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1.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003245, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beverages, especially sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), have been increasingly subject to policies aimed at reducing their consumption as part of measures to tackle obesity. However, precision targeting of policies is difficult as information on what types of consumers they might affect, and to what degree, is missing. We fill this gap by creating a typology of beverage consumers in Great Britain (GB) based on observed beverage purchasing behaviour to determine what distinct types of beverage consumers exist, and what their socio-demographic (household) characteristics, dietary behaviours, and weight status are. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used cross-sectional latent class analysis to characterise patterns of beverage purchases. We used data from the 2016 GB Kantar Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) panel, a large representative household purchase panel of food and beverages brought home, and restricted our analyses to consumers who purchase beverages regularly (i.e., >52 l per household member annually) (n = 8,675). Six categories of beverages were used to classify households into latent classes: SSBs; diet beverages; fruit juices and milk-based beverages; beer and cider; wine; and bottled water. Multinomial logistic regression and linear regression were used to relate class membership to household characteristics, self-reported weight status, and other dietary behaviours, derived from GB Kantar FMCG. Seven latent classes were identified, characterised primarily by higher purchases of 1 or 2 categories of beverages: 'SSB' (18% of the sample; median SSB volume = 49.4 l/household member/year; median diet beverage volume = 38.0 l), 'Diet' (16%; median diet beverage volume = 94.4 l), 'Fruit & Milk' (6%; median fruit juice/milk-based beverage volume = 30.0 l), 'Beer & Cider' (7%; median beer and cider volume = 36.3 l; median diet beverage volume = 55.6 l), 'Wine' (18%; median wine volume = 25.5 l; median diet beverage volume = 34.3 l), 'Water' (4%; median water volume = 46.9 l), and 'Diverse' (30%; diversity of purchases, including median SSB volume = 22.4 l). Income was positively associated with being classified in the Diverse class, whereas low social grade was more likely for households in the classes SSB, Diet, and Beer & Cider. Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) was more prevalent in the class Diet (41.2%, 95% CI 37.7%-44.7%) despite households obtaining little energy from beverages in that class (17.9 kcal/household member/day, 95% CI 16.2-19.7). Overweight/obesity (BMI > 25 kg/m2) was above average in the class SSB (66.8%, 95% CI 63.7%-69.9%). When looking at all groceries, households from the class SSB had higher total energy purchases (1,943.6 kcal/household member/day, 95% CI 1,901.7-1,985.6), a smaller proportion of energy from fruits and vegetables (6.0%, 95% CI 5.8%-6.3%), and a greater proportion of energy from less healthy food and beverages (54.6%, 95% CI 54.0%-55.1%) than other classes. A greater proportion of energy from sweet snacks was observed for households in the classes SSB (18.5%, 95% CI 18.1%-19.0%) and Diet (18.8%, 95% CI 18.3%-19.3%). The main limitation of our analyses, in common with other studies, is that our data do not include information on food and beverage purchases that are consumed outside the home. CONCLUSIONS: Amongst households that regularly purchase beverages, those that mainly purchased high volumes of SSBs or diet beverages were at greater risk of obesity and tended to purchase less healthy foods, including a high proportion of energy from sweet snacks. These households might additionally benefit from policies targeting unhealthy foods, such as sweet snacks, as a way of reducing excess energy intake.


Assuntos
Bebidas/economia , Comércio/tendências , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Adulto , Animais , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Cerveja , Peso Corporal , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável , Características da Família , Feminino , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Renda , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Leite , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/psicologia , Reino Unido , Vinho
2.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(10): 782-789, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors' aim was to examine the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and the prevalence and severity of the caries experience in children and adults in the United States. METHODS: The authors analyzed data obtained from 14,192 people aged 2 through 74 years, who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2011 through 2014. Using descriptive analyses, the authors assessed the distributions of sociodemographic characteristics overall and via SSB intake. The authors used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the association of untreated and severe untreated caries with SSB consumption in all age groups. RESULTS: Across all ages, male participants were more likely than female participants to consume SSBs, and consumption was higher in non-Hispanic black and Hispanic populations. Relative to those who did not consume SSBs, people aged 20 through 44 years who consumed SSBs had significantly higher odds of having untreated caries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.55) and severe untreated caries (AOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.60). Adolescents aged 9 through 19 years had significantly higher odds of having untreated caries (AOR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.80), and middle-aged adults (45-64 years) had significantly higher odds of severe untreated caries (AOR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.92) relative to those who did not consume SSBs. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of SSBs was associated with increased caries experience among young children and increased risk of developing untreated caries in all age groups of children and adults. Continued efforts by policy makers, public health leaders, and clinicians to reduce consumption of SSBs across the life span are paramount.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(6): 657-661, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842282

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and preschoolers' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Methods: In June 2018, all preschoolers from 15 kindergartens were selected from the jurisdiction of Education Commission in Dongcheng District of Beijing by using an equal-proportion stratified cluster sampling method in the study. A self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the parents of preschoolers to obtain the basic information of preschoolers and parents, the consumption situation of preschoolers' sugar-sweetened beverages and the perception of parents to SSB. A tatol of 3 217 preschoolers were finally included in the analysis. A generalized structural equation model was used to analyze the relationship between preschoolers' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and their parents' socioeconomic status and the mediating effect of their cognition of sugar-sweetened beverages. The size of mediating effect was estimated by using deviation correction non-parameter percentile Bootstrap method. Results: The age of 3 217 preschoolers was (4.23±0.67) years, of which 52.6% (n=1 692) were boys, and 77.62% (n=2 497) were SSB consumers. Among the parents of 3 217 preschoolers, fathers and mothers accounted for 24.90% (n=801) and 75.10% (n=2 416), and the M (P25, P75) scores of SES were 66.7 (62.5, 69.5) and 69.5 (64.6, 71.4), respectively. The proportion of parents who took the initiative to learn about their children's consumption of SSB, lacked confidence in restricting preschooler's consumption of SSB and read nutrition labels before purchasing food was 74.08% (n=2 383), 82.90% (n=2 667) and 36.24% (n=1 166), respectively. The generalized structural equation model showed that after adjusting for preschoolers' gender, age, body mass index (BMI) of preschoolers and their parents, preschoolers' consumption of SSB was negatively associated with their parents' SES score [path coefficient (95%CI):-4.69×10-2 (-6.56×10-2,-2.69×10-2) ]. The mediating effect of parents' perception of SSB consumption could explain 48.71% of the total effect [path coefficient (95%CI):-2.28×10-2 (-3.54×10-2, -1.10×10-2)]. Conclusion: The consumption of SSB in preschoolers is negatively associated with their parent's SES, and this relationship is partially mediated by parent's perception of SSB consumption.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Pequim , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Classe Social
4.
Am J Dent ; 33(4): 191-195, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794393

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the surface roughness and hardness of thermopolymerized acrylic resin incorporated with nanostructured silver vanadate (AgVO3) subjected to saliva and beverages. METHODS: The 128 specimens (5×5×2 mm) were prepared in thermopolymerized acrylic resin, according to the AgVO3 concentrations (n=32): 0%, 2.5%, 5% and 10%. The roughness and hardness were analyzed before and after immersion in saliva, Coca-Cola, orange juice and red wine, for 12 and 24 days. 2-way ANOVA and Bonferroni test (α= 0.05) were performed. RESULTS: After 12 days, Coca-Cola caused the highest roughness increase in the 2.5% group. The 10% group with saliva presented a higher roughness increase (P= 0.009). The control presented a decrease in roughness when in beverages (P< 0.05). After 24 days, orange juice and Coca-Cola produced a higher decrease in roughness in the control group (P< 0.05). After 12 days, saliva and wine produced a higher decrease in hardness of the 2.5% group (P< 0.05). Coca-Cola produced a decrease in hardness and wine an increase in hardness in the group with 10% AgVO3 concentration (P< 0.05). After 24 days, the group with 2.5% presented the highest decrease in hardness (P< 0.05). The immersions produced decreased hardness in the acrylic resin. Initially, there was an increase in roughness, however, over time, it decreased. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The control of oral biofilm is fundamental for the maintenance of the patient's oral health; however the incorporation of antimicrobial nanomaterial into prosthetic materials frequently exposed to saliva and beverages in the oral cavity interfered with the physical-mechanical properties of the products tested.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Saliva , Resinas Acrílicas , Bebidas , Dureza , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
5.
Food Chem ; 331: 127326, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674069

RESUMO

A precise and accurate GC-MS/MS method with ng L-1 LLOQs, acceptable recovery (78-107%) and estimated uncertainty (U > 20%, except at LLOQ) was developed following the Eurachem guidelines. We established the migration and stability of twelve bisphenols in two food simulants (C: 20% ethanol, and B: 3% acetic acid) from beverage cans (n = 16) and reusable metal and plastic sports bottles (n = 51). Bisphenols were stable in dried (eight weeks, -20 °C) and derivatised extracts (seven days, 21 °C). Cans leached BPA (<5865 ng L-1), three BPF isomers (8.2-1286 ng L-1) and BPAP (1.6 ng L-1), while bottles leached BPA (<222 ng L-1) and BPF, BPE, BPB and BPZ (1.1-4.6 ng L-1). Simulant C was more aggressive than simulant B, and concentrations of bisphenols decreased with consecutive exposure to simulants. Levels of BPA migrating from cans did not exceed the specific migration limits.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Bebidas/análise , Reutilização de Equipamento , Embalagem de Alimentos , Fenóis/química , Esportes , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461276, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709328

RESUMO

The monodisperse pillar[5]arene-based polymeric sub-microsphere was prepared by polycondensation of hydroxylated pillar[5]arene and cyanuric chloride through a one-pot reaction in mild condition. The preparation was realized by a simple two-step temperature-programmed process without heating operation. The obtained polymeric sub-microsphere exhibited monodisperse and regular spherical structure with uniform particle size distribution of 220-320 nm accounting for 94%. The prominent adsorption capacity of the polymeric sub-microsphere for antioxidants was demonstrated and attributed to the synergistic effect of the cladding interaction with the π-electron rich cavity and hydrophilic interaction with terminal hydroxyl on pillar[5]arene. Then the pillar[5]arene sub-microsphere was packed into a micro-column to realize effective on-line enrichment of antioxidants coupling with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The flow rate of extraction and desorption solvent, clean-up and desorption volume were assessed to optimize the method. The method showed wide linear ranges with R2 greater than 0.9926, low limits of detection (0.030-0.20 µg/L) and limits of quantification (0.10-0.67 µg/L). The developed method was successfully applied to determine trace antioxidants in the migration of food contact materials with simulated solution, which demonstrated the promising potential of this method for practical analysis. Furthermore, the migration behavior of antioxidants from food packaging materials into different food matrix was also investigated.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Calixarenos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Microesferas , Sistemas On-Line , Polímeros/química , Adsorção , Bebidas/análise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Tamanho da Partícula , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solventes
7.
Food Chem ; 332: 127409, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615388

RESUMO

This work reports a new method to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of infusions and beverages, based on superoxide radicals. Radicals produced by the enzymatic reaction between acetylcholinesterase and hypoxanthine oxidized antioxidant molecules present in commercially available samples or standard solutions, which was monitored by means of cyclic voltammetry using a carbon paste electrode. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of red wine, coffee and green tea determined using this method were: (1.20 ± 0.06), (0.90 ± 0.02), and (0.65 ± 0.02), respectively. This method suggested TEACred wine > TEACcoffee > TEACgreen tea, which is the same as DPPH, spectrophotometric method. However, the electrochemical one proposed here is rapid and simple.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Bebidas/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Superóxidos/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Café/química , Eletrodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hipoxantina/química , Hipoxantina/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Chá/química , Vinho/análise , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 332: 127370, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645673

RESUMO

Rhodoxanthin is a scarcely explored carotenoid with an extraordinarily large chromophore and high potential to function as red pigment. We report broad ranges of color shades accessible with rhodoxanthin across an unprecedented wide range of (E/Z)-ratios by thermal (E/Z)-isomerization, lyotropic aggregation, and two different formulation techniques, covering shares of the (all-E)-configured isomer of 19-91%. At (E/Z)-ratios of 75 and 23%, rhodoxanthin (E/Z)-isomer mixtures in acetone revealed color hues (CIE-h°) ranging from 20-44° to 36-54°. Lyotropic aggregation of rhodoxanthin (E/Z)-isomer mixtures in acetone/water yielded red (CIE-h° = 29°) to purple (-7°) and red-orange (44°) to pink (9°) color hues at (all-E)-proportions of 73 and 20%, respectively. Red and purple color hues were produced by micronization using solvent-based emulsification (CIE-h° = 33-37°) and high-performance wet-milling (-6°). The presented technological strategies for formulating nature-identical rhodoxanthin into water-dispersible forms showed its potential as promising pigment for imparting red, pink, and purple color to foods and beverages.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Alimentos , Xantofilas/química , Cor , Estereoisomerismo
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 331: 108786, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659617

RESUMO

Sweet orange essential oil is obtained from the peels of Citrus sinensis (CSEO) by cold pressing, and used as a valuable product by the food industry. Nanoencapsulation is known as a valid strategy to improve chemical stability, organoleptic properties, and delivery of EO-based products. In the present study we encapsulated CSEO using chitosan nanoemulsions (cn) as nanocarrier, and evaluated its antimicrobial activity in combination with mild heat, as well as its sensorial acceptability in orange and apple juices. CSEO composition was analyzed by GC-MS, and 19 components were identified, with limonene as the predominant constituent (95.1%). cn-CSEO was prepared under low shear conditions and characterized according to droplet size (<60 nm) and polydispersity index (<0.260 nm). Nanoemulsions were stable for at least 3 months at 4 ± 2 °C. cn-CSEO were compared with suspensions of CSEO (s-CSEO) (0.2 µL of CSEO/mL) in terms of antibacterial activity in combination with mild heat (52 °C) against Escherichia coli O157:H7 Sakai. cn-CSEO displayed a greater bactericidal activity than s-CSEO at pH 7.0 and pH 4.0. The validation in fruit juices showed an improved bactericidal effect of cn-CSEO in comparison with s-CSEO when combined with mild heat in apple juice, but not in orange juice. In both juices, the combination of CSEO and mild heat exerted synergistic lethal effects, reducing the treatment time to cause the inactivation of up to 5 Log10 cycles of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai cells. Finally, the sensory characteristics of both juices were acceptable either when using s-CSEO or CSEO nanoemulsified with chitosan. Therefore, as a promising carrier for lipophilic substances, the encapsulation of EOs with chitosan nanoemulsions might represent an advantageous alternative when combined with mild heat to preserve fruit juices.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Emulsões/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bebidas/microbiologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Citrus sinensis/química , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Emulsões/química , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Temperatura Alta , Malus/microbiologia
10.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003221, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In October 2019, Mexico approved a law to establish that nonalcoholic beverages and packaged foods that exceed a threshold for added calories, sugars, fats, trans fat, or sodium should have an "excess of" warning label. We aimed to estimate the expected reduction in the obesity prevalence and obesity costs in Mexico by introducing warning labels, over 5 years, among adults under 60 years of age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Baseline intakes of beverages and snacks were obtained from the 2016 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey. The expected impact of labels on caloric intake was obtained from an experimental study, with a 10.5% caloric reduction for beverages and 3.0% caloric reduction for snacks. The caloric reduction was introduced into a dynamic model to estimate weight change. The model output was then used to estimate the expected changes in the prevalence of obesity and overweight. To predict obesity costs, we used the Health Ministry report of the impact of overweight and obesity in Mexico 1999-2023. We estimated a mean caloric reduction of 36.8 kcal/day/person (23.2 kcal/day from beverages and 13.6 kcal/day from snacks). Five years after implementation, this caloric reduction could reduce 1.68 kg and 4.98 percentage points (pp) in obesity (14.7%, with respect to baseline), which translates into a reduction of 1.3 million cases of obesity and a reduction of US$1.8 billion in direct and indirect costs. Our estimate is based on experimental evidence derived from warning labels as proposed in Canada, which include a single label and less restrictive limits to sugar, sodium, and saturated fats. Our estimates depend on various assumptions, such as the transportability of effect estimates from the experimental study to the Mexican population and that other factors that could influence weight and food and beverage consumption remain unchanged. Our results will need to be corroborated by future observational studies through the analysis of changes in sales, consumption, and body weight. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we estimated that warning labels may effectively reduce obesity and obesity-related costs. Mexico is following Chile, Peru, and Uruguay in implementing warning labels to processed foods, but other countries could benefit from this intervention.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Embalagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Obesidade/economia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Lanches
11.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003220, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In June 2016, the first phase of the Chilean Food Labelling and Advertising Law that mandated front-of-package warning labels and marketing restrictions for unhealthy foods and beverages was implemented. We assess foods and beverages reformulation after this initial implementation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A data set with the 2015 to 2017 nutritional information was developed collecting the information at 2 time periods: preimplementation (T0: January-February 2015 or 2016; n = 4,055) and postimplementation (T1: January-February 2017; n = 3,025). Quartiles of energy and nutrients of concern (total sugars, saturated fats, and sodium, per 100 g/100 mL) and the proportion of products with energy and nutrients exceeding the cutoffs of the law (i.e., products "high in") were compared pre- and postimplementation of the law in cross-sectional samples of products with sales >1% of their specific food or beverage groups, according to the Euromonitor International Database; a longitudinal subsample (i.e., products collected in both the pre- and postimplementation periods, n = 1,915) was also analyzed. Chi-squared, McNemar tests, and quantile regressions (simple and multilevel) were used for comparing T0 and T1. Cross-sectional analysis showed a significant decrease (T0 versus T1) in the proportion of product with any "high in" (from 51% [95% confidence interval (CI) 49-52] to 44% [95% CI 42-45]), mostly in food and beverage groups in which regulatory cutoffs were below the 75th percentile of the nutrient or energy distribution. Most frequent reductions were in the proportion of "high in" sugars products (in beverages, milks and milk-based drinks, breakfast cereals, sweet baked products, and sweet and savory spreads; from 80% [95% CI 73-86] to 60% [95% CI 51-69]) and in "high in sodium" products (in savory spreads, cheeses, ready-to-eat meals, soups, and sausages; from 74% [95% CI 69-78] to 27% [95% CI 20-35]). Conversely, the proportion of products "high in" saturated fats only decreased in savory spreads (p < 0.01), and the proportion of "high in" energy products significantly decreased among breakfast cereals and savory spreads (both p < 0.01). Quantile analyses showed that most of the changes took place close to the cutoff values, with only few exceptions of overall left shifts in distribution. Longitudinal analyses showed similar results. However, it is important to note that the nonexperimental nature of this study does not allow to imply causality of these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that, after initial implementation of the Chilean Law of Food Labelling and Advertising, there was a significant decrease in the amount of sugars and sodium in several groups of packaged foods and beverages. Further studies should clarify how food reformulation will impact dietary quality of the population.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Nutrientes , Publicidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods , Embalagem de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Estudos Prospectivos , Açúcares
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461307, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709350

RESUMO

In this study, the ultrasonic-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction (UA-d-SPE) method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied for the analysis of phthalate esters in drinking water and distilled herbal beverages (Rosa, Mentha, Cichorium). A new nanocomposite based on layered double hydroxide supported on graphene oxide was synthesized and modified by sulfonated polyaniline via a simple one-pot in-situ polymerization method. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposite was confirmed by means of complementary techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of key parameters including adsorbent mass, type and amount of back extraction solvent, extraction and desorption time, pH of the solution and ionic strength were optimized and good precision and sensitivity were achieved. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection were between 0.06-0.3 ng mL-1 in aqueous solutions. The hybrid nanomaterial exhibited good adsorption ability toward phthalates in drinking water and distilled herbal beverages. The relative standard deviations (RSD%) for beverage samples varied from 0.1% to 9.9% (n = 3). The relative recoveries varied from 54.5% to 112.6%.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/química , Bebidas/análise , Grafite/química , Hidróxidos/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Ultrassom/métodos , Adsorção , Ésteres/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanocompostos/química , Concentração Osmolar , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Preparações de Plantas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solventes/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Fatores de Tempo , Difração de Raios X
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635599

RESUMO

Within the home environment, parents influence their children's dietary intakes through their parenting and dietary practices, and the foods they make available/accessible. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the associations between home environmental characteristics and children's dietary intakes. Three hundred and thirty-two children aged three-five years and their parents participated in the study. Home environmental characteristics, including parental control feeding practices, were explored using validated and standardized questionnaires such as the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), the Physical and Nutritional Home Environment Inventory (PNHEI) and the Healthy Home Survey (HHS). Parent and child food consumption was also measured. Pressure to eat from parents was associated with lower fruit intake in children (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.96, p = 0.032). Greater variety of fruit available in the home increased the likelihood of fruit consumption in children (OR 1.35 95% CI 1.09-1.68, p = 0.005). Watching television for ≥1 h per day was associated with a decreased probability of children eating vegetables daily (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20-0.72, p = 0.003) and doubled their likelihood of consuming confectionary/sugar-sweetened beverages more than once weekly (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.06-4.38, p = 0.034). Children whose parents had lower vegetable consumption were 59% less likely to eat vegetables daily. This study demonstrates that modifiable home environmental characteristics are significantly associated with children's dietary intakes.


Assuntos
Dieta , Frutas , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Verduras , Bebidas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Saúde da Família , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 329: 108665, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497789

RESUMO

Simultaneous treatment with 222-nm KrCl excilamp and mild heating (EX-MH) at 45, 50 and 55 °C showed synergistic bactericidal effects on non-acid and acid adapted cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in apple juice. In particular, acid-adapted pathogens exhibited increased resistance to EX-MH compared to pathogenic bacteria that were not acid-adapted. Also, elucidation of the synergistic bactericidal mechanism of EX-MH was performed through several assays and this mechanism was described as follows: (i) when KrCl excilamp (EX) and mild heating (MH) are applied simultaneously, MH reversibly inactivates the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), thereby increasing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by EX and thus inducing synergistic ROS generation, (ii) ROS production induces lipid peroxidation occurrence in the cell membrane, (iii) this lipid peroxidation occurrence in the cell membrane induces synergistic destruction of cell membrane, resulting in synergistic cell death. While EX-MH of 45, 50, or 55 °C reduced E. coli O157:H7 (the pathogen most resistant to EX-MH) in apple juice by 5-log, the qualities such as color (L*, a*, and b*), total phenolic compounds (TPC), and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of apple juice did not change significantly (P > 0.05). This study not only suggests the applicability of EX-MH to the apple juice industry, but also can be used as baseline data for future relevant research.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Calefação , Viabilidade Microbiana , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Bebidas/microbiologia , Cloro/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Criptônio/química , Criptônio/farmacologia , Malus/microbiologia
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1623: 461204, 2020 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505292

RESUMO

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were used as an extractant for the determination of pyrethroids in environmental water and tea beverage samples. Three different acids were chosen as hydrogen bond donors for preparation of DESs, and decanoic acid was optimal because of its high recovery. Factors affecting relative recovery were optimized individually, including salt addition, surfactant addition, extraction temperature, DES amount, and sample volume etc. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the relative recovery of pyrethroids was from 89.3% to 97.7%, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ranging from 1.75% to 2.73%. The linear correlation coefficient ranged from 0.9981 to 0.9992, and the linear range was between 1.9 and 500 µg/L. Based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3:1, the limit of detection (LOD) values were 0.56 to 1.24 µg/L. The enrichment factor ranged from 92 to 105. In conclusion, good extraction efficiency was achieved in tea beverage samples under the optimized conditions.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Emulsões/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Piretrinas/análise , Solventes/química , Chá/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Tensoativos/química , Temperatura , Água/química
16.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(2): 94-102, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Oral health can affect quality of life in all course of life, which is a key factor of general health. Dental caries, periodontitis and oral cancer are of the highest burden of oral diseases. Rising prevalence of soft drinks and alcoholic beverages consumption due to easy access and socio-demographic altering has increased the concerns on oral health. In this review our purpose was to show effects of the most consumed beverages on oral health in people older than 15 years. METHODS: The review was based on papers published in last 10 years, searched with combined key words related to types of drinks and specific oral health problems. We included 4 older studies due to lack of newer studies on subjected topics. RESULTS: Sugar-free soft drinks are found less cariogenic and erosive than regular versions in limited number of studies. Alcohol consumption is shown as one of the risk factors of prevalence and severity of periodontitis and is proven to have synergistic effects along with tobacco on oral cancer risk. Consumption of soft drinks and alcoholic beverages was related with tooth loss whether dental caries or periodontal diseases. CONCLUSION: There is good evidence for association between soft drinks and oral health problems, but still no clear answer exists about strength of association between sugar-free soft drinks and dental caries. Also the knowledge about influence of alcohol is inadequate. Since consuming style affects erosive potential of drinks manufacturers should be required to add some recommendations on labels about drinking style.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Saúde Bucal , Bebidas , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
17.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(7): 502-509, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of sugared beverages on dental caries has been widely studied in dental literature. A major limitation of these studies was examining the beverages as a single source. To overcome this limitation, a few studies used cluster analysis to group people into similar beverage consumption patterns. These studies did not differentiate between sugared beverages and diet drinks. Therefore the aim of this study is to examine the effect of consuming diet drinks on dental caries among US children by using cluster analysis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the authors analyzed the dietary data of children aged 3 through 10 years, using 2 24-hour recall interviews in the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Cluster analysis has been used to overcome the limitations of examining the beverages as a single source. Clusters were identified based on the R2 statistic and the local peak of pseudo-F statistics. Survey procedure and sample weights were used to account for the complex National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sampling design. RESULTS: Six beverage consumption clusters were identified: high soda, high 100% juice, high juice drinks, high diet drinks, high milk, and high water. Regression analysis showed that the high soda cluster had a tendency to increase caries risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.1), while the high diet drinks cluster had neutral effect compared with the high water cluster (OR, 0.94, 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.8). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that diet drinks have no adverse effect on teeth among US children. Additional well-designed longitudinal studies should be conducted to establish the effect of diet drinks on caries when consumed during childhood. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Although this study did not show an association between caries and diet drinks, dental practitioners should be cautious about recommending these drinks, as they have been linked to systemic diseases. In addition, the American Academy of Pediatrics and National Academy of Medicine do not recommend that children consume these beverages.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Animais , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Bebidas , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Odontólogos , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Papel Profissional , Estados Unidos
18.
Food Chem ; 331: 127311, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569967

RESUMO

A magnetic hydrophilic molecularly imprinted material (MIM) with multiple stimuli-responses was prepared for efficient recognition of bisphenol A (BPA). MIM consisted of a magnetic core, an inner silica dioxide shell and an outer hydrophilic polymer shell, responsive for rapid magnetic separation, protection of the magnetic core and pH-/thermo-sensitivity to BPA, respectively. Controlled adsorption and release of BPA by pH/temperature regulation were realized through the reversible components of poly[N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (NIPAM-DMAEMA)] (PND). The resultant MIM possessed superior affinity, selectivity and kinetics to BPA in aqueous solution. MIM was successfully applied to detect BPA in beverages via dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), exhibiting satisfactory recoveries of 80.70-108.18% with relative standard deviations (RSD) below 6.08%. The limit of detection of BPA was obtained as low as 3.75 nmol/L. The versatile MIM could be a promising alternative for extraction/removal of BPA in complicated samples by multiple-stimuli regulations.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Bebidas/análise , Imãs/química , Impressão Molecular , Fenóis/química , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/síntese química , Adsorção , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/isolamento & purificação , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Metacrilatos/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Dióxido de Silício/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
19.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(5): 177, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592045

RESUMO

Food and drinks are commonly used to facilitate administration of paediatric medicines to improve palatability and enhance patient compliance. However, the impact of this practice on drug solubility and on oral drug bioavailability is not usually studied. Based on recommended strategies for oral administration of paediatric medicines with food and drink vehicles, the aims of this study were (i) to measure the physicochemical properties of (soft) food and drink vehicles, commonly mixed with paediatric medicines prior to administration, and (ii) to assess the impact of the co-administered vehicles on the solubility of two poorly soluble paediatric drugs. Montelukast (sodium) and mesalazine were selected as the model compounds. Distinct differences were observed between the physicochemical properties (i.e. pH, surface tension, osmolality, viscosity and buffer capacity) and macronutrient composition (i.e. fat, sugar and protein content) of the different soft foods and drinks, not only among vehicle type but also within vehicles of the same subtype. Solubility studies of the two model compounds in selected drinks and soft foods resulted in considerably different drug solubility values in each vehicle. The solubility of the drugs was significantly affected by the vehicle physicochemical properties and macronutrient composition, with the solubility of montelukast being driven by the pH, fat and protein content of the vehicles and the solubility of mesalazine by vehicle osmolality, viscosity and sugar content. This vehicle-dependent impact on drug solubility could compromise its bioavailability, and ultimately affect the safety and/or efficacy of the drug and should be taken into consideration during paediatric product development.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Composição de Medicamentos , Alimentos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Disponibilidade Biológica , Criança , Excipientes , Humanos , Solubilidade , Tensão Superficial , Viscosidade
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235047, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574223

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nitrate (NO3-), through its conversion to nitrite (NO2-) and nitric oxide, has been shown to increase exercise tolerance in healthy younger adults and older diseased patients. Nitrate's effect in well-trained middle to older-aged adults has not been studied. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a NO3- rich beverage on submaximal constant work rate exercise time in well-trained middle to older-aged adults. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled cross-over trial with 15 well-trained middle to older-aged adults, 41-64 year-old, who received one of two treatments (NO3- rich beverage then placebo or placebo then NO3- rich beverage), after which an exercise test at 75 percent of the subject's maximal work rate was completed. RESULTS: The NO3- rich beverage increased plasma NO3- and NO2- levels by 260 µM and 0.47 µM, respectively (p<0.001). Exercise time was not significantly different (p = 0.31) between the NO3- rich versus placebo conditions (1130±151 vs 1060±132 sec, respectively). Changes in exercise time between the two conditions ranged from a 55% improvement to a 40% decrease with the NO3- rich beverage. Oxygen consumption and rating of perceived exertion were not significantly different between the two conditions. CONCLUSION: In middle to older-aged well-trained adults, NO3- supplementation has non-significant, albeit highly variable, effects on exercise tolerance. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03371966.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Nitratos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitratos/sangue , Nitritos/sangue , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia
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