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1.
Food Chem ; 302: 125290, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404873

RESUMO

In our daily lives, we consume foods that have been transported, stored, prepared, cooked, or otherwise processed by ourselves or others. Food storage and preparation have drastic effects on the chemical composition of foods. Untargeted mass spectrometry analysis of food samples has the potential to increase our chemical understanding of these processes by detecting a broad spectrum of chemicals. We performed a time-based analysis of the chemical changes in foods during common preparations, such as fermentation, brewing, and ripening, using untargeted mass spectrometry and molecular networking. The data analysis workflow presented implements an approach to study changes in food chemistry that can reveal global alterations in chemical profiles, identify changes in abundance, as well as identify specific chemicals and their transformation products. The data generated in this study are publicly available, enabling the replication and re-analysis of these data in isolation, and serve as a baseline dataset for future investigations.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Fermentação , Fluxo de Trabalho
2.
Food Chem ; 303: 125404, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466033

RESUMO

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy calibrations were developed to simultaneously determine the multianalytes of five artificial sweeteners, including sodium cyclamate, sucralose, sodium saccharin, acesulfame-K and aspartame. By combining the pretreatment of the spectrum and principal component analysis, 131 feature wavenumbers were extracted from the full spectral range for modelling to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Compared to random forest, k nearest neighbour and linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine model had better predictivity, indicating the most effective identification performance. Furthermore, multivariate calibration models based on partial least squares regression were constructed for quantifying any combinations of the five artificial sweeteners, and validated by prediction data sets. As shown by the good agreement between the proposed method and the reference HPLC for the determination of the sweeteners in beverage samples, a promising and rapid tool based on FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with chemometrics, has been performed to identify and objectively quantify artificial sweeteners.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Edulcorantes/análise , Aspartame/análise , Bebidas/análise , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ciclamatos/análise , Aprendizado de Máquina , Análise de Componente Principal , Sacarina/análise , Tiazinas/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 302: 125345, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445377

RESUMO

This paper compares the results of standard chemical analytical processes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the characterization of different beverages, namely ground coffee, soluble coffee, coffee substitutes, barley, cow milk, vegetable drinks, tea, plant infusions and plant mixtures. For the two approaches, the similarities between the experimental data are assessed by means of the Euclidean and Canberra distances. The resulting information is processed by means of the multidimensional scaling (MDS) clustering and visualization algorithm. The results of the chemical analytical processes and EIS reveal identical clusters for the two adopted distances. Furthermore, the robustness of the experimental and computational scheme are assessed by means of the Procrustes technique. The results confirm the effectiveness of combining the EIS and MDS.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Visualização de Dados , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/métodos , Algoritmos , Animais , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Análise por Conglomerados , Café/química , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite/química , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Chá/química
4.
J Law Med ; 27(1): 122-148, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682346

RESUMO

Obesity is a growing epidemic spreading across the developed world, including Australia. It negatively affects the health of individuals and puts pressure on a country's food and health systems, the environment and its economic status. In this article, three taxation approaches are considered as policy tools available to the Australian Government which could assist them in the fight against obesity: tax on the person, tax on inputs and taxes on the product. A critical analysis of each taxation approach is undertaken, existing international methodologies examined and, on this basis, suggestions are made to impose taxes on Highly Processed Foods and Sweetened Sugary Beverages. Particular focus is given to reform to the Australian Goods and Services Tax regime. It is argued that through this specific taxation approach, the fight against obesity in Australia can be positively addressed.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Impostos , Austrália , Bebidas , Fast Foods , Humanos
5.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 43(6): 388-392, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657991

RESUMO

Background: The dentist has a responsibility to provide nutritional counseling and fluoride consumption recommendations. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the concentrations of fluoride in a large number of alternative milk beverages and bovine milk. Study design: Thirty-three milk alternatives, including 9 diverse types and 11 different brands, were analyzed using a fluoride ion-selective electrode (ISE) and an ISE meter. Fluoride concentrations were then compared among different types and between different brands. Results: Fluoride concentration ranged from 0.01 ppm (Malk® Pure Cashew Milk) to 0.80 ppm (Almond Breeze® Original Unsweetened Almond Milk) with a mean concentration of 0.32 ppm. When compared, bovine whole milk (0.03±0.00 ppm) was found to be significantly lower in fluoride than all samples analyzed except Malk Pure Cashew Milk, Soy Milk Vanilla, Rice Milk, and Pecan Milk. Major differences also existed between the same milk alternative types of different brands. Conclusion: The amount of fluoride varies among different types of milk alternatives and different brands. To ensure that the dental team can provide proper recommendations regarding fluoride use, manufacturers should consider placing fluoride concentrations on nutrition labels.


Assuntos
Fluoretos , Fluorose Dentária , Animais , Bebidas , Bovinos , Leite
6.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 46, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whilst the ergogenic effects of carbohydrate intake during prolonged exercise are well-documented, few investigations have studied the effects of carbohydrate ingestion during cross-country skiing, a mode of exercise that presents unique metabolic demands on athletes due to the combined use of large upper- and lower-body muscle masses. Moreover, no previous studies have investigated exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during cross-country skiing. The current study investigated the effects of a 13C-enriched 18% multiple-transportable carbohydrate solution (1:0.8 maltodextrin:fructose) with additional gelling polysaccharides (CHO-HG) on substrate utilization and gastrointestinal symptoms during prolonged cross-country skiing exercise in the cold, and subsequent double-poling time-trial performance in ~ 20 °C. METHODS: Twelve elite cross-country ski athletes (6 females, 6 males) performed 120-min of submaximal roller-skiing (69.3 ± 2.9% of [Formula: see text]O2peak) in -5 °C while receiving either 2.2 g CHO-HG·min- 1 or a non-caloric placebo administered in a double-blind, randomized manner. Whole-body substrate utilization and exogenous carbohydrate oxidation was calculated for the last 60 min of the submaximal exercise. The maximal time-trial (2000 m for females, 2400 m for males) immediately followed the 120-min submaximal bout. Repeated-measures ANOVAs with univariate follow-ups were conducted, as well as independent and paired t-tests, and significance was set at P < 0.05. Data are presented as mean ± SD. RESULTS: Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation contributed 27.6 ± 6.6% to the total energy yield with CHO-HG and the peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rate reached 1.33 ± 0.27 g·min- 1. Compared to placebo, fat oxidation decreased by 9.5 ± 4.8% with CHO-HG, total carbohydrate oxidation increased by 9.5 ± 4.8% and endogenous carbohydrate utilization decreased by 18.1 ± 6.4% (all P < 0.05). No severe gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in either trial and euhydration was maintained in both trials. Time-trial performance (8.4 ± 0.4 min) was not improved following CHO-HG compared to placebo (- 0.8 ± 3.5 s; 95% confidence interval - 3.0 to 1.5 s; P = 0.46). No sex differences were identified in substrate utilization or relative performance. CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of an 18% multiple-transportable carbohydrate solution with gelling polysaccharides was found to be well-tolerated during 120 min of submaximal whole-body exercise, but did not improve subsequent maximal double-poling performance.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Esqui/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adulto , Atletas , Bebidas , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrogéis , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479386

RESUMO

A rapid method for quantitative caffeine analysis in carbonated and non-carbonated beverages and liquid dietary supplement products was developed based on the direct sample introduction technique of laser diode thermal desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation with tandem mass spectrometry (LDTD-MS/MS). Product samples were diluted with a mixture of methanol, water, and d3-caffeine internal standard. Sample aliquots were filtered, spotted on a metal-lined LDTD microtitre plate, dried, and thermally desorbed for subsequent ionisation and analysis by MS/MS analysis. Each sample required a 6 s desorption, and sample-to-sample analysis time of less than 30 s per sample. Caffeine yielded a linear calibration curve over the range 0.5-100 µg mL-1 (R2 > 0.995). Caffeine recoveries from fortified samples ranged from 97% to 107% with <5% RSD. The caffeine determination was not affected by matrix interferences despite the large range of ingredients, vitamins, sweeteners, extracts, and additives present in the products tested, even though LDTD-MS/MS is a whole-sample desorption technique with no separation of matrix background. The method detection limit was below 0.12 µg mL-1. The method was applied to 33 caffeinated products and LDTD-MS/MS quantitative results closely correlated (R2 > 0.998) with the regulatory standard HPLC-UV method (AOAC Official Method 979.08).


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Cafeína/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Lasers , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490741

RESUMO

1-Phenylthiosemicarbazide bonded modified silica gel (PTC-SG) was synthesised and characterised by FTIR, SEM and elemental analysis for a novel separation/preconcentration of multiple elements based on solid phase extraction. The analytical parameters including pH of solutions, amounts of PTC-SG, flow rates of sample, eluent type and sample volume were optimised. The adsorption capacities of PTC-SG were found to be 7.9, 6.4, 6.3, 8.3, 7.2, 8.9 and 6.6 mg/g for Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Co(II), Cr(III), Ni(II) and Mn(II), respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) was calculated as 3x the standard deviation(s) of the reagent blank (k = 3, N = 21) and the LOD values were obtained to be 0.98 µg L-1 (Cu), 0.65 µg L-1 (Cd), 0.57 µg L-1 (Pb), 1.12 µg L-1 (Co), 1.82 µL-1 (Cr), 1.67 µg L-1 (Ni) and 0.55 µg L-1 (Mn). Certified reference materials were used to test the validation of the present method. The new solid phase extraction method was successfully applied to determination of the amount of multiple elements in food and beverage samples.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Sílica Gel/química , Tiossemicarbazonas/química , Agaricales/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Peixes , Mel/análise , Oryza/química , Sílica Gel/síntese química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Chá/química
9.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(4): 108-112, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474651

RESUMO

Assuming the intentional adulteration of beverages with plant toxins, an LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of 18 plant toxins (lycorine, galantamine, ricinine, scopolamine, gelsemine, atropine, colchicine, α-solanine, jervine, α-chaconine, veratramine, mesaconitine, digoxin, protoveratrine A, aconitine, hypaconitine, oleandrin, and digitoxin) was developed. As analytical samples, beer, distilled spirits, blend tea, ready-to-drink (RTD) coffee, and fermented milk drink were selected. The extraction and purification of the analytes were performed using modified QuEChERS method. Method validation in terms of intra-day precision, accuracy, and extraction recovery obtained satisfactory results. The calibration curves for the analytes were linear from 5 to 200 ng/mL (r>0.990), which enabled the determination of toxins in even trace amounts.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Toxinas Biológicas/análise
10.
Global Health ; 15(1): 56, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) are a major source of sugar in the diet. Although trends in consumption vary across regions, in many countries, particularly LMICs, their consumption continues to increase. In response, a growing number of governments have introduced a tax on SSBs. SSB manufacturers have opposed such taxes, disputing the role that SSBs play in diet-related diseases and the effectiveness of SSB taxation, and alleging major economic impacts. Given the importance of evidence to effective regulation of products harmful to human health, we scrutinised industry submissions to the South African government's consultation on a proposed SSB tax and examined their use of evidence. RESULTS: Corporate submissions were underpinned by several strategies involving the misrepresentation of evidence. First, references were used in a misleading way, providing false support for key claims. Second, raw data, which represented a pliable, alternative evidence base to peer reviewed studies, was misused to dispute both the premise of targeting sugar for special attention and the impact of SSB taxes on SSB consumption. Third, purposively selected evidence was used in conjunction with other techniques, such as selective quoting from studies and omitting important qualifying information, to promote an alternative evidential narrative to that supported by the weight of peer-reviewed research. Fourth, a range of mutually enforcing techniques that inflated the effects of SSB taxation on jobs, public revenue generation, and gross domestic product, was used to exaggerate the economic impact of the tax. This "hyperbolic accounting" included rounding up figures in original sources, double counting, and skipping steps in economic modelling. CONCLUSIONS: Our research raises fundamental questions concerning the bona fides of industry information in the context of government efforts to combat diet-related diseases. The beverage industry's claims against SSB taxation rest on a complex interplay of techniques, that appear to be grounded in evidence, but which do not observe widely accepted approaches to the use of either scientific or economic evidence. These techniques are similar, but not identical, to those used by tobacco companies and highlight the problems of introducing evidence-based policies aimed at managing the market environment for unhealthful commodities.


Assuntos
Indústria Alimentícia , Política de Saúde , Pesquisa , Bebidas/economia , Açúcares da Dieta/economia , Humanos , África do Sul , Edulcorantes/economia , Impostos
11.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 248-252, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437923

RESUMO

Sugar Sweetened Beverages (SSB) are the primary source of artificially added sugar and have a casual association with chronic diseases. Taxation of SSB has been proposed, but limited evidence exists to guide this public health policy. Grocery transaction data, with price, discounting and other information for beverage products, present an opportunity to evaluate the likely effects of taxation policy. Sales are often non-linearly associated with price and are affected by the prices of multiple competing brands. We evaluated the predictive performance of Boosted Decision Tree Regression (B-DTR) and Deep Neural Networks (DNN) that account for the non-linearity and competition across brands, and compared their performance to a benchmark regression, the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO). B-DTR and DNN showed a lower Mean Squared Error (MSE) of prediction in the sales of most major SSB brands in comparison to LASSO, indicating a superior accuracy in predicting the effectiveness of SSB taxation. We demonstrated the application of machine learning methods and large transactional data from grocery stores to forecast the effectiveness food taxation.


Assuntos
Impostos , Bebidas , Comércio , Aprendizado de Máquina , Edulcorantes
12.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 73, 2019 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455333

RESUMO

The potential effects of dishware size on energy intake are unclear, as many previous studies have been of low methodological quality. A newly published paper by Kosite et al. (IJBNPA 10.1186/s12966-019-0826-1, 2019) reports findings from a rigorous, pre-registered investigation of the effects of manipulating plate size on total energy intake within a single eating occasion. This Editorial considers the implications of these new findings in light of previous evidence pertaining to the efficacy of behavioral nudges in particular, and in relation to contextual drivers of food consumption more generally. We conclude that the potential impact of behavioral nudges may have been exaggerated in the past, and call for future high-quality randomized controlled trials to establish whether reducing dishware size and other behavioral nudges might offer an effective complement to more comprehensive, multi-level interventions to reduce overconsumption of foods and beverages at a population-level.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Bebidas , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos , Humanos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449473

RESUMO

A new, simple, low cost, high efficiency, and rapid floating technique was developed for the determination of Sunset Yellow in beverage and effervescent vitamin C. The method is based on two main steps: 1)- formation of dye-surfactant complex by the addition of a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, to the solution containing an anionic dye (Sunset Yellow) and 2)- flocculation of the dye-surfactant complex with the participation of sodium perchlorate as a coagulant followed by aggregation and enlargement of the flocs while floating at the top of the solution. After the extraction, separated and preconcentrated Sunset Yellow was investigated by spectrophotometric determination. IR spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and light microscopy were used to characterise the flocs. The effects of different parameters such as pH, concentration of surfactant, concentration of sodium perchlorate, and temperature on the extraction of dye were investigated and optimized. Under optimum conditions, a linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 0.05-5 mg L-1. The detection limit (3Sb/m) was 0.02 mg L-1 with a preconcentration factor of 25. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 0.1 mg L-1 of Sunset Yellow was 2.6% (n = 10). The applicability of the method was evaluated by measuring the amount of dye in beverage and effervescent vitamin C. Interferences of typical cations and anions which may participate in the matrices were also checked. The amount of Sunset Yellow found in real samples was 1.32-3.89 mgL-1.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Compostos Azo/análise , Bebidas/análise , Comprimidos/química , Espectrofotometria
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 7016-7020, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microemulsions have been proposed as delivery systems for different lipophilic substances in transparent water-based systems. The chemical stability of the delivered compounds is a key factor to broaden the application of microemulsions in the food sector. The stability of a model beverage containing a microemulsion delivering ß-carotene and lemon oil was tested under increasing light intensity up to 6000 lx at 20 °C. RESULTS: The transparent microemulsion resulted physically stable during storage indicating that no coalescence phenomenon occurred. On the contrary, both colour and flavour of the microemulsion degraded as a consequence of limonene and ß-carotene oxidation. Kinetic data obtained at increasing light intensity were used to estimate the light dependence of beverage spoilage and the mathematical relationship obtained was used to predict spoilage rate under different light conditions. Finally, a shelf life predictive model was proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Transparent microemulsions can be successfully used to deliver flavoured oil and colourants into beverages. However, the photostability of the delivered compounds should be carefully studied to estimate product shelf life. To this aim, the availability of models predicting shelf life as a function of enlightening conditions could largely contribute to speed up the process. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , beta Caroteno/química , Bebidas/efeitos da radiação , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Emulsões/química , Excipientes/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Luz
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1141, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The consumption of non-carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages (NCSSBs) has many adverse health effects. However, the sugar and energy content in NCSSBs sold in China remain unknown. We aimed to investigate the sugar and energy content of NCSSBs in China and how these contents were labelled. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 15 supermarkets in Haidian District, Beijing from July to October 2017. The product packaging and nutrient information panels of NCSSBs were recorded to obtain type of products (local/imported), serving size, nutrient contents of carbohydrate, sugar and energy. For those NCSSBs without sugar content information, we used carbohydrate content as a replacement. RESULTS: A total of 463 NCSSBs met the inclusion criteria and were included in our analysis. The median of sugar content and energy content was 9.6 [interquartile range (IQR): 7.1-11.3] g/100 ml and 176 (IQR: 121-201) kJ/100 ml. The median of sugar contents in juice drinks, tea-based beverages, sports drinks and energy drinks were 10.4, 8.5, 5.0 and 7.4 g/100 ml. Imported products had higher sugar and energy content than local products. There were 95.2% products of NCSSBs receiving a 'red'(high) label for sugars per portion according to the UK criteria, and 81.6% products exceeding the daily free sugar intake recommendation from the World Health Organization (25 g). There were 82 (17.7%) products with sugar content on the nutrition labels and 60.2% of them were imported products. CONCLUSIONS: NCSSBs had high sugar and energy content, and few of them provided sugar content information on their nutrition labels especially in local products. Measures including developing better regulation of labelling, reducing sugar content and restricting the serving size are needed for reducing sugar intakes in China.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Sacarose na Dieta/análise , Edulcorantes/análise , Pequim , Bebidas/provisão & distribução , Estudos Transversais , Bebidas Energéticas/análise , Ingestão de Energia , Rotulagem de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recomendações Nutricionais
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 313-321, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468410

RESUMO

This study surveyed that the relationship between the frequencies of intake of taurine-contained nutritional drinks (TCND), and lifestyle and the purposes of intake it. The study was conducted a cross-sectional survey using 265 people (203 male, 62 female) aged 18-64 worked in two companies in Mie Prefecture, Japan between December 2017 and February 2018. The questionnaires gathered characteristics, demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle habits and purpose of TCND intake. We divided the frequency of intake of TCND of at least a few times every month as the high-frequency TCND (HF-TCND) group, and the remaining as the low-frequency TCND (LF-TCND) group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between characteristics, demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle habits and purpose of TCND intake and HF-TCND after controlling for individual variables. Of all participants, 13.4% was evaluated as HT-CND. 16.3% for male or 4.3% for female were evaluated as HF-TCND (p < 0.05). The most reason for frequent choosing a TCND was fatigue recovery. Logistic regression analysis showed that sex, occupation, purpose of TCND intake and stressful are related to HF-TCND. Our study indicates that purpose of TCND intake, such as fatigue recovery and reducing stress, may partly affect the frequency of intake of TCND. Therefore, we must continue to show scientific evidence for taurine by enlightenment activity etc.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Estilo de Vida , Taurina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebidas , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 58, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efficacious strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption among youth are needed. This pilot study assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a community-based youth empowerment intervention to reduce SSB consumption and obesity risk among a low-income, ethnically diverse sample of youth. METHODS: The H2GO! intervention was pilot-tested in an afterschool setting (Boys and Girls Clubs (BGC)) in Massachusetts, USA. One site was randomized to receive the intervention; the other site received standard programming. Youth ages 9-12 years and their parents/caregivers were eligible to participate. A total of N = 110 parent-child pairs (N = 55 parent-child pairs per site) were recruited. The 6-week intervention consisted of group-based weekly sessions delivered by trained BGC staff and youth-led activities that engaged parents. Child outcomes included self-reported SSB and water intake and measured body mass index z scores (zBMI). Parent outcomes included self-reported SSB and water intake, SSB purchasing, and availability of SSBs at home. Outcomes were measured at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months. Generalized linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate intervention effects over time. RESULTS: The final analytic study sample consisted of 100 child participants (38% Black, 20% Hispanic, 13% White, 12% Multiracial, 11% Asian) and 87 parent participants (78.2% female; 78.2% reporting eligibility for the free-or-reduced price lunch program). 6-month retention rates were ≥ 82%. Intervention attendance rates among intervention child participants (N = 51) averaged 78.1% (SD = 10.3). Over half (56.0%) of child participants were overweight or obese at baseline. Relative to the comparison site, intervention site child participants had decreased SSB intake (ß = - 1.64; 95% CI: 2.52, - 0.76), increased water intake (ß = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.38, 2.23), and decreased zBMI (- 0.23 units; 95% CI: - 0.31, - 0.14) over 6 months (p < 0.001). Intervention parent participants also reported decreased SSB intake (ß = - 1.76; 95% CI: - 2.56, - 0.96) and increased water intake (ß = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.40) than comparison parent participants at 6 months (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Findings demonstrate the potential of a youth empowerment intervention on reducing SSB intake and zBMI among a diverse sample. Findings will guide a larger cluster-randomized controlled trial to test intervention efficacy on preventing childhood obesity, as well as inform future interventions that aim to target additional diet and physical activity behaviors through youth empowerment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02890056 . Registered 31 August 2016.


Assuntos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta , Açúcares da Dieta , Promoção da Saúde , Criança , Dieta/métodos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
18.
Food Chem ; 299: 124985, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279127

RESUMO

Dietary protein peptides from quinoa yoghurt beverage (QYB) fermented with probiotic lactic acid bacteria strains play a protective role against diabetes and hypertension. In this study, the α-glucosidase and ACE inhibitory activities of germination-based protein hydrolysates of QYB were investigated. All protein hydrolysates exhibited a dose and strain-dependent inhibition on the enzymes. The inhibition of α-glucosidase was the highest in QLCSY13 (IC50 = 8.86 mg/mL), while ACE inhibition was the highest in QLCZ (IC50 = 0.03 mg/mL). Overall, QLCSY13 had the highest inhibitory activities, which was ascribed to its relatively higher amino acid contents and hydrophobicity. In addition, the ACE and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of peptide fractions identified by RP-HPLC were 127 ±â€¯4.29 mg/mL and 10.39 ±â€¯4.73 mg/mL respectively. Among the potent inhibitory peptide sequences identified, both LAHMIVAGA and VAHPVF significantly had α-glucosidase and ACE inhibitory activities. Consequently, dietary protein peptides present in QYB had anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic potentials.


Assuntos
Bebidas/microbiologia , Lactobacillus casei/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Iogurte/microbiologia , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Fermentação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química
19.
Food Chem ; 300: 125168, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330368

RESUMO

This study reports a clear-cut relationship of the technological use of specific filter aids with highly variable vanadium levels in beer, wine, and fruit juices. First, the previously reported broad range of vanadium levels was confirmed in 68 commercial beverages by ICP-MS. Since cloudy apple juices exhibited significantly lower vanadium amounts than clear apple juices, filter aids used for clarification were analyzed and found to contain substantial and highly variable amounts of vanadium, particularly in all analyzed diatomite (38-368 mg vanadium per kg filter aid), but not in perlite products (<4 mg/kg). Subsequent pilot-scale precoat filtration experiments (170 L/batch) proved vanadium to be released from diatomite (Kieselguhr), increasing its levels from ca. 2.1-2.6 µg/kg unfiltered to 27-201 µg/kg filtered juice, depending on the use of diatomites high or low in vanadium. Thus, filter aid selection was shown to modulate the vanadium concentrations in clarified beverages.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Filtração/instrumentação , Vanádio/análise , Óxido de Alumínio , Cerveja/análise , Terra de Diatomáceas/análise , Terra de Diatomáceas/química , Filtração/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Malus , Dióxido de Silício , Vinho/análise
20.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 55(4): 394-403, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257926

RESUMO

Inspired by a previous 'Sauna, sweat and science' study [Zech et al. Isot Environ Health Stud. 2015;51(3):439-447] and out of curiosity and enthusiasm for stable isotope and sauna research we aimed at answering the question 'do we sweat (isotopically) what we drink'? We, therefore, pulse-labelled five test persons in a sauna experiment with beverages that were 2H-enriched at about +25,600 ‰. Sweat samples were collected during six sauna rounds and the hydrogen isotope composition δ2Hsweat was determined using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Before pulse labelling, δ2Hsweat - reflecting by approximation body water - ranged from -32 to -22 ‰. This is ∼35 ‰ enriched compared to usual mid-European drinking water and can be explained with hydrogen-bearing food as well as with the respiratory loss of 2H-depleted vapour. The absence of a clearly detectable 2H pulse in sweat after pulse labelling and δ2Hsweat results of ≤+250 ‰ due to a fast 2H equilibration with body water are moreover a clearly negative answer to our research question also in a short-term consideration. Given that the recovery of the tracer based on an isotope mass balance calculation is clearly below 100 %, we finally answer the question 'where did the rest of the tracer go?'


Assuntos
Bebidas , Hidrogênio/análise , Banho a Vapor , Suor/química , Adulto , Água Corporal/química , Deutério/análise , Gases , Humanos , Hidrogênio/urina , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/urina
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