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1.
Pediatr Obes ; 17(1): e12838, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is a risk factor for obesity. In Mexico, SSBs are widely available and consumed daily by adolescents. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate the indirect association between store density (including grocery, convenience, non-alcoholic beverage stores and supermarkets) and overweight or obesity (OW/O) among Mexican adolescents, using SSB consumption as a mediator. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data on adolescent SSB consumption, weight status (body mass index for age [BMI for age]), physical activity, screen time and sociodemographic factors from the 2016 Mexican Midway National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT MC 2016). The National Statistical Directory of Economic Units provided information on stores selling SSBs. We estimated structural equations models to test associations between store density and OW/O, using SSB consumption as a mediator. RESULTS: We found a direct positive association between store density and SSB intake in adolescents (ß =1.229), including density of supermarkets (ß = 132.07), grocery stores (ß = 1.170) and non-alcoholic beverage stores (ß = 1.537). No significant association was observed for convenience stores. Direct association between store density and OW/O was strongest for supermarket density (ß = 0.426). In addition, SSB intake was significantly associated with OW/O (p = 0.033). No significant indirect association between density of any store and OW/O was found. CONCLUSIONS: Store density was directly associated with SSB consumption but not indirectly associated with OW/O mediated by SSB. Further research on food environment is required in order to design evidence-based strategies aimed at reducing SSB intake and OW/O in adolescents.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Adolescente , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia
2.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960115

RESUMO

The association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and executive function among children has been less investigated. We aimed to explore this topic. We randomly recruited 6387 children aged 6-12 years from five elementary schools in Guangzhou, China in 2019. Information on frequency and servings of children's SSB consumption was assessed using a questionnaire. Children's executive function was evaluated using parents' ratings of the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), which comprises eight subscales-including inhibit, shift, emotional control, initiate, working memory, plan/organize, organization of materials and monitor, as well as three composite indexes including behavioral regulation index (BRI), metacognition index (MI), and global executive index (GEC). SSB consumption was positively associated with all subscales and composite scores of BRIEF as well as higher risks of elevated executive difficulties, indicating poorer executive function. For example, children who drank SSB ≥2 times/week were related to higher scores of GEC (estimates, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.44, 1.79 to 3.09) compared with those who never drank SSB. The odds ratio of elevated GEC associated with SSB consumption ≥2 times/week was 1.62 (95% CI: 1.34, 1.96) than non-consumers. The results of this study indicated that SSB consumption was associated with poorer executive function in children.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Comportamento Alimentar , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Dig Dis ; 22(11): 630-636, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623731

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to assess the prevalence of functional bowel disorders (FBD) in a group of Chinese first-year undergraduates and the association between common beverage intake and FBD. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among first-year undergraduates in Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Wuhan, Hubei Province, China). In total, 3102 questionnaires on their lifestyle, dietary habits and gastrointestinal symptoms were collected and analyzed. FBD was diagnosed based on the Rome IV criteria. A logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the differences in beverage intake in participants with and without FBD in order to identify possible risk factors for FBD. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of FBD was 7.64%. The logistic regression analysis showed that those who drank coffee at a frequency of once a month to thrice a week had a higher prevalence of FBD than those who drank it less than once a month (odds ratio 1.405 [95% confidence interval 1.013-1.949]) after adjusted for age, sex, sleep quality, exercise, stress and other dietary habits. However, a further increase in coffee consumption did not lead to an elevated prevalence of FBD. CONCLUSIONS: Among the first-year undergraduates, FBD affected 7.64% of them. Coffee consumption might be related to an increased prevalence of FBD.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Hawaii J Health Soc Welf ; 80(10 Suppl 2): 64-68, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704071

RESUMO

Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with increased risk of obesity, diabetes, and other chronic diseases. SSB consumption is also a health equity issue, as rates of consumption and related chronic diseases vary by race, ethnicity, and income in Hawai'i. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for greater investment in public health and the well-being of communities experiencing health disparities because individuals with chronic diseases are more likely to develop complications from the virus. It has also created economic hardships for the people of Hawai'i, especially the state's most vulnerable populations. Amid this health and economic crisis, an opportunity exists to implement an SSB fee in Hawai'i. An SSB fee would impose a fee on SSB distributors that would be passed on to consumers in the form of price increases that influence purchasing behavior. Jurisdictions with SSB taxes or fees have seen reductions in SSB purchases and consumption and have generated millions of dollars in revenues to support health initiatives and reduce socioeconomic disparities. Models predict that a $0.02 SSB fee in Hawai'i could generate $60.5 million and significantly reduce healthcare costs and chronic diseases. This commentary will present an SSB fee policy as a viable model for Hawai'i to reduce SSB consumption, lower chronic disease risks, and generate needed revenues to support health, reduce inequities, and rebuild the state's economy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Hawaii/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684439

RESUMO

In recent years, the incidence of dental erosion caused by the ingestion of acidic foods and drinks, including sports drinks, has been increasing in Japan and elsewhere. Therefore, the problems associated with this injury can no longer be ignored in dental clinical practice. The ingestion of these foods and drinks is important from the viewpoint of overall health and disease prevention. For example, fermented foods, such as Japanese pickles, enhance the nutritional value of foodstuffs and promote the absorption of nutrients into the body, and sports drinks are useful for preventing heat stroke and dehydration. Therefore, eliminating these intakes is not a viable solution. In this paper, we outline the mechanism of dental erosion caused by acidic beverages and also describe the effectiveness of alkaline ionized water (AIW) at preventing acid erosion. Given the fact that the complete elimination of acidic beverage consumption is highly unlikely, remedies such as the use of alkaline ionized water (AIW) may be helpful.


Assuntos
Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons , Erosão Dentária/etiologia , Erosão Dentária/prevenção & controle , Água , Esmalte Dentário , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Íons/química , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Erosão Dentária/epidemiologia , Água/química
7.
Indian J Dent Res ; 32(1): 39-43, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269235

RESUMO

Objective: To understand perceptions, attitudes and experiences of school-going adolescents, their parents, teachers and school management towards sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Design: An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken. Setting: The study was conducted in selected, mixed, unaided schools in the state of Delhi. Subjects: Students of classes 8 to 12th, principals of schools, teachers, parents and school canteen owners. Results: SSBs formed an integral part of the diet of adolescents due to its taste and role as a thirst quencher. Respondents had a fair knowledge of health effects of SSBs. However, they were not aware of the range of drinks that constitute SSBs. Respondents associated SSBs with positivity and happiness. Promotion of SSBs by sports and film stars was cited as a major driver influencing consumption of SSBs by young people. Conclusions: SSBs were readily available even though schools had put in measures to restrict their availability in the premises. Peer pressure emerged as a key factor that drove the consumption of SSBs. Advertisements for SSBs involved individuals who were considered role models and these focused on themes that were important for young people such as belongingness, machismo and friendship among others. On the contrary, health promotion messages around obesity or the consumption of SSBs hardly had any brand ambassador or the visibility of campaigns that promoted SSBs.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Adolescente , Atitude , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia , Pais , Percepção
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1460, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 184,000 deaths per year could be attributable to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) consumption worldwide. Epidemiological and decision models are important tools to estimate disease burden. The purpose of this study was to identify models to assess the burden of diseases attributable to SSBs consumption or the potential impact of health interventions. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review and literature search up to August 2018. Pairs of reviewers independently selected, extracted, and assessed the quality of the included studies through an exhaustive description of each model's features. Discrepancies were solved by consensus. The inclusion criteria were epidemiological or decision models evaluating SSBs health interventions or policies, and descriptive SSBs studies of decision models. Studies published before 2003, cost of illness studies and economic evaluations based on individual patient data were excluded. RESULTS: We identified a total of 2766 references. Out of the 40 included studies, 45% were models specifically developed to address SSBs, 82.5% were conducted in high-income countries and 57.5% considered a health system perspective. The most common model's outcomes were obesity/overweight (82.5%), diabetes (72.5%), cardiovascular disease (60%), mortality (52.5%), direct medical costs (57.35%), and healthy years -DALYs/QALYs- (40%) attributable to SSBs. 67.5% of the studies modelled the effect of SSBs on the outcomes either entirely through BMI or through BMI plus diabetes independently. Models were usually populated with inputs from national surveys -such us obesity prevalence, SSBs consumption-; and vital statistics (67.5%). Only 55% reported results by gender and 40% included children; 30% presented results by income level, and 25% by selected vulnerable groups. Most of the models evaluated at least one policy intervention to reduce SSBs consumption (92.5%), taxes being the most frequent strategy (75%). CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide range of modelling approaches of different complexity and information requirements to evaluate the burden of disease attributable to SSBs. Most of them take into account the impact on obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, mortality, and economic impact. Incorporating these tools to different countries could result in useful information for decision makers and the general population to promote a deeper implementation of policies to reduce SSBs consumption. PROSPERO PROTOCOL NUMBER: CRD42020121025 .


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Criança , Humanos , Sobrepeso , Políticas , Impostos
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199062

RESUMO

The contribution and impact of beverage intake to total nutrient and energy intake may be substantial. Given the link between lifestyle, diet, and the risk of pregnancy complications, this study investigated the association between the quantity and types of beverages with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. The study included 452 women from the Seremban Cohort Study (SECOST). The mean energy by beverage intake was 273 ± 23.83 kcal/day (pre-pregnancy), 349 ± 69.46 kcal/day (first trimester) and 361 ± 64.24 kcal/day (second trimester). Women significantly increased intake of maternal milks and malted drinks, but significantly reduced the intake of carbonated drinks and other drinks from before until the second trimester of pregnancy. For chocolate drinks, carbonated drinks, and soy milk, women increased intake from pre-conception to the first trimester, but reduced their intake from the first to the second trimester. While higher intake of cultured-milk drinks was associated with an increased risk of GDM, higher fruit juice intake was associated with a lower risk of GDM. However, these associations were only observed for intake prior to pregnancy and during the first trimester. Further research is needed to corroborate these findings and investigate the contributions of different beverages to overall diet quality as well as adverse health outcomes during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Gestacional , Animais , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Ingestão de Líquidos , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Leite , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
11.
Clin Nutr ; 40(5): 2508-2519, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Beverages and Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) both the terms are associated with westernized diet and sedentary lifestyle. Throughout recent decades, dietary changes have boosted demand of beverages to meet the liquid consumption needs, among which rising consumption of several calorie-rich beverages have increased the risk of fatty liver disease. Meanwhile, certain beverages have capacity to deliver many unanticipated health benefits thereby reducing the burden of NAFLD and metabolic diseases. The present review therefore addresses the increasing interconnections between beverages intake among population, dietary patterns and the overall effect of these beverage on the development and prevention of NAFLD. Methods In the present review, some frequently consumed beverage groups have been analyzed in light of their role in the advancement and prevention of NAFLD, including sugar sweetened, hot and alcoholic beverages. The nutritional composition of different beverages makes the progression of NAFLD distinctive. RESULTS: The ingestion of sugar-rich beverages has demonstrated the metabolic burden and in all cases, raises the risk of NAFLD, while intake of coffee and tea has decreased this risk without any significant adverse effects. In some cases, low to moderate alcohol intake has been shown to minimize the risk of advanced fibrosis and NAFLD-mortality. CONCLUSION: Together, this review discusses and supports work on new dietary approaches and clinical studies to accomplish nutrition-oriented NAFLD care by improving the drinking habits.


Assuntos
Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática , Fatores de Risco , Açúcares/efeitos adversos
12.
Eur J Health Econ ; 22(6): 905-915, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792852

RESUMO

Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are associated with increased body weight and obesity, which induce a wide array of health impairments such as diabetes or cardiovascular disorders. Excise taxes have been introduced to counteract SSB consumption. We investigated the effect of sugar taxes on SSB sales in Hungary and France using a synthetic control approach. For France, we found a slight decrease in SSB sales after tax implementation while overall soft drink sales increased. For Hungary, there was only a short-term decrease in SSB sales which disappeared after 2 years, leading to an overall increase in SSB sales. However, both effects are characterized by great uncertainty.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Açúcares , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hungria , Impostos
15.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919760

RESUMO

The excessive consumption of sugar, salt, and fat is associated with an increased risk of non-communicable diseases. Therefore, a study on estimating the added sugar, salt, and fat intake in certain populations is important for establishing specific recommendations aiming at improving diet quality, and thus public health. This study aimed to determine the food consumption pattern and the intakes of added sugar, salt, and fat from different food groups and food sources among the residents of South Jakarta, Indonesia. The study was conducted with a cross-sectional design, involving 323 respondents. Data on socio-economic conditions, health and nutritional status, and food consumption were collected. Food consumption data were acquired through the 2-day weighed food record. Results showed that the daily food consumption in the observed population reached 1868-2334 g/capita/day. The total added sugar intake in different groups of respondents ranged between 34.9 and 45.9 g/capita/day, with the highest values observed in school-age boys. Beverages and snacks were identified as the main added sugar sources in the respondents' diet. The total salt intake ranged from 5.46 to 7.43 g/capita/day, while the observed fat intake reached 49.0-65.1 g/capita/day. The major food source contributing to the salt and fat intake included street/restaurant/fast food. Male subjects tended to consume a higher amount of salt and fat than female subjects. These findings can be used as baseline information for providing a strategy for reducing sugar, salt, and fat intakes, with strong implications for improving public health.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Criança , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , Lanches , Adulto Jovem
16.
Caries Res ; 55(3): 183-192, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853058

RESUMO

In January 2014, taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages and nonessential energy-dense food were implemented in Mexico to discourage the consumption of these products. Published evaluations have shown reductions in purchases of taxed food and beverages associated with the implementation of this fiscal policy. Although there are some studies on the impact on health based on simulation studies, no evaluations with empirical data on changes in oral health have been published. We used administrative records and data from an epidemiological surveillance system to estimate changes in (1) outpatient visits related to dental caries; (2) having experienced dental caries: Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) >0 for permanent dentition or dmft >0 for primary dentition (dmft); (3) number of teeth with caries experience (DMFT and dmft), (4) cases with DMFT >0 or dmft >0, and (5) the series of mean DMFT or dmft, associated with the taxes. We estimated probit and negative binomial models for outcomes at individual level, and interrupted time series analysis for population-level outcomes. The implementation of the taxes was associated with negative changes in the trends of outpatient visits, as well as for cases with DMFT >0, dmft >0 and mean DMFT. Taxes were also associated with a lower probability of having experienced dental caries and with a lower number of teeth with caries experience in the samples studied. Our results suggest positive impacts of the implementation of taxes on unhealthy food and beverages in the oral health of Mexicans, which are the first health benefits observed, and add to the health benefits predicted by modeling studies.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Saúde Bucal , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Impostos
17.
Gen Dent ; 69(2): 40-46, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661113

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of energy and hydroelectrolytic beverages on the color stability and fluorescence of composite resins. Three composite resins (Amelogen, Filtek Z350 XT, and Filtek Bulk Fill) were analyzed at 4 different time periods: at baseline (T0) and after 1 (T1), 2 (T2), and 3 (T3) months of storage. Thirty specimens of each material were prepared and divided into subgroups (n = 10) based on the type of solution in which they were immersed for 1 hour a day at 37°C: distilled water (control), Red Bull, and Gatorade. Color stability and fluorescence tests were performed at each timepoint. Three-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to evaluate the influences of material, immersion solution, and time on the color stability and fluorescence values (α = 0.05). The Bonferroni test was used as a post hoc test to compare the mean values between the groups (α = 0.05). For color change, ANOVA showed a statistically significant influence of all isolated factors and their interactions. Overall, for all periods of analysis, Amelogen showed significantly higher fluorescence values than the other composite resins after storage in all solutions. In this in vitro study, energy and hydroelectrolytic beverages altered the color stability and fluorescence of the studied materials at all timepoints. The potential for future color alterations should be considered before anterior composite resin restorations are placed in patients who consume high quantities of these beverages.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Resinas Compostas , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Cor , Materiais Dentários , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
18.
Adv Nutr ; 12(2): 374-383, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786594

RESUMO

Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and artificially sweetened beverage (ASB) intakes have been reported to be associated with mortality; however, conclusions have been inconsistent. This review synthesized the evidence on the associations of SSB and ASB intakes with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer among all populations (including general, diseased, or occupational populations, etc.). PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched up to March 2020. Fifteen studies including 17 cohorts were included in meta-analyses. Each serving (12 fluid ounces or 355 mL) increase in daily SSB consumption was associated with higher risks of all-cause (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.12; 11 cohorts with 965,851 participants) and CVD (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.12; 13 cohorts with 898,005 participants) mortality. The associations of ASB intakes with all-cause and CVD mortality were J-shaped, and HRs (95% CI) across different doses (0, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 servings/d) were 1.00, 1.01 (0.99, 1.03), 1.04 (1.02, 1.07), 1.08 (1.05, 1.11), and 1.13 (1.09, 1.18) for all-cause mortality and 1.00, 1.01 (0.96, 1.07), 1.07 (1.01, 1.13), 1.15 (1.08, 1.23), and 1.25 (1.14, 1.37) for CVD mortality. No significant association was found for cancer mortality. According to the NutriGrade scoring system, the quality of evidence on the associations of SSB intakes with all-cause and CVD mortality was high, and the quality of evidence on other associations was low to moderate. In summary, higher SSB and ASB intakes were associated with higher risks of all-cause mortality and CVD mortality. Given the limited evidence, future studies should further investigate the association between ASB intakes and cause-specific mortality.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Edulcorantes , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas/análise , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos
20.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 34: 102240, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some beverages are known to cause extrinsic staining on the tooth. This study investigated the degree of pigmentation caused by children's acidic beverages, and to confirm the possibility of the quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology in assessing staining of the tooth. METHODS: Bovine tooth specimens were subjected to an 8-day pH-cycling model, using six children's beverages (experimental groups) and a cola (control group), and a remineralizing solution. Before and after the pH-cycling, white-light and fluorescence images of the enamel surface were photographed with a QLF to evaluate color change (ΔEafter) and fluorescence loss (ΔFafter), respectively. Paired t-test was used to compare the tooth colors obtained before and after the pH-cycling. Spearman correlation analysis was performed to examine the correlation between the ΔEafter and ΔFafter values. RESULTS: Median ΔEafter values of all the beverages ranged from 1.33 to 20.42, showing the greatest value in Koal-Koal Koala™ (KKK, p < 0.001). The ΔEafter was correlated with ΔFafter value negatively (ρ=-0.611, p < 0.001). The median ΔFafter varied by beverages (-38.86-0.00) and KKK caused the greatest value. CONCLUSIONS: The cola and 6 children's beverages showed the possibility for discoloration on the tooth. The QLF technology may enable monitoring the discoloration induced on the tooth surface by acidic beverage.


Assuntos
Fotoquimioterapia , Fluorescência Quantitativa Induzida por Luz , Descoloração de Dente , Animais , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Bovinos , Criança , Fluorescência , Humanos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Tecnologia
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