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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1989): 20221431, 2022 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36541169

RESUMO

Coral reefs are increasingly ecologically destabilized across the globe due to climate change. Behavioural plasticity in corallivore behaviour and short-term trophic ecology in response to bleaching events may influence the extent and severity of coral bleaching and subsequent recovery potential, yet our understanding of these interactions in situ remains unclear. Here, we investigated interactions between corallivory and coral bleaching during a severe high thermal event (10.3-degree heating weeks) in Belize. We found that parrotfish changed their grazing behaviour in response to bleaching by selectively avoiding bleached Orbicella spp. colonies regardless of bleaching severity or coral size. For bleached corals, we hypothesize that this short-term respite from corallivory may temporarily buffer coral energy budgets by not redirecting energetic resources to wound healing, and may therefore enable compensatory nutrient acquisition. However, colonies that had previously been heavily grazed were also more susceptible to bleaching, which is likely to increase mortality risk. Thus, short-term respite from corallivory during bleaching may not be sufficient to functionally rescue corals during prolonged bleaching. Such pairwise interactions and behavioural shifts in response to disturbance may appear small scale and short term, but have the potential to fundamentally alter ecological outcomes, especially in already-degraded ecosystems that are vulnerable and sensitive to change.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Ecossistema , Antozoários/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Belize
2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276656, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327317

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Many students seem to find pharmacology learning very challenging due to the complexity and variety of drugs they have to study. The number of drugs the students have to learn, the duration of time to learn the medications, and the evolving nature of diseases demanded learning beyond the classroom walls. This study explored and described nursing students' experiences in community and hospital-based pharmacy practice sites during their service-learning and its implications for pharmacology pedagogical practices. METHODS: Kolb's learning theory provided the framework to explore nursing students' 48-hour service-learning experiences at community/hospital-based pharmacies in Belize and its implications for pharmacology pedagogy. The study utilized two qualitative approaches, reflective journals and focus group interviews, to collect data from 46 second-year nursing students. NVivo software and coding schemes were employed to analyze the data from the interviews and reflective journals. RESULTS: Students reported learning medications, integrating classroom pharmacological knowledge at pharmacy practice sites, acquiring and enhancing communication skills, interpreting prescriptions, dispensing medications, drug calculations, taking inventory, doing vital signs, and patient education. In addition, students reported experiencing inter-professional relationships as healthcare team members. Anxiety was a major challenge experienced by many students at the beginning of the service-learning experience. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the importance of experiential learning of pharmacology amongst second year nursing students, offering the opportunity to inform and support pharmacotherapeutics educators in designing strategies for more effective teaching of medications to nursing students. It also supports the addition of pharmacy placements to the nursing curriculum' as it shows that nursing students can learn medications, skills, and teamwork from experiential pharmacy site posting. Combining classroom instruction with pharmacy experiential service learning might be an effective complement for teaching nursing pharmacology.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Farmácias , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Belize , Hospitais
3.
Belize; PAHO; 2022-11-14. (PAHO/BLZ/22-0001).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56347

RESUMO

In 2022 the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is celebrating its 120th anniversary. Operating as the independent specialized health agency of the inter-American system, PAHO provides technical cooperation to its Member States to address communicable and noncommunicable diseases and their causes, strengthen health systems, and respond to emergencies and disasters throughout the Americas. In addition, in its capacity as the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for the Americas, PAHO participates in the United Nations Country Team, collaborating with other United Nations agencies, funds, and programs to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at country level. At the subregional level, PAHO works with integration mechanisms to position health and its determinants on the political agenda. The 2021 Country Annual Reports reflect PAHO’s technical cooperation in countries and territories in implementing the Country Cooperation Strategies, responding to their needs and priorities, and operating within the framework of PAHO’s regional and global mandates and the SDGs. Under the overarching theme of Responding to COVID-19 and Preparing for the Future, they highlight PAHO’s actions on the COVID-19 pandemic and its continuing efforts in priority areas such as health emergencies, health systems and services, communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases and mental health, health throughout the life course, and health equity. They also provide a financial summary for the biennium 2020-2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emergências , Sistemas de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Equidade , Equidade de Gênero , Diversidade Cultural , Cooperação Técnica , América , Belize
4.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; November 22, 2022. 2 p. ilus, graf, maps.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1400920

RESUMO

Two (2) new infographic report updates on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for November 15-22, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Belize/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Infecções/epidemiologia
5.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; November 14, 2022. 2 p. ilus, graf, maps.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1400919

RESUMO

Two (2) new infographic report update on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for November 8-14, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Belize/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Infecções/epidemiologia
6.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; November 7, 2022. 2 p. ilus, graf, maps.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1400917

RESUMO

Two (2) new infographic report updates on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for November 1-7, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Belize/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Infecções/epidemiologia
7.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(11): 598-604, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory-related complaints prompt most pediatric visits to Karl Heusner Memorial Hospital Authority's (KHMHA) Emergency Department (ED) in Belize. We developed and taught a novel pediatric respiratory emergencies module for generalist practitioners there. We assessed the curriculum's clinical impact on pediatric asthma emergency management. OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the clinical impact of a pediatric emergency medicine curriculum on management of pediatric asthma emergencies at KHMHA in Belize City, Belize. METHODS: We conducted a randomized chart review of pediatric (aged 2-16 y) visits for asthma-related diagnosis at the KHMHA ED between 2015 and 2018 to assess the training module's clinical impact. Primary outcomes included time to albuterol and steroids. Secondary outcomes included clinical scoring tool (Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure [PRAM]) usage, ED length of stay, usage of chest radiography, return visit within 7 days, and hospital admission rates. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression were used. RESULTS: Two hundred eighty-three pediatric asthma-related diagnoses met our inclusion criteria. The patients treated by trained and untrained physician groups were demographically and clinically similar. The time to albuterol was significantly faster in the trained (intervention) group compared with the untrained (control) physician group when evaluating baseline of the group posttraining (P < 0.05). However, the time to steroids did not reach statistical significance posttraining (P = 0.93). The PRAM score utilization significantly increased among both control group and intervention group. The untrained physician group was more likely to use chest radiography or admit patients. The trained physician group had higher return visit rates within 7 days and shorter ED length of stay, but this did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The curriculum positively impacted clinical outcomes leading to earlier albuterol administration, increased PRAM score use, obtaining less chest radiographs, and decreased admission rates. The timeliness of systemic steroid administration was unaffected.


Assuntos
Asma , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica , Criança , Humanos , Emergências , Belize , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Albuterol , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Currículo
8.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; October 24, 2022. 2 p. ilus, graf, maps.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1398707

RESUMO

Two (2) new infographic daily report updates on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for October 18-24, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Belize/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Infecções/epidemiologia
9.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; October 17, 2022. 2 p. ilus, graf, maps.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1398689

RESUMO

Two (2) new infographic report updates on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for October 12-17, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Belize/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Infecções/epidemiologia
10.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; October 11, 2022. 2 p. ilus, graf, maps.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1398663

RESUMO

Two (2) new infographic report updates on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for October 5-11, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Belize/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Infecções/epidemiologia
11.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; October 4, 2022. 2 p. ilus, graf, maps.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1398535

RESUMO

Two (2) new infographic report updates on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for October 1-4, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Belize/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Infecções/epidemiologia
12.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; October 31, 2022. 2 p. ilus, graf, maps.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1400913

RESUMO

Two (2) new infographic report updates on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for October 25-31, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Belize/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Infecções/epidemiologia
13.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health, Belize; October 17, 2022. 2 p.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1401030

RESUMO

The Ministry of Health & Wellness joins the world in celebrating International Infection Prevention and Control Week from October 17 to 21, 2022, under the theme "Spread Prevention - not infection!" The theme was chosen during the global pandemic as a call to be more proactive to prevent infections rather than being reactive and having to treat infections.


Assuntos
Humanos , Belize , Infecções
14.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health, Belize; October 12, 2022. 1 p.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1401028

RESUMO

The Ministry of Health & Wellness advises that flood waters can be the source of many infectious diseases, chemical hazards, and injuries and, therefore, urges the public to avoid walking, working, or playing in floodwaters. Exposure to contaminated floodwater can cause wound infections, skin rashes, stomach illnesses, tetanus, and waterborne diseases such as typhoid fever, cholera, leptospirosis, and hepatitis A.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água , Belize , Água
15.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health, Belize; October 6, 2022,. 1 p.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1397724

RESUMO

On October 10, 2022, the world will commemorate World Mental Health Day under the theme "Make mental health and wellbeing for all a global priority." The theme was chosen to address the inequalities exposed by the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact globally on people's mental health.


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde Mental , Belize , Saúde Pública
16.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; October 11, 2022. 2 p.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1397727

RESUMO

The Ministry of Health & Wellness (MoHW), through its Communications Unit and in collaboration with PAHO and other partners, announces the launch of the ministry's official website, health.gov.bz. In keeping in line with Belize's National Digital Agenda to transform government services through the integration of technology, the ministry has been working hard to develop a modern, interactive, and user-friendly website.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recursos em Comunicações , Belize , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(40): e2121821119, 2022 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36161917

RESUMO

Cacao seeds, Theobroma cacao, provide the basis for a ceremonially important Mesoamerican food. Past efforts to identify cacao in ceramics focused on highly decorative vessel forms associated with elite ceremonial contexts, creating assumptions as to how cacao was distributed and who could access it. This study examines 54 archaeological ceramic sherds from El Pilar (Belize/Guatemala) of Late Classic (600 to 900 CE) residential and civic contexts representing a cross-section of ancient Maya inhabitants. Identification of cacao in ancient sherds has depended on the general presence of theobromine; we used the discrete presence of theophylline, a unique key biomarker for cacao in the region. Analysis was done by grinding off all outside surfaces to reduce contamination, pulverizing the inner clay matrix, extracting absorbed molecules, and concentrating the extractions. In order to obtain especially high selectivity and low limits of detection, our study utilized the technique of resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization coupled with laser-desorption jet-cooling mass spectrometry. This technique isolates molecules in the cold gas phase where they can be selectively ionized through a resonant two-photon process. Of the sherds analyzed, 30 samples (56%) were found to contain significant amounts of theophylline and thus test positive for cacao. Importantly, cacao is present in all contexts, common to all Maya residents near and far from centers.


Assuntos
Cacau , Belize , Cacau/anatomia & histologia , Cacau/história , Argila , Guatemala , História Antiga , Sementes/química , Teobromina/análise , Teobromina/história , Teofilina/análise , Teofilina/história
18.
Zootaxa ; 5168(5): 541-552, 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101265

RESUMO

A new species of panopeid crab from shallow coastal waters of Belize is formally described and named based upon comparative study of three small specimens obtained in the course of a regional biodiversity survey of decapod crustaceans. The herein designated holotype of Hexapanopeus klausruetzleri n. sp. is a specimen previously included in a comparative molecular phylogenetic analysis that showed it to be closely related to, but genetically distinct from, the western Atlantic species Hexapanopeus angustifrons (Benedict Rathbun, 1891). Hexapanopeus klausruetzleri n. sp. differs from this widely reported warm-temperate species in both its smoother carapace and pereopod surfaces and its generally more lobiform anterolateral teeth. The unique male first gonopod of the new species also strongly supports its morphological separation from all known congeners and other superficially similar western Atlantic panopeids with which it might be confused. To date, mature females have not been found, and the limited available collections are restricted to the vicinity of Carrie Bow Cay and nearby waters. Fourteen additional species of small panopeid and pseudorhombilid crabs, similar to Hexapanopeus klausruetzleri n. sp. in size and general habitus, were taken in the course of our studies in Belize. Most have not been previously reported from these waters, and several warrant further study to confirm their identifications.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Água , Animais , Belize , Crustáceos , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia
19.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; September 30, 2022. 2 p. ilus, graf, maps.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1398533

RESUMO

Two (2) new infographic report updates on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for September 28-30, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Belize/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Infecções/epidemiologia
20.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; September 27, 2022. 2 p. ilus, maps, graf.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1398531

RESUMO

Two (2) new infographic report updates on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for September 24-27, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Belize/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Infecções/epidemiologia
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