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1.
Food Chem ; 351: 129273, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662907

RESUMO

Heat processing of ready-to-drink beverages is required to ensure a microbiologically safe product, however, this can result in the loss of bioactive compounds responsible for functionality. The objective of this study was to establish the thermal stability of a novel dihydrochalcone, 3',5'-di-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-3-hydroxyphloretin (2), 3',5'-di-ß-d-glucopyranosylphloretin (3) and other Cyclopia subternata phenolic compounds, in model solutions with or without citric acid and ascorbic acid. The solutions were heated at 93, 121 and 135 °C, relevant to pasteurisation, commercial sterilisation and ultra-high temperature (UHT) pasteurisation, respectively. For most compounds, the acids decreased the second order reaction rate constants, up to 27 times. Compound 2 (46.29 ± 0.53 (g/100 g)-1 h-1), and to a lesser extent compound 3 (5.94 ± 0.01 (g/100 g)-1 h-1) were the most thermo-unstable compounds when treated at 135 °C without added acids. Even though differential effects were observed for compounds at different temperatures and formulations, overall, the phenolic compounds were most stable under UHT pasteurisation conditions.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Chalconas/química , Fabaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Temperatura , Glicosilação , Pasteurização , Fenóis/análise , Soluções
2.
Food Chem ; 349: 129160, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550018

RESUMO

Indigo carmine (IC) dye is hazardous and allergenic for humans even though it has been excessively used in a wide range of industries. Therefore, the quantitative determination of IC is still challenging. Herein, for the first time, we have developed fluorometric and colorimetric dual-mode nanoprobe derived from the ion-pair association complex between the negatively charged IC and positively charged N@C-dots in pH = 3.0. Consequently, the binding between N@C-dots and IC resulted in cyan blue and quenching of N@C-dots fluorescence. The dependence of the fluorescence response on IC concentrations was linear over the range of 0.73-10.0 µM (R2 = 0.9989) with LOD of 0.24 µM. On the other hand, the linearity of the colorimetric method ranged from 9.97 to 80.0 µM (R2 = 0.9986) with LOD of 3.3 µM. The sensor was applied for estimation of IC in fruit juice and soft drink without the need for exhaustive extraction steps.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Carbono/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Índigo Carmim/análise , Limite de Detecção , Nitrogênio/química , Colorimetria , Fluorometria , Humanos
3.
Food Chem ; 349: 129202, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582540

RESUMO

In this work, we propose a electrochemical enzyme-free glucose sensor by direct growth of conductive Ni/Co bimetal MOF on carbon cloth [Ni/Co(HHTP)MOF/CC] via a facile hydrothermal method. Due to excellent conductivity between Ni/Co(HHTP)MOF and CC, synergic catalytic effect of Ni and Co elements, the Ni/Co(HHTP)MOF/CC not only provides larger surface area and more effective active sites, but also boosts the charge transports and electro-catalytic performance. Under optimized conditions, the Ni/Co(HHTP)MOF/CC shows excellent activity with a linear range of 0.3 µM-2.312 mM, a low detection limit of 100 nM (S/N = 3), a fast response time of 2 s and a high sensitivity of 3250 µA mM-1 cm-2. Furthermore, the Ni/Co(HHTP)MOF/CC was successfully applied for the detection of glucose in real serum and beverages with competitive performances. This facile and cost-effective method provides a novel strategy for monitoring of glucose in biological and food samples.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Carbono/química , Cobalto/química , Eletroquímica/instrumentação , Glucose/análise , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Níquel/química , Glicemia/análise , Catálise , Condutividade Elétrica , Humanos , Limite de Detecção
4.
Food Chem ; 347: 129075, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493838

RESUMO

A novel magnetic covalent organic framework (NH2-Fe3O4@COF) was prepared using a simple room-temperature synthesis in this study. These magnetic particles exhibited high adsorption performance with short adsorption time (10 min) for six benzoylurea insecticides (BUs) as magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbents. Quantum chemistry calculation demonstrated that adsorption mechanism was primarily attributed to strong halogen bonds between electronegative O atoms of COF and electropositive F atoms of BUs as well as potential hydrophobic effect. Wide linearities (10-1000 ng·L-1) and low limits of detection (0.06-1.65 ng·L-1) for six analytes were obtained via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Applicability of the proposed method was further evaluated by analyzing four kinds of original tea beverages. Recoveries of six BUs in spiked samples ranged from 80.1% to 108.4%.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Compostos de Fenilureia/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Chá/química , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Limite de Detecção , Magnetismo , Resíduos de Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Chá/metabolismo , Temperatura
5.
Food Chem ; 347: 129006, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472117

RESUMO

Multilayer bottles consisting of chitosan (CS), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), whey protein isolate (WPI), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were tested as novel materials for packaging and extending shelf life of rosebud beverages. We studied the storage stability at 4 °C, 25 °C, 37 °C, and 55 °C by assessing the physical and biochemical parameters. The results show that multilayer PET bottles had better barrier performance and improved soluble solids content, pH, polyphenol content, color indices, and browning degree in rosebud beverages over the control at all studied temperatures. A shelf life model was established based on the Arrhenius equation, and the number of days when polyphenol contents dropped to <50% of the initial content was defined as the shelf life. Our results highlight the reliability of the prediction model, and we conclude that packaging rosebud beverages in multilayer PET bottles significantly extends the product shelf life, and this benefit was further extended at low temperatures.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Celulose/química , Quitosana/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Polietilenotereftalatos/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Cor , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Polifenóis/química , Temperatura
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1638: 461886, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465586

RESUMO

Major type of internal can coating used for food and beverages is made from epoxy resins, which contain among their components bisphenol A (BPA) or bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE). These components can be released and contaminate the food or beverage. There is no specific European legislation for coatings, but there is legislation on specific substances setting migration limits. Many investigations have paid attention to BPA due to its classification as endocrine disruptor, however, few studies are available concerning to other bisphenol analogues that have been used in the manufacture of these resins. To evaluate the presence of this family of compounds, ten cans of beverages were taken as study samples. Firstly, the type of coating was verified using an attenuated total reflectance-FTIR spectrometer to check the type of coating presents in most of the samples examined. A screening method was also performed to investigate potential volatiles from polymeric can coatings of beverages using Purge and Trap (P&T) technique coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS). Moreover, a selective analytical method based on high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) for the simultaneous identification and quantification of thirteen compounds including bisphenol analogues (BPA, BPB, BPC, BPE, BPF, BPG) and BADGEs (BADGE, BADGE.H2O, BADGE.2H2O, BADGE.HCl, BADGE.2HCl, BADGE.H2O.HCl, cyclo-di-BADGE) in the polymeric can coatings and in the beverage samples was applied. In addition, a liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was optimized for confirmation purposes. The method showed an adequate linearity (R2 >0.9994) and low detection levels down to 5 µg/L. Cyclo-di-BADGE was detected in all extracts of polymeric coatings. The concentrations ranged from 0.004 to 0.60 mg/dm2. No detectable amounts of bisphenol related compounds were found in any of the beverage samples at levels that may pose a risk to human health, suggesting a low intake of bisphenols from beverages.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Cromatografia/métodos , Polímeros/química , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Dieta , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Resinas Epóxi/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Volatilização
7.
Food Chem ; 346: 128898, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453579

RESUMO

In 2016, the European Commission recommended the Member States to monitor the content of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids in food and feed derived from hemp and in food of animal origin for possible transfer from feed. Thus, the Italian Ministry of Health implemented a monitoring plan. To this aim, nine cannabinoids in beverages and food for human consumption and in feed were determined. The method applied, based on rapid clean-up and LC-MS/MS determination, was previously developed and in-house validated, evaluating the analytical performance in the concentration ranges 2-50 µg/L for beverages, 0.020-0.500 mg/kg for food and 0.100-10.0 mg/kg for feed. Then, it was applied to determine the cannabinoids in 78 food, 16 beverage and 6 feed samples, collected from the Italian market since 2017. The results are herein reported, for evaluation of both product characteristics and compliance to national maximum limits. Some study cases are also described.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bebidas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Dronabinol/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Cannabis/química , Humanos , Itália
8.
J Chromatogr A ; 1637: 461858, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422793

RESUMO

Synthesised polypyrrole-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been successfully characterised and applied as sorbent for the magnetic-micro-dispersive solid-phase extraction of eleven phthalic acid esters from jelly and apple-based beverage matrices widely consumed by the population and, especially, by children. Sorbent was synthesised through chemical coprecipitation and subsequently characterised by different techniques. The influence of several parameters on the extraction efficiency was exhaustively evaluated using a step-by-step strategy. The separation and quantification of the selected phthalates were performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The validation of the methodology was carried out for jellies and apple-based beverages, employing dihexyl phthalate-3,4,5,6-d4 as the surrogate standard. Relative recovery values were in the range 70-114% for both matrices and relative standard deviations below 20% were obtained. The limits of quantification of the method were found in the range 0.147-0.416 µg/L. Feasibility of the developed methodology was proved by the analysis of commercialised jelly and apple-based beverage products.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Magnetismo , Malus/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Polímeros/química , Pirróis/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adsorção , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanopartículas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solventes/química
9.
Food Chem ; 348: 129102, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508599

RESUMO

The present study aimed to fabricate whey protein isolate (WPI)-sodium alginate (ALG) nanocomplexes for curcumin (CUR) stabilization in a model fat-free beverage. Mass ratio of 5:1 at pH 5.0 in the absence of NaCl was optimized for WPI-ALG nanocomplex fabrication. Mean particle size and zeta-potential of CUR-WPI-ALG nanocomplex was 209.9 nm and -39.1 mV at pH 5.0, respectively. Highest loading amount (LA) of CUR in CUR-WPI-ALG nanocomplex were 15.26 µg/mg. No obvious precipitates were observed for CUR-WPI-ALG nanocomplex under simulated food processing and storage conditions including high sucrose, high NaCl, and thermal treatment at 90 °C for 2 h. Fluorescence results confirmed that the spontaneous interaction between CUR and WPI-ALG nanocomplex was primarily motivated by hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding. Compared with CUR (free), chemical stability (UV light, and heat), and DPPH scavenging capacities of CUR in CUR-WPI-ALG nanocomplex were strikingly improved.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Bebidas/análise , Curcumina/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade
10.
Food Chem ; 338: 127947, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947120

RESUMO

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediates essential signaling in vivo but may cause irreversible tissue damage under dysregulated or acute exposure conditions. Beverages containing redox-active compounds might produce H2O2 during shelf storage and potentially be consumed. Concentrations of H2O2 in selected 'functional' (including energy, E, n = 28), 'non-functional' flavored, (S, n = 6) and mineral water (W, n = 6) drinks were measured under ambient (i.e., produced in situ) and 'potentiated' conditions (i.e., H2O2 production enhanced by addition of a reducing agent, to simulate availability of reducible substrates in vivo). Under air-saturated conditions, mean H2O2 contents were: 15.60 ± 15.84; 1.39 ± 2.06 and 0.30 ± 0.21 µM in E, S and W drinks, respectively. Under air-saturated, potentiated conditions, mean rates of H2O2 production were 21.7 ± 33.3, 0.98 ± 2.84, and -0.38 ± 1.18 µM/h for E, S and W drinks, respectively. Using multivariate statistics, the ingredient significantly associated with H2O2 production in combination with other ingredients was found to be ascorbic acid.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Bebidas/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Oxirredução
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(1): 1-19, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348476

RESUMO

Yogurt is a milk-based product manufactured by lactic acid fermentation enabled by symbiotic yogurt cultures. Yogurt is largely considered to be a health product, and it is employed to deliver probiotics and prebiotics to the consumer. However, not all yogurts are probiotic, neither are they all functional products. There is increasing demand for health-promoting beverages, which is prompting the dairy industry to develop functional probiotic yogurts to meet the demand. However, there seems to be a scarcity of reviews providing critical information on regulatory frameworks in regions of the world, clinical trial outcomes, and methodological approaches for enumerating multiprobiotic strains in yogurt. This review, relating to functional probiotic yogurt, covers the newest information on the topic for the period mostly between 2014 and 2019. Conformance to regulations is paramount and hence, global regulatory frameworks for probiotic yogurt and prebiotic and nonprebiotic ingredients included in yogurt are reviewed. The paper emphasizes the need for convincing clinical trial outcomes that provide the dairy industry with an opportunity to market products with substantiated beneficial claims. The paper also discusses probiotic strains in functional yogurt, which is required to have population levels above the recommended therapeutic minimum during shelf life. The multiprobiotic species added to yogurt may present challenges relating to methodological and analytical approaches needed to determine viability of each strain contained in such yogurt. Hence, the review also presents the pros and cons of the culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches for the enumeration of probiotic cells in yogurt. The review is arguably valuable to the dairy industry, functional food developers, related scientists, and researchers, as well as policy makers.


Assuntos
Probióticos/normas , Iogurte/normas , Animais , Bebidas/análise , Fermentação , Humanos , Leite , Prebióticos
12.
Food Chem ; 338: 127827, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822900

RESUMO

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic metabolite that is widely distributed in food products. Herein, we proposed a new fluorescent aptasensor for OTA detection by using cascade strand displacement reaction. The binding of OTA and OTA aptamer on magnetic beads surface inhibited its hybridization with complementary DNA, and subsequently initiated the strand displacement reaction that induced amplified fluorescence signal. By tracing fluorescence response, our method demonstrated an improved detection limit of 0.63 ng/mL, a short assay time of 110 min, and a satisfactory detection specificity by using ochratoxin B, aflatoxin B1, and zearalenone as control toxins. Recovery studies were conducted by spiking OTA in real food samples, including white wine, red wine, cereal drink, coffee beverage and tea beverage, and confirmed desirable accuracy and practical applicability of our method. Therefore, our method may have a great potential use in the food quality control in the future.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Bebidas/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ocratoxinas/análise , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/genética , DNA Complementar , Fluorescência , Limite de Detecção , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Vinho/análise
13.
Food Chem ; 339: 127628, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866707

RESUMO

Volatile thiols are very strong-smelling molecules that can impact the aroma of numerous beverages. Several thiols and thiol precursors have been reported previously in different plants used as raw material for beverages, some of which are fermented. We focused on thiols in beverages and their release mechanisms from precursors during processing. Volatile thiols in beverages can be classified aslow molecular weight volatile thiols (e.g. H2S, methanethiol) which impact the smell negatively, and volatile thiols with higher boiling points that contribute positively to the aroma profile. The first part of this review is devoted to volatile thiols, without considering small malodorous molecules. The second part deals with thiol precursors and the different release mechanisms induced by processing (e.g. extraction, roasting or fermentation) and by the growing methods (e.g. viticulture), which can impact on amounts of thiols and their precursors.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Compostos de Sulfidrila/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Fermentação , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Odorantes/análise , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
14.
Food Chem ; 339: 128063, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152865

RESUMO

Dicarbonyls are reactive precursors of advanced glycation endproducts. They are formed endogenously and during food processing. Currently, a comprehensive database on dicarbonyls in foods that covers the entire range of food groups is lacking, limiting knowledge about the amount of dicarbonyls that is ingested via food. The aim of this study was to analyze the dicarbonyls methylglyoxal (MGO), glyoxal (GO), and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) in commonly-consumed products in a Western diet. We validated a UHPLC-MS/MS method to quantify MGO, GO, and 3-DG. We present a dietary dicarbonyl database of 223 foods and drinks. Total dicarbonyl concentrations were highest in dried fruit, Dutch spiced cake, and candy bars (>400 mg/kg). Total dicarbonyl concentrations were lowest in tea, dairy, light soft drinks, and rice (<10 mg/kg). The presented database of MGO, GO, and 3-DG opens the possibility to accurately estimate dietary exposure to these dicarbonyls, and explore their physiological impact on human health.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Bases de Dados Factuais , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Food Chem ; 345: 128628, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342608

RESUMO

This work presents an on-line fluorescence method for the allura red (AR) determination. The method is based on the fluorescence quenching of dots of MoS2 because of their interaction with the non-fluorescence dye. MoS2-dots were synthetized and characterized by spectroscopic techniques and High Resolution Transmission Electronic Microscopy (HR-TEM). The simultaneous injection of the nanomaterial and the dye in a flow injection analysis system allows the determination of allura red at 1.7 × 10-6 M concentration level with a very good accuracy and precision (Er minor than 10% and RSD lower than 8%) and a sampling frequency of 180 samples per hour. Moreover, the interaction fluorophore-quencher results a dynamic inhibition mechanism. The proposed methodology was applied to the AR analysis in soft beverages and powders for gelatine preparation. Colourant concentrations of 63 ± 2 mg/L (n = 3) and 0.30 ± 0.01 mg/g (n = 3) were found, respectively. These results were validated by high performance liquid chromatography technique.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/análise , Dissulfetos/química , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Molibdênio/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Bebidas/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química
16.
Food Chem ; 345: 128841, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360062

RESUMO

In this study, a novel porous composite (Fe3O4@TAPB-COF@ZIF-8) consisting of metal-organic and covalent organic frameworks was developed and applied to the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of bisphenols. The extraction parameters such as the extraction time, solution pH, amounts of adsorbent, and ionic strength were investigated to obtain the best extraction conditions. By optimizing the MSPE, a convenient and sensitive analytical method was established in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography. The method achieved low detection limits (0.04-0.05 ng mL-1), wide linear range (0.25-1000 ng mL-1), good repeatability (1.20-4.30%), good reproducibility (1.34-4.03%), and satisfactory recoveries of four functional beverages (66.2-116.6%).


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/isolamento & purificação , Bebidas/análise , Limite de Detecção , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Adsorção , Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/química , Concentração Osmolar , Fenóis/química , Porosidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Food Chem ; 340: 127793, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916402

RESUMO

This study aimed to produce four different beverages from okara (soybean by-product) previously hydrolyzed by Cynara cardunculus enzymes and fermented by probiotic bacteria or unfermented beverage. The probiotic viable cells, the isoflavones profile and organic acids were evaluated in the okara beverage. In addition, total phenolic content, antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities were evaluated at storage time and during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of all beverages. The probiotic was viable throughout storage in all fermented beverages. The significant bioconversion of the isoflavone glycosides into their corresponding bioactive aglycones was observed in fermented beverage. Furthermore, the beverages showed a good ACE inhibitory activity. After gastrointestinal tract, all beverages showed an increase in the antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities. In conclusion, this study shows that the application of okara for a multifunctional beverage could be a promising strategy in the disease prevention and contribution to a zero waste approach in food industry.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Simbióticos , Antioxidantes/análise , Bifidobacterium animalis , Inibidores da Colinesterase/análise , Cynara/enzimologia , Digestão , Feminino , Fermentação , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Masculino , Probióticos , Soja/microbiologia , Paladar
18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244435, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373389

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the age of trees, daily sap volume as well as the term of tapping birch sap collected in the forest environment on the content of selected minerals (zinc, copper and manganese) and heavy metals (lead, nickel, chromium and cadmium). The study was performed on material taken from two stands (aged 34 and 84 years) in a moist broadleaved forest habitat with a dominant share of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). The research results confirmed the presence of both nutritional essential minerals and hazardous heavy metals in the birch sap. At the same time, the content of minerals and heavy metals was found to be very variable and the differences between their concentrations, recorded on the same day of collecting in several trees of the same age group, can be even several dozen times higher. Depending on the examined elements, the factors influencing their content vary. The age of the trees determines only the manganese content; daily sap volume significantly affects the content of manganese and copper, and date of collection differentiates the content of zinc, lead, nickel and cadmium. The results may be interesting in the context of developing procedures for collecting birch sap for the purpose of obtaining raw material with beneficial nutritional values and a high level of health safety. For this reason, our recommendation for guaranteeing the health safety and high nutritional value of birch sap is to combine batches of raw material taken from as many trees as possible, and at the same time to publicize the fact that collecting birch sap from just one single tree may result in a raw material that is both dangerous and has no nutritional benefits.


Assuntos
Betula/fisiologia , Metais Pesados/análise , Minerais/análise , Exsudatos de Plantas/química , Bebidas/análise , Florestas , Polônia
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 564, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vegetable amaranth is a source of natural phytopigments and functional components of the commercial food industry for sustainable health benefits across the globe. It is guessed that recently identified amaranth (drought-tolerant) genotypes may contain ample phytopigments and phytochemicals suitable to extract juice as drinks. Hence, phytopigments and phytochemicals content of amaranth were assessed in detail for suitability as drinks to feed the phytochemicals deficient community across the globe. RESULTS: The selected amaranth contained adequate carbohydrates, protein, moisture, and dietary fiber, phytopigments, minerals, phytochemicals including the ability to scavenge radicals. Nine flavonoids compounds were estimated in amaranth genotypes including six flavonols, one flavanol, one flavone, and one flavanone. It is the first effort in which we identified one flavonol such as myricetin, one flavanol, such as catechin, one flavone i. e., apigenin, and one flavanone, like naringenin in drought-tolerant vegetable amaranth. Across six flavonols, quercetin and rutin were the most noteworthy compounds followed by myricetin and isoquercetin. Across the accessions, AT7 and AT15 had abundant phytochemicals, and radical quenching ability including considerable proximate, nutraceuticals, and phytopigments in comparison to the accessions AT3 and AT11. AT15 demonstrated the maximum total flavonols including the highest rutin and hyperoside. AT7 showed high total flavonols including the highest quercetin, isoquercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol. The association of values revealed that studied phytopigments and phytochemicals of vegetable amaranth accessions demonstrated good radical quenching ability of 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2- Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl equivalent to Trolox. CONCLUSIONS: These advance lines AT7 and AT15 had abundant nutraceuticals, phytopigments, and phytochemicals including radical quenching ability. These lines might significantly contribute to the promotion of health benefits and feeding the community across the globe deficit in nutraceuticals and antioxidants. Identified flavonoid compounds open the new route for pharmacological study.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Bebidas/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Amaranthus/fisiologia , Secas
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20190596, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111819

RESUMO

Microgreen based functional juice blends containing fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and aloe vera (Aloe brobadensis) in different ratios were blended with sorbitol and stevia. The different ratios of juice blends were analyzed for total soluble solids, sedimentation, viscosity and titrable acidity. They were also screened for total phenolic content, total carotenoid content and antioxidant properties such as DPPH, reducing power and metal chelating activity. The formulation with highest TPC, TCC and antioxidant property was selected to optimize a microgreen based functional juice. The optimized microgreen blend formulation had 20 ml 100-1 ml microgreen juice, 40 ml 100-1 ml kinnow juice, 8.5 ml 100-1 ml sorbitol, 1.78 g 100-1 ml stevia and 29.72 ml 100-1 ml aloe vera juice. It had high protein, minerals (sodium and potassium) and vitamin (vitamin C) content as well as good source beta-carotene, phenols and antioxidants. Antioxidant helps in reducing diabetic complications by reducing the oxidative stress and because of their protective action against reactive oxygen species.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Frutas , Alimento Funcional , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Bebidas/análise , Frutas/química , Fenóis/análise
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