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3.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(2): 154-169, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565947

RESUMO

Trauma, Psychological Stress and Family Situation of Fathers who Experienced Child and Youth Welfare Services: Implications for Youth Welfare Interventions and Therapy This paper explores the current family situation and psychological stress of fathers who experienced trauma and different kinds of youth welfare services including out-of-home placement during their childhood. The main group consisted of n = 119 fathers and was compared to a group of n = 36 fathers whose families never received services from the child and youth welfare authority. In the main group, a high correlation was found between trauma and current psychological stress, albeit the out-of-home care intervention or intensive home-support by child and youth welfare services during childhood. The higher stress level in the main group of fathers in contrast to the comparison group effects their current family situation, especially concerning the contact between fathers and their children. Fathers with higher stress levels were less likely to be in contact with their children. Acting on the assumption that fathers are important for their children, the results implicate a heightened focus on earlier trauma-informed interventions in families with difficulties and out-of-home care settings, to reduce stress levels and prevent intergenerational transmission of problematic family experiences. Current child and youth welfare services, in particular out-of-home placements, should take these trauma-informed approaches and therapy into account.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança , Pai/psicologia , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429930

RESUMO

Background and objectives: To explore the ethical and legal complexities arising from the controversial issue of surrogacy, particularly in terms of how they affect fundamental rights of children and parents. Surrogacy is a form of medically-assisted procreation (MAP) in which a woman "lends" her uterus to carry out a pregnancy on behalf of a third party. There are pathological conditions, such as uterine agenesis or hysterectomy outcomes, that may prevent prospective mothers from becoming pregnant or carry a pregnancy to term; such patients may consider finding a surrogate mother. Many issues relating to surrogacy remain unresolved, with significant disagreements and controversy within the scientific community and public opinion. There are several factors called into play and multiple parties and stakeholders whose objectives and interests need to somehow be reconciled. First and foremost, the authors contend, it is essential to prioritize and uphold the rights of children born through surrogacy and heterologous MAP. Materials and methods: To draw a parallel between Italy and the rest of the world, the legislation in force in twelve European countries was analyzed, eleven of which are part of the European Union (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Greece, Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Lithuania, Czech Republic and Portugal) and three non-members of the same (United Kingdom, Ukraine and Russia), as well as that of twelve non-European countries considered exemplary (United States, Canada, Australia, India, China, Thailand, Israel, Nigeria and South Africa); in particular, legislative sources and legal databases were drawn upon, in order to draw a comparison with the Italian legislation currently in force and map out the evolution of the Italian case law on the basis of the judgments issued by Italian courts, including the Constitutional and Supreme Courts and the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR); search engines such as PubMed and Google Scholar were also used, by entering the keywords "surrogacy" and "surrogate motherhood", to find scientific articles concerning assisted reproduction techniques with a close focus on surrogacy. Results: SM is a prohibited and sanctioned practice in Italy; on the other hand, it is allowed in other countries of the world, which leads Italian couples, or couples from other countries where it is banned, to often contact foreign centers in order to undertake a MAP pathway which includes surrogacy; in addition, challenges may arise from the legal status of children born through surrogacy abroad: to date, in most countries, there is no specific legislation aimed at regulating their legal registration and parental status. Conclusion: With reference to the Italian context, despite the scientific and legal evolution on the subject, a legislative intervention aimed at filling the regulatory gaps in terms of heterologous MAP and surrogacy has not yet come to fruition. Considering the possibility of "fertility tourism", i.e., traveling to countries where the practice is legal, as indeed already happens in a relatively significant number of cases, the current legislation, although integrated by the legal interpretation, does not appear to be effective in avoiding the phenomenon of procreative tourism. Moreover, to overcome some contradictions currently present between law 40 and law 194, it would be appropriate to outline an organic and exhaustive framework of rules, which should take into account the multiplicity of interests at stake, in keeping with a fair and sustainable balance when regulating such practices.


Assuntos
Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/legislação & jurisprudência , Mães Substitutas/legislação & jurisprudência , Altruísmo , Austrália , Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança/ética , Bem-Estar da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Itália , Japão , Turismo Médico/ética , Turismo Médico/legislação & jurisprudência , Gravidez , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Federação Russa , Problemas Sociais , Tailândia , Ucrânia , Estados Unidos
5.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(1): 6-23, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459215

RESUMO

Legal Aspects of Child Protection Several legal codes (e. g. family, social and criminal law) are of importance in child protection cases in Germany. The intention of legal codes differs between family law (relations between family members), social law (support for families) and criminal law (penal aspects). Mental health professionals have to know the prevailing legal norms concerning child-welfare. Collaborative work between medicine and youth welfare and child protection services (CPS) requires a weighing of data protection issues and the risk for the child. German child protection law provides a stepped model for health care professionals to inform CPS. This includes a careful weighing of the risk for child abuse and own competences to provide support. Medical personnel should be aware of several further legislative regulations concerning child protection issues.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/legislação & jurisprudência , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/legislação & jurisprudência , Bem-Estar da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Criança , Família , Alemanha , Humanos
6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(3): e21, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of weight gain as a consequence of school closure in children during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been recognized. This study was performed to investigate changes in anthropometric and metabolic parameters in children following a 6-month period of social distancing and school closure due to the pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in school-aged children that were on routine follow-up at the Growth Clinic of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. Changes in body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores (z-scores), lipid profiles, and vitamin D levels were investigated. The 1-year period prior to school closure was defined as "pre-COVID-19 period," and the subsequent 6-month period as "COVID-19 period." RESULTS: Overall, 226 children between 4 to 14 years old without comorbidities were assessed. On average, their BMI z-scores increased by 0.219 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.167-0.271; P < 0.001) in the COVID-19 period compared to the pre-COVID-19 period, and the proportion of overweight or obesity increased from 23.9% in the pre-COVID-19 period to 31.4% in the COVID-19 period. The number of days after school closure (P = 0.004) and being in the normoweight category in the pre-COVID-19 period (P = 0.017) were factors associated with an increased BMI in the COVID-19 period. The mean triglyceride (105.8 mg/dL vs. 88.6 mg/dL, P < 0.001) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (100.2 mg/dL vs. 94.0 mg/dL, P = 0.002) levels were higher, whereas the calcidiol level (18.9 mg/dL vs. 23.8 mg/dL, P < 0.001) was lower in the COVID-19 period compared to the pre-COVID-19 period. CONCLUSION: Within 6 months, increased childhood obesity and vitamin D deficiencies were observed. The duration of school closure was significantly associated with an increased BMI and being normoweight does not exclude the risks for gaining weight.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Política Pública , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Vitamina D/sangue
7.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E01, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411669

RESUMO

We examined levels of very low food security (VLFS) among low-income households with children in California before and shortly after the economic downturn from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Households were randomly sampled in 2018, 2019, and 2020; 11,653 mothers were administered the US Department of Agriculture 6-item Food Security Survey Module. Post-COVID-19 (April 27 to July 21, 2020, a period when stay-at-home restrictions were eased in the state), 14.0% of mothers reported VLFS versus 19.3% pre-COVID-19 (November 21, 2019, to March 14, 2020) (P = .003), 22.2% in 2019 (P < .001), and 19.0% in 2018 (P = .004). Existing systems to quickly obtain food assistance benefits in California and new federal benefits available in response to COVID-19 may have reduced VLFS.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança , Doença Crônica , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , /epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança/economia , Bem-Estar da Criança/etnologia , Bem-Estar da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Características da Família , Feminino , /normas , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Autorrelato
8.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 30(1): 35-45, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-197951

RESUMO

Parental promotion of an adequate environment during early childhood results in healthy child development. This study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of the positive parenting programme, 'Gaining health and wellbeing from birth to three' (GH&W), as a universal prevention strategy. Participants were 87 parents with children < 36 months old attending 20 primary care centres. Centres were randomly assigned to three GH&W intervention levels: online course (level 1), online course plus group workshops (level 2), and online course plus group workshops plus individual support at medical check-ups (level 3), delivered by healthcare professionals. As for feasibility, participants in levels 2 and 3 reported higher utility and satisfaction with the online course than participants in level 1. Pretest-posttest comparisons and cluster analysis showed that participants in level 3 achieved the best results and were associated with a consolidated cluster characterised by improvements in health promotion activities, parental self-regulation, and satisfaction with the service, whereas participants in levels 1 and 2 showed fewer improvements and were associated with initial and transitional clusters. The GH&W programme improves the universal reach of web-based courses and efficiently activates the contribution of the primary care system to the support network for healthy child development and wellbeing


La promoción de entornos saludables en el contexto familiar durante la primera infancia es clave para el desarrollo infantil. Este estudio evaluó la viabilidad y la eficacia del programa de parentalidad positiva "Ganar salud y bienestar de 0 a 3 años" (GSB) como estrategia de prevención universal. Participaron 87 figuras parentales con hijos o hijas de menos de 36 meses usuarios de 20 centros de salud. Los centros fueron asignados aleatoriamente a tres niveles de intervención del GSB: curso online (nivel 1), curso online más talleres grupales (nivel 2) y curso online, más talleres grupales, más apoyo individual en revisiones médicas (nivel 3) implementado por los equipos de pediatría. Respecto a la viabilidad, los participantes de los niveles 2 y 3 consideraron más útil y satisfactorio el curso online que los participantes del nivel 1. En las comparaciones pretest-postest y el análisis de clúster el nivel 3 logró los mejores resultados y se asoció al clúster consolidado caracterizado por mejoras en rutinas saludables, autorregulación parental y satisfacción con el servicio, mientras que los niveles 1 y 2 mostraron menos mejoras y se asociaron al clúster inicial y de transición. El programa GSB amplía el alcance universal del curso online e implica eficazmente al sistema sanitario en la red de apoyo al desarrollo saludable y del bienestar infantil


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Bem-Estar da Criança/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Intervenção Médica Precoce , Psicologia da Criança , Relações Pai-Filho
10.
NASN Sch Nurse ; 36(2): 99-103, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307960

RESUMO

For over a century, community health workers (CHWs) have acted as agents of social justice, health care promotion, and change for the underresourced communities they serve and come from. Over 50,000 CHWs are employed in the United States, and this number is growing with the need for CHWs to help fight both the COVID-19 pandemic and social injustice plaguing our nation. Even with many students learning from home, it is crucial that healthcare be integrated into the school system since a child's health greatly affects their ability to learn. CHWs in schools can help overcome community and cultural barriers to connect families to various community resources and provide important health screenings and education. On return to the traditional classroom, the myriad of tasks such as infection prevention, contact tracing, and temperature screening are not feasible for a school nurse to do alone. CHWs may be just the leaders we need to help schools address the challenges faced in 2020.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Bem-Estar da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , /enfermagem , Criança , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Assistentes de Enfermagem/educação , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Enfermagem Escolar/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
15.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 19(4)dez. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1147304

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: A adoção de estilos de vida saudável (EVS) nas crianças é estimulada na escola mas a educação para a saúde orienta-se maioritariamente para as crianças, descurando a família. OBJETIVO: Mapear e examinar programas escolares de promoção de EVS nas crianças (3-10anos) que abordem 3 ou mais temáticas. MÉTODO: Scoping Review de 1992-2020 com metodologia do Institute Joanna Briggs e recurso à plataforma Rayyan QCRI. Resultados: De 4952 artigos, selecionaram-se 19 programas de promoção de EVS, de 13 países, com temas: alimentação saudável, atividade física e educação parental, mas também intervenções na dependência de ecrã, sono e higiene. DISCUSSÃO: Apesar de a maioria dos programas encontrados serem eficientes, não há consenso sobre técnicas de monitorização das dimensões dos EVS, nem intervenções holísticas de promoção de EVS. CONCLUSÃO: Programas que envolvem pais tornam-se mais eficientes. As evidências científicas encontradas podem aprimorar intervenções em saúde.


INTODUCCIÓN: En la escuela se fomenta la adopción de estilos de vida saludables (EVS) en los niños, pero la educación para la salud se orienta principalmente a los niños, descuidando a la familia. OBJETIVO: Mapear y examinar programas escolares para promover el EVS en niños (de 3 a 10 años) que aborden 3 o más temas. MÉTODO: Scoping Review de 1992-2020 siguiendo la metodología del Joanna Briggs Institute y utilizando la plataforma Rayyan QCRI. RESULTADOS: De 4952 artículos, se seleccionaron 19 programas de promoción del EVS de 13 países, con temas: alimentación saludable, actividad física y educación de los padres, pero también intervenciones sobre dependencia de la pantalla, sueño e higiene. DISCUSIÓN: Aunque la mayoría de los programas encontrados son eficientes, no hay consenso sobre técnicas para monitorear las dimensiones del EVS y sobre intervenciones holísticas para promover el EVS. CONCLUSIÓN: Los programas que involucran a los padres se vuelven más eficientes. La evidencia científica encontrada puede mejorar las intervenciones en salud.


INTRODUCTION: The adoption of healthy lifestyles (HLs) in children is encouraged at school, but health education is mainly oriented towards children, neglecting the family. OBJECTIVE: To map and examine school programs to promote HLs in children (3-10 years old) that address 3 or more topics. METHOD: A Scoping Review from 1992-2020 with the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology and using the Rayyan QCRI platform. RESULTS: Out of 4,952 articles, 19 HL promotion programs from 13 countries were selected, with the following themes: healthy eating, physical activity and parental education, but also interventions on screen dependence, sleep and hygiene.DISCUSSION: Although most of the programs found are efficient, there is no consensus on techniques for monitoring the dimensions of HLs, nor holistic interventions to promote Hls. CONCLUSION: Programs that involve parents become more efficient. The scientific evidence found can improve health interventions.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Saúde da Criança , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Promoção da Saúde , Bem-Estar da Criança
16.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 41(317): 26-30, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308798

RESUMO

The health and social crisis linked to the COVID-19 shows the limits of a welfare state that is concerned to include care in its actions and struggles to invest in preventive public policies. The latter would surely have made it possible to live the pandemic differently. In the field of child protection, the preventive nurseries and their actions for the benefit of families were able to maintain a link with parents during the first confinement. This is the case of the establishments of the association Enfant Présent, which has created a parental phone support platform.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança , Criança , Família , Humanos , Pandemias
17.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 41(317): 39-41, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308801

RESUMO

During the first wave of the epidemic, current events have given pride of place to the hospital world, its difficulties and its successes. However, everything relating to maternal and child welfare (PMI) or the liberal practice of the profession has been almost non-existent. Yet these professionals remained mobilised throughout the confinement of the spring. Interview with Fabienne Grillère and Pauline Le Masson, two nursery nurses from PMIs in Grenoble.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança , Criança , Emoções , Família , Hospitais , Humanos
18.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 39: e2020267, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Social isolation is currently identified as the best way to prevent the infection by the new coronavirus. However, for some social groups, such as children and adolescents, this measure carries a contradiction: the home, which should be the safest place for them, is also a frequent environment of a sad aggravation: domestic violence. This study aims to evaluate the notifications of interpersonal/self-inflicted violence available in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases in the State of Santa Catarina (southern Brazil), for the juvenile age group, before and during the new coronavirus pandemics. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive study of violence against children and adolescents (from 0 to 19 years) notified by health professionals by completing and entering the occurrence in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases of the State of Santa Catarina in 11 weeks in which the social isolation measure was instituted as mandatory, comparing with the same period before this measure. RESULTS: During the study period, 136 municipalities in Santa Catarina made 1,851 notifications. There was a decrease of 55.3% of them in the isolation period, and the difficulties encountered in seeking protection and assistance institutions were listed. CONCLUSIONS: The society needs to be aware of possible cases of violence in the children and adolescent population. It is important to provide accessible, effective, and safe ways for complaints and notifications, as well as a quick response to the cases, aiming at protecting victims and minimizing damages to prevent the perpetuation of the violence.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Bem-Estar da Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente/tendências , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Criança/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência Doméstica/prevenção & controle , Violência Doméstica/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias
19.
New Bioeth ; 26(4): 328-350, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196403

RESUMO

United States law recognizes adult reproductive liberty and many states view surrogacy services through that lens. During the COVID-19 pandemic in March, 2020, New York State enacted the Child-Parent Surrogacy Act (CPSA) into law, after feminists and their allies had caused its defeat in 2019. Just before approval of the CPSA, a group of legislators introduced the Alternative Surrogacy Bill (ASB). This article is a case study that examines how the CPSA and not the ASB became law, examining surrogate rights, the best interests of the child, and the ethical issues related to adult donor-conceived and surrogacy born children's rights to information about their ancestry.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos , Legislação Médica/ética , Técnicas Reprodutivas/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle Social Formal , Mães Substitutas/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso à Informação , Adulto , Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança , Comércio/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dissidências e Disputas , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Indústrias/ética , Indústrias/legislação & jurisprudência , Mães , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Técnicas Reprodutivas/economia , Técnicas Reprodutivas/ética , Direitos da Mulher
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