

RESUMO

AIM: To assess adoption of the voluntary National Healthy Food and Drink Policy (NHFDP) and the alignment of individual institutional healthy food and drink policies with the NHFDP. METHOD: All 20 district health boards (DHBs) and two national government agencies participated. Policies of those organisations that had not fully adopted the NHFDP were assessed across three domains: nutrition standards; promotion of a healthy food and beverages environment; and policy communication, implementation and evaluation. Three weighted domain scores out of 10, and a total score out of 30 were calculated. RESULTS: Nine of the 22 organisations reported adopting the NHFDP in full. Of the remaining 13, six referred to the NHFDP when developing their institutional policy and three were working toward full adoption of the NHFDP. Mean scores (SD) were 8.7 (1.0), 6.1 (2.6) and 3.8 (2.2) for the three domains, and 18.6 (4.8) in total. Most individual institutional policies were not as comprehensive as the NHFDP. However, some contained stricter/additional clauses that would be useful to incorporate into the NHFDP. CONCLUSION: Since a similar policy analysis in 2018, most DHBs have adopted the NHFDP and/or strengthened their own nutrition policies. Regional inconsistency remains and a uniform mandatory NHFDP should be implemented that incorporates improvements identified in individual institutional policies.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Política Nutricional , Bebidas , Órgãos Governamentais , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Nova Zelândia
16.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 273, 2022 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35978398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the association between beverages and a single cardiometabolic disease has been well studied, their role in disease progression from the single cardiometabolic disease state to cardiometabolic multimorbidity (CMM) state remains unclear. This study examined the associations between three types of beverages: sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs), and pure fruit/vegetable juices, and the incidence of CMM in patients with a single cardiometabolic disease. METHODS: Our analysis included 37,994 participants from the UK Biobank who completed at least one dietary questionnaire and were diagnosed with only one cardiometabolic disease at the time of recruitment. Competing risk models were used to examine the association between the three types of beverages and incidence of CMM. We conducted analysis both in patients with any single cardiometabolic disease and in patients with specific cardiometabolic disease. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 9.1 years (interquartile range [IQR] 9.0-9.8), a total of 6399 participants developed CMM. The consumption of SSBs and ASBs (>1 serving per day) was associated with a higher risk of CMM (SSBs: hazard ratio [HR] 1.19, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.08-1.31; ASBs: HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04-1.27). Intake of pure fruit/vegetable juices was inversely associated with the incidence of CMM (0-1 serving per day: HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85-0.94; >1 serving per day: HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.81-0.99). However, the association of the high-level consumption of pure fruit/vegetable juices (>1 serving per day) was not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing. In the analysis of patients with specific cardiometabolic diseases, positive associations were observed in patients with hypertension for SSBs consumption, while inverse associations persisted in patients with cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease or stroke) and in hypertensive patients for pure fruit/vegetable juice consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Consuming >1 serving of SSBs and ASBs per day was associated with a higher risk of CMM in patients with a single cardiometabolic disease. In contrast, intake of pure fruit/vegetable juices was inversely associated with the risk of CMM. Our findings highlight the need to limit the use of SSBs and ASBs in patients with a single cardiometabolic disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Multimorbidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Edulcorantes , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1458, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food and beverage advertising has been identified as a powerful determinant of dietary intake and weight. Available evidence suggests that the preponderance of food and beverage advertising expenditures are devoted to the promotion of unhealthy products. The purpose of this study is to estimate food advertising expenditures in Canada in 2019 overall, by media and by food category, determine how much was spent on promoting healthier versus less healthy products and assess whether changes in these expenditures occurred between 2016 and 2019. METHODS: Estimates of net advertising expenditures for 57 selected food categories promoted on television, radio, out-of-home media, print media and popular websites, were licensed from Numerator. The nutrient content of promoted products or brands were collected, and related expenditures were then categorized as "healthy" or "unhealthy" according to a Nutrient Profile Model (NPM) proposed by Health Canada. Expenditures were described using frequencies and relative frequencies and percent changes in expenditures between 2016 and 2019 were computed. RESULTS: An estimated $628.6 million was spent on examined food and beverage advertising in Canada in 2019, with television accounting for 67.7%, followed by digital media (11.8%). In 2019, most spending (55.7%) was devoted to restaurants, followed by dairy and alternatives (11%), and $492.9 million (87.2% of classified spending) was spent advertising products and brands classified as "unhealthy". Fruit and vegetables and water accounted for only 2.1 and 0.8% of expenditures, respectively, in 2019. In 2019 compared to 2016, advertising expenditures decreased by 14.1% across all media (excluding digital media), with the largest decreases noted for print media (- 63.0%) and television (- 14.6%). Overall, expenditures increased the most in relative terms for fruit and vegetables (+ 19.5%) and miscellaneous products (+ 5%), while decreasing the most for water (- 55.6%) and beverages (- 47.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite a slight drop in national food and beverage advertising spending between 2016 and 2019, examined expenditures remain high, and most products or brands being advertised are unhealthy. Expenditures across all media should continue to be monitored to assess Canada's nutrition environment and track changes in food advertising over time.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Gastos em Saúde , Bebidas , Canadá , Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Internet , Televisão , Verduras , Água
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1502, 2022 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Price discount is an unregulated obesogenic environmental risk factor for the purchasing of unhealthy food, including Sugar Sweetened Beverages (SSB). Sales of price discounted food items are known to increase during the period of discounting. However, the presence and extent of the lagged effect of discounting, a sustained level of sales after discounting ends, is previously unaccounted for. We investigated the presence of the lagged effect of discounting on the sales of five SSB categories, which are soda, fruit juice, sport and energy drink, sugar-sweetened coffee and tea, and sugar-sweetened drinkable yogurt. METHODS: We fitted distributed lag models to weekly volume-standardized sales and percent discounting generated by a supermarket in Montreal, Canada between January 2008 and December 2013, inclusive (n = 311 weeks). RESULTS: While the sales of SSB increased during the period of discounting, there was no evidence of a prominent lagged effect of discounting in four of the five SSB; the exception was sports and energy drinks, where a posterior mean of 28,459 servings (95% credible interval: 2661 to 67,253) of excess sales can be attributed to the lagged effect in the target store during the 6 years study period. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that studies that do not account for the lagged effect of promotions may not fully capture the effect of price discounting for some food categories.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos , Açúcares , Supermercados
19.
Food Microbiol ; 107: 104058, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953169

RESUMO

Efforts have been focusing on the way to overcome the impact of heating on food quality while achieving the desired shelf life. In this sense, the thermosensitization of E. coli using the natural antimicrobials vanillin (V; 0.8 and 1.0 g/L) or/and emulsified citral (C; 0.012 and 0.025 g/L) was assessed at 58 and 60 °C in blended carrot-orange juice (pH 4.0; 9.0°Brix). All combined treatments exceeded the inactivation achieved by the single thermal treatments in half the time. The inactivation of the binary treatments (V or C + heating) at 58 °C was 3.84-0.62 log-cycles more effective than the control, particularly with vanillin. Ternary treatments (V + C + heating) at 58 °C increased the microbial reduction approximately 30%; however, at 60 °C no further inactivation was observed, suggesting the thermal effect prevailed. This was verified by the higher b Weibullian parameter and the narrower frequency distributions. The selected treatments 1.0 V + 0.012C at 58 and 60 °C were challenged against the pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 and found to be effective. Additionally, the microbiota of the juice was maintained at acceptable levels during storage (4 °C). In conclusion, there was an increase in the heat sensitivity of E. coli due to the natural antimicrobials, particularly vanillin at 58 °C. Therefore, reducing the intensity of the thermal processing will lead to clean label, high-quality juices, while addressing food safety requirements.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Daucus carota , Escherichia coli O157 , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Benzaldeídos , Bebidas , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Daucus carota/química , Escherichia coli O157/fisiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta
20.
Food Microbiol ; 107: 104069, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953188

RESUMO

Food microbial diversity and fluxes during the fermentation processes are well studied whereas phages-bacteria interactions are still poorly described in the literature. This is especially true in fermented beverages, and especially in cider, which is an alcoholic fermented apple beverage. The transcriptomic and proteomic responses of the lactic acid bacterium (LAB) Liquorilactobacillus mali UCMA 16447 to a lytic infection by phage UCMA 21115, both isolated from cider, were investigated, in order to get a better understanding of phages-bacteria interactions in such fermented beverage. During phage infection, 122 and 215 genes were differentially expressed in L. mali UCMA 16447 strain at T15 and T60 respectively, when compared to the uninfected condition. The same trends were confirmed by the proteomic study, with a total of 28 differentially expressed proteins found at T60. Overall, genes encoding cellular functions, such as carbohydrate metabolism, translation, and signal transduction, were downregulated, while genes involved in nucleotide metabolism and in the control of DNA integrity were upregulated in response to phage infection. This work also highlighted that phage infection repressed many genes involved in bacterial cell motility, and affected glycolysis.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Lactobacillales , Bactérias , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bebidas/microbiologia , Fermentação , Bebidas Fermentadas , Lactobacillales/genética , Proteômica
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