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2.
N Z Vet J ; 68(2): 107-111, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647882

RESUMO

Aim: To estimate, ex vivo, the torque required to cause vertebral dislocation of cattle tails.Methods: Five tails from dairy cows, severed at the junction between the sacrum and the first caudal vertebra, were sourced from a slaughterhouse. Within 2 hours of slaughter, the severed end of each tail was clamped in a vice and a steel collar was placed halfway along the tail. A torque wrench was attached to the steel collar, which was then rotated to produce an audible and palpable vertebral dislocation, and the torque at the time of the break was recorded.Results: The maximum torque required to break a tail was 20 Nm, the minimum was 9.8 Nm, and the uncertainty was 4.9 Nm.Conclusion: The torque required to break a cow's tail is unlikely to be applied accidentally if cattle are handled following recommended best practice. Thus if cattle on a farm can be shown to have broken tails due to manipulation by farm staff, cattle handling is not meeting the recommended best practice of the New Zealand Dairy Cattle Code of Welfare.


Assuntos
Bovinos/lesões , Fraturas Ósseas , Cauda/lesões , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cadáver , Torque
3.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110069, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830618

RESUMO

Veterinary forensics is rapidly emerging as a distinct branch of veterinary medicine, especially because of increasing mindfulness about animal cruelty, and of the link between acts of cruelty to animals and violence toward humans. Nevertheless, the application of forensic sciences in veterinary cases lags behind its application in medical cases. Although gaps persist in veterinarians' knowledge of forensics and in how to apply this field to medicolegal cases involving animals, continued research and publication in veterinary forensics are rapidly developing the evidence base in this area. Additionally, educational opportunities in veterinary forensics are also increasing at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Together, these changes will continue to improve veterinarians' abilities to investigate cases involving animals. To further strengthen these investigations, veterinarians should also collaborate with the appropriate experts in different disciplines of forensic science.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal , Medicina Veterinária , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Comportamento Cooperativo , Crime , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Editoração , Médicos Veterinários
4.
Meat Sci ; 160: 107965, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669861

RESUMO

Castration of male piglets is a common practice to avoid boar taint but is being questioned. The present work has an exploratory character and aims to investigate the beliefs and attitudes of Eastern European consumers regarding boar taint, surgical castration immunocastration and perception of meat from castrated pigs and to find out possible segments of consumers regarding these attitudes and beliefs. For this purpose, a consumer study was carried out involving 5508 consumers from 13 Eastern European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, North Macedonia, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine). The questionnaire included statements related to beliefs about castration and perception of meat from castrated pigs, attitudes towards meat from castrated pigs. Results show that in general beliefs and attitudes of the consumers are not defined, probably because of the lack of knowledge (information was not provided to the consumers) towards these issues. Three different clusters of consumers were obtained with different beliefs towards castration.


Assuntos
Orquiectomia/veterinária , Opinião Pública , Suínos , Adulto , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Comportamento do Consumidor , Europa Oriental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
N Z Vet J ; 68(1): 38-45, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474197

RESUMO

Aims: To determine the frequency of different types of health and behavioural problems observed in the first month after adoption in kittens and adult cats rehomed through an animal shelter in New Zealand, to assess satisfaction of adopters and to determine the preferences of adopters for provision of post-adoption support.Methods: The adopters of kittens and cats from an animal shelter in Auckland, New Zealand between 15 October 2016-4 December 2016 were invited to complete a survey 1 week and 1 month after adoption. Respondents were asked about how well the animal was settling into the household, whether they had observed any health or behavioural problems, and what their preferences were for receiving post-adoption support.Results: Data from at least one survey were available for 83/115 (72.2%) kittens and 70/155 (45.6%) adult cats, with 39/115 (34%) adopters of kittens and 35/155 (23%) adopters of adult cats completing surveys at both 1 week and 1 month after adoption. By 1 month after adoption 57/60 (95%) adopted kittens and 40/53 (75%) adopted adult cats had settled well into their new home. At 1 month after adoption 28/60 (47%) kittens and 26/53 (49%) cats had ≥1 reported behavioural problem, and 16/60 (27%) kittens and 18/53 (34%) cats had ≥1 reported health problem. The most common problem behaviours for kittens were episodes of hyperactivity and scratching household items, and for adult cats were spending most of the time hiding and scratching household items. The most common health problems for kittens were eye problems and sneezing or a runny nose, and for adult cats were sneezing or a runny nose. Amongst respondents, the most helpful support for recent adopters was considered to be an email or phone call 1 month after adoption from the animal shelter.Conclusions and clinical relevance: Although many adopters reported health and/or behavioural issues in their adopted kittens and adult cats, most issues were generally mild and the adopters were generally satisfied with their animals. Providing new adopters with advice about managing common health and behavioural issues such as upper respiratory disease and scratching household items may increase satisfaction with adoptions.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento Animal , Gatos , Propriedade , Animais , Gatos/fisiologia , Gatos/psicologia , Nova Zelândia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Ambio ; 49(1): 35-48, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055793

RESUMO

Dairy production systems have rapidly intensified over the past several decades. Dairy farms in many world regions are larger and concentrated in fewer hands. Higher productivity can increase overall economic gains but also incurs site-specific social and environmental costs. In this paper, we review the drivers and impacts of dairy intensification. We identify in the literature four prominent concerns about dairy intensification: the environment, animal welfare, socioeconomic well-being, and human health. We then critically assess three frameworks-sustainable intensification, multifunctionality, and agroecology-which promise win-win solutions to these concerns. We call for research and policy approaches that can better account for synergies and trade-offs among the multiple dimensions of dairy impacts. Specifically, we suggest the need to (1) consider dairy system transitions within broader processes of social-environmental change and (2) investigate how certain framings and metrics may lead to uneven social-environmental outcomes. Such work can help visualize transformations towards more equitable, ethical, and sustainable food systems.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Fazendas , Humanos , Políticas
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 702-713, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629510

RESUMO

Little is known about the combination of factors that motivate changes in calf management on dairy farms. Providing information to farmers may help promote change, but it is unclear how this approach affects and is affected by the farmer's relationship with the advisors such as the herd veterinarian. The goal of this study was to understand how benchmarking measures related to calf immune development and growth affected farmer and veterinarian cooperation and influenced the farmer's view of the veterinarian as an advisor for calf management. Veterinarians provided their clients (n = 18 dairy farms in the lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia) with 2 benchmark reports providing information on transfer of passive immunity and calf growth. Farmers were interviewed before and after receiving these reports to understand how they perceived their veterinarian as a calf advisor. Qualitative analysis identified 2 major themes indicating that benchmarking (1) improved farmer perception of their veterinarian's capacities to advise on calves and (2) strengthened the social influence of the veterinarian. We conclude that benchmarking can help promote stronger relationships between farmers and veterinarians.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Benchmarking , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Fazendeiros , Médicos Veterinários , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Feminino , Humanos
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 909-914, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704021

RESUMO

The veal calf sector fears that a too-rapid and large decrease in antimicrobial use (AMU) as demanded by European authorities would increase mortality, causing economic and welfare issues. To determine whether this concern is justified, the relationship between AMU (total and different classes) and mortality in dairy-type white veal calves, managed by 2 large veal companies, was explored. A retrospective cohort study was performed on electronically collected antimicrobial consumption and mortality data from the largest Belgian veal practice during the period 2014 to 2016. Mixed linear [mortality (%) as continuous outcome] and generalized linear mixed models with binary outcome for event and trial approach were built to identify factors associated with mortality. Data consisted of 76 production cycles from 29 farms managed by 2 veal companies (1 and 2) and covering 45,001 calves. Average AMU was 30.1 ± 10.4 defined daily doses for animals per year (± standard deviation) and was higher in veal company 2 than in veal company 1 (35.9 ± 9.3 and 22.4 ± 5.7 defined daily doses for animals per year, respectively). In contrast, mean mortality was lower in veal company 2 (2.3 ± 1.4%) than in veal company 1 (4.1 ± 1.4%). Both models showed a positive association between AMU and mortality in veal company 1 and no association in veal company 2. The final linear model identified increasing herd size and the use of third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins as risk factors for mortality and the use of long-acting macrolides as a protective factor. The final logistic model identified an increased mortality risk with increased use of third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins and sulfonamides-trimethoprim and decreased mortality when using long-acting macrolides. Based on these data, at the current levels of AMU in Belgian veal calves, an increase in mortality when reducing AMU could not be evidenced. Differences in herd size and factors other than AMU likely better explain why one veal company faces almost double the mortality of another one. Abandoning the use of long-acting macrolides might have negative consequences for mortality under the current state of the industry. The most ethical way to further reduce AMU in veal calves is likely simultaneously monitoring AMU and animal welfare parameters, starting with, but not limited to, mortality.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/mortalidade , Bem-Estar do Animal/ética , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Uso de Medicamentos , Modelos Logísticos , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Meat Sci ; 159: 107934, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493738

RESUMO

The aim of this pilot study was to develop and evaluate an automated system for the assessment of ear and tail lesions as welfare indicators in pigs at the abattoir. A camera-based system was constructed to enable automatic assessment. This was evaluated in comparison to a standard observer, defined as skilled human veterinary observer, based on 5952 carcasses. We detected significant values for ear lesions (sensitivity, 77.0; specificity, 96.5; accuracy, 95.4%) and good values for tail lesions (sensitivity, 77.8%; specificity, 99.7%; accuracy, 99.5%). The reliabilities of assessments by four individual human observers directly at the abattoir and the camera system were calculated using Krippendorff's alpha. These varied between 0.42 and 0.67 for ear lesions and 0.42 and 0.55 for tail lesions, while better values were reached for the agreement between the system and picture-based evaluation (0.64 for ear lesions and 0.75 for tail lesions). More scientific evaluations at different abattoirs are now needed to further test and improve the camera-based system and its various scopes of application.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Automação , Orelha/patologia , Suínos , Cauda/patologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária , Matadouros , Animais , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Projetos Piloto , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico
10.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 44 p. ilus.
Tese em Português | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IPPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ESPECIALIZACAOSESPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1053135

RESUMO

O isolamento viral em camundongos (IVC) é uma técnica amplamente utilizada em laboratórios pelo Brasil, por não ser necessário o despendimento de alta complexidade tecnológica, além de permitir uma amplificação viral e produção de vírus. A continuidade da experimentação animal quando necessária na ciência moderna deve ser suscetível ao refinamento e respaldada pela legislação devido à preocupação com a qualidade de vida do animal durante os procedimentos e a necessidade de reduzir os riscos e o grau de sofrimento dos animais sempre que possível. Em conformidade com o assunto, o presente estudo visa estabelecer protocolos anestésicos a serem empregados no IVC em camundongos recém-desmamados a fim de promover melhoria para o bem-estar animal. Para tanto, foram utilizados 80 camundongos Swiss-Webster (Mus musculus), 40 fêmeas e 40 machos, recém-desmamados (21 dias), pesando entre 11 e 14 gramas. Foram testados 5 tipos de associação: CX (Xilazina 10mg/kg e Cetamina 100 mg/kg), CXA (Xilazina 5mg/kg, Cetamina 80 mg/kg e Acepromazina 1 mg/kg), CXT (Xilazina 5 mg/kg, Cetamina 80 mg/kg e Tramadol 5 mg/kg), CXAT (Cetamina 100 mg/kg, Xilazina 10 mg/kg, Acepromazina 2mg/kg e Tramadol 5 mg/kg) e ITA (Isoflurano 5% indução e 2,5% manutenção, Tramadol 5 mg/kg e Acepromazina 1 mg/kg). Os animais foram avaliados quanto ao período de indução (perda do endireitamento até perda dos reflexos podais/caudal), período de plano anestésico (tempo de permanência com ausência dos reflexos) e período de recuperação (retorno dos reflexos até o retorno do endireitamento). Além de parâmetros vitais, tais como frequência respiratória e temperatura corpórea. Os protocolos CXAT e IAT foram passíveis de induzir anestesia, sendo o protocolo IAT o mais adequado e seguro para realizar o procedimento de IVC com 100% de eficiência, ausência de mortalidade, menor queda de temperatura e de frequência respiratória e com recuperação pós-anestésica mais rápida (AU).


Viral isolation in mice (VIM) is a technique widely used in laboratories throughout Brazil, as it does not require the expenditure of high technological complexity, in addition to allowing viral amplification and virus production. The continuity of animal experimentation when necessary in modern science must be susceptible to refinement and supported by legislation due to the concern with the quality of life of the animal during the procedures and the need to reduce the risks and the degree of suffering of the animals whenever possible. In accordance with the subject, the present study aims to establish anesthetic protocols to be used in the VIM in recently weaned mice in order to promote improvement for animal welfare. For this purpose, 80 Swiss-Webster mice (Mus musculus), 40 females and 40 males, recently weaned (21 days), weighing between 11 and 14 grams, were used. Five types of association were tested: CX (Xylazine 10mg / kg and Ketamine 100 mg / kg), CXA (Xylazine 5mg / kg, Ketamine 80 mg / kg and Acepromazine 1 mg / kg), CXT (Xylazine 5 mg / kg, Ketamine 80 mg / kg and Tramadol 5 mg / kg), CXAT (Ketamine 100 mg / kg, Xylazine 10 mg / kg, Acepromazine 2 mg / kg and Tramadol 5 mg / kg) and ITA (Isoflurane 5% induction and 2.5% maintenance, Tramadol 5 mg / kg and Acepromazine 1 mg / kg). The animals were evaluated for the induction period (loss of straightening up to loss of foot / flow reflexes), period of anesthetic plan (length of stay with absence of reflexes) and recovery period (return of reflexes until the return of straightening). In addition to vital parameters, such as respiratory rate and body temperature. The CXAT and IAT protocols were able to induce anesthesia, with the IAT protocol being the most appropriate and safe to perform the VIM procedure with 100% efficiency, absence of mortality, lower drop in temperature and respiratory rate and with faster post-anesthetic recovery. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Raiva/diagnóstico , Bem-Estar do Animal , Anestesia , Camundongos
11.
Vet J ; 254: 105406, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836167

RESUMO

The tail biting management tool 'SchwIP' was developed to analyse estimated farm individual risk for tail biting and to support farmers to reduce risk. The risk factors included in SchwIP had been weighted by 61 experts regarding their strength of influence on tail biting. SchwIP was applied on 21 conventional farms throughout Germany that kept weaner pigs in closed barns. All farms were assessed with the SchwIP questionnaire and received farm-individual feedback and advice on how to reduce tail biting risk. There were no control farms with assessment only, because asking questions could raise awareness thus triggering improvements. Each farm was visited three times at 6 monthly intervals. Risk factor data collected on farms were replaced with the corresponding expert weighting, and weightings were then standardised to a range of 0 - 1 across all farms and visits. All standardised risks were summarised per farm and visit. From this, within-farm differences in farm risk sums between visit 1 and 2 (ΔRS12), 2 and 3 (ΔRS23) and 1 and 3 (ΔRS13), and the association between changes in single risk factors with ΔRS, were calculated. Farm risk sums significantly decreased from visit 1 to visit 2 and 3, respectively, but not from visit 2 to visit 3. Change in farm risk sums between visit 1 and 2 was significantly correlated with 59 factors; ΔRS23 with 54 factors; and ΔRS13 with 57 factors. Eighteen factors were significantly associated with all three ΔRS. The management tool SchwIP contributed to a reduction in estimated risk for tail biting in weaners after the first visit. There was no apparent pattern of changes in risk factors on the farms, which underlines the multifactorial nature of tail biting. Further on-farm research on tail biting risk factors and tail lesions is needed to better understand the complex relationship.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Comportamento Animal , Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Cauda , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Alemanha , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/prevenção & controle , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/psicologia , Cauda/lesões , Desmame
12.
Vet J ; 254: 105397, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836171

RESUMO

In the pig industry, labour efficiency and animal welfare have become two of the most important factors for achieving technical goals and farming competitiveness. Blood sampling is one of the most common sample-collecting techniques, but routine on-field blood collection can be very demanding for farm operators and the welfare of the animals, in particular for lactating sows. The aim of this study was to describe and investigate the mammary vein as a novel means of blood access in lactating sows that does not require coercive restraint. The study involved a total of 68 sows: 34 animals were sampled from the jugular vein (Group J) and the other 34 sows from the mammary vein (Group M). Labour time and indicators of the sow welfare (vocalizations during collection and serum cortisol concentration in the 30min after the procedure) were collected from the two groups. The total amount of labour required, calculated as the time employed to perform blood collection multiplied by the number of operators involved in performing the technique (one for Group M and two for Group J, one for restraint and one for sampling), was significantly lower in Group M than Group J (Group M, 39.83±29.45s; Group J, 82.73±55.34s; P<0.001). Mean blood volume collected at T0 was 4.81±2.00mL and 4.84±1.73mL in Group J and Group M, respectively (P>0.05). The percentage of sows that vocalized in Group M was less than in Group J (2.94% vs. 94.12%; P<0.001). Serum cortisol concentrations were not statistically different between the two groups (P>0.05). The present study suggests greater efficiency in terms of saving labour time and reducing sow vocalization during blood collection with the use of mammary vein access compared with jugular vein access.


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/veterinária , Suínos/sangue , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Feminino , Veias Jugulares , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/irrigação sanguínea , Veias
13.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226747, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856210

RESUMO

Infant temperament is theorized to lay the foundation for adult personality; however, many questions remain regarding personality in infancy, including the number of dimensions, extent to which they are adult-like, and their relation to other outcomes, such as mental and physical health. Here we tested whether adult-like personality dimensions are already present in infancy in a nonhuman primate species. We measured personality and subjective well-being in 7-month-old rhesus macaques (N = 55) using the Hominoid Personality Questionnaire and Subjective Well-Being Questionnaire, both of which were developed for adult primates based on human measures. Multiple human raters, who provided infants with daily care since birth, independently rated each infant. We found high interrater reliability. Results from a parallel analysis and scree plot indicated a five component structure, which, using principal components analysis, we found to be comprised of dimensions relating to Openness (e.g., curiosity, inquisitive, playfulness), Assertiveness (e.g., dominance, bullying, aggressive), Anxiety (e.g., vigilance, fearful), Friendliness (e.g., sociable, affectionate, sympathetic), and Intellect (e.g., organized, not erratic). These components are largely analogous to those in adult macaques, suggesting remarkably stable structural personality components across the lifespan. Infant macaques' subjective well-being positively correlates with Openness and Assertiveness and negatively correlated with Anxiety, similar to findings in adult macaques and other primates. Together, these findings suggest that, in macaques, infant personality dimensions may be conceptually related to adult personality and challenge the view that infant temperament may be disorganized and not as meaningful as adult personality. Further research is necessary to explore the antecedents, predictive validity, and stability of these personality components across situations and with development.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Emoções , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Feminino , Macaca mulatta , Masculino
14.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 481-491, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672200

RESUMO

Donkeys and mules have been critical to the development of human civilization, since being domesticated some 6000 years ago. However, they suffer from being undervalued or ignored by development agencies and animal protection nongovernmental organizations. Where they are recognized as affecting agriculture and the economy it is often because they are seen as being either invasive pests or an anachronism in the developing countries of the twenty-first century. Even in the wealthier societies of the world, donkeys suffer from ignorance about their proper management or a booming industry in health care products based on donkey skin gelatin and milk byproducts.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Equidae , Cavalos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635430

RESUMO

As the worldwide popularity of animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) increases, the fieldis quickly approaching a paradigm shift, adjusting its image to incorporate more evidence-basedresearch and aligning its purpose for advancing a new future. Contemporary critical issues thatconfront the field today include, but are not limited, to research, animal welfare, practice guidelines,and public policy. This article will provide an overview of the history of AAI and the majormilestones that the field has undergone. The current state of AAI research will be scrutinized, andthe areas that warrant further study will be recommended. Special attention will be given to thecurrent state of animal welfare in AAI, the research that has been done in the area, and practiceguidelines that safeguard animal wellbeing. This article will then discuss how evidence-basedresearch and animal welfare guidelines inform the development of comprehensive professionalstandards and influence changes in public policy regarding AAI. The authors' perceptions for thefield's future trajectory will be presented, which will include solutions to move the field in thedirection that best advances the human-animal bond in research, practice, and public perception.


Assuntos
Terapia Assistida por Animais , Bem-Estar do Animal , Vínculo Homem-Animal de Estimação , Animais , Humanos , Política Pública
16.
Prev Vet Med ; 172: 104784, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593877

RESUMO

Our study aimed to evaluate farmers' compliance in implementing recommendations of farm-specific cow comfort changes, and the effects of these changes on lying time, stall cleanliness and cow cleanliness using a randomized controlled trial carried out on 100 smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, with 62 and 11 farms remaining in the intervention and control groups, respectively. On the first farm visit, data loggers were attached on lactating cows to determine lying time and questionnaires utilized to collect baseline data. Three days later, stall design and management recommendations were given to the intervention group of farmers orally and in written form. After an average of 39 ±â€¯7 days, data loggers were re-attached, compliance was assessed, and a post-intervention questionnaire was administered to the intervention group on the third visit. Three days subsequent to the first and third visits, data loggers were removed from all cows. Data were analysed in Stata 14.2® using proportion tests and Kruskal-Wallis rank tests to compare cleanliness scores and lying time, respectively. Interaction effects between treatment groups and visits were assessed using multivariable mixed linear and logistic regression models. While 46 of the 62 intervention farmers (74%) made at least one recommended change to cow comfort, 63% of the 324 overall recommendations were implemented. The odds of a recommendation being implemented were significantly higher when:1) major recommendations were given relative to minor recommendations (OR = 6.28); 2) recommendations were related to floor characteristics (floor softness and flatness) in comparison to recommendations related to stall design (OR = 3.14). The odds of compliance were lower on: 1) farms where the farm-hands received the recommendations compared to farms that had the female principal farmer receive the recommendations (OR = 0.01); 2) farms that had recommended changes related to roof, alley and sharps fixes relative to stall design fixes (OR = 0.13). Post-intervention, stall, udder and upper hind-leg cleanliness scores improved significantly (p < 0.0001, p = 0.021 and p = 0.017, respectively) in the intervention farms but not in the control farms. There was no significant difference in lying times between intervention and control farms, with 0.6 and 0.2 h/day increases being recorded in the intervention and control groups, from the 10.9 and 10.4 h/day at baseline, respectively. Giving farm-specific cow comfort recommendations to smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya, and providing them with a participatory role in the formulation and implementation of improvement recommendations ensured good acceptance and a high degree of implementation, and led to a subsequent improvement in cow comfort and cleanliness.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Abrigo para Animais/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/normas , Fazendas/normas , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino
17.
PLoS Biol ; 17(10): e3000463, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613875

RESUMO

The Animal Study Registry (ASR; www.animalstudyregistry.org) was launched in January 2019 for preregistration of animal studies in order to increase transparency and reproducibility of bioscience research and to promote animal welfare. The registry is free of charge and is designed for exploratory and confirmatory studies within applied science as well as basic and preclinical research. The registration form helps scientists plan their study thoroughly by asking detailed questions concerning study design, methods, and statistics. With registration, the study automatically receives a digital object identifier (DOI) that marks it as intellectual property of the researcher. To accommodate the researchers concerns about theft of ideas, users can restrict the visibility of their registered studies for up to 5 years. The full content of the study becomes publicly accessible at the end of the embargo period. Because the platform is embedded in the infrastructure of the German Federal Government, continuity and data security are provided. By registering a study in the ASR, researchers can show their commitment to transparency and data quality to reviewers and editors, to third-party donors, and to the general public.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal/legislação & jurisprudência , Bem-Estar do Animal/legislação & jurisprudência , Sistema de Registros , Projetos de Pesquisa/legislação & jurisprudência , Experimentação Animal/ética , Bem-Estar do Animal/ética , Segurança Computacional , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Alemanha , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual
18.
EMBO J ; 38(21): e103331, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602659

RESUMO

Research that uses stem cell-based chimeras promises to advance our understanding of human developmental biology, as well as new medical interventions, such as generating transplantable human organs in livestock. However, along with these exciting research possibilities come moral concerns about the moral humanization of animals, especially when it comes to the potential effects of human cells in the brains of experimental animals. Recent work involving neurologically chimeric mice may suggest that such worries are reasonable. However, this overlooks the crucial social and neurological conditions for enabling the development of conscious self-awareness, the absence of which leaves us only with animal welfare to monitor and consider.


Assuntos
Quimera/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Modelos Neurológicos , Pesquisa com Células-Tronco/ética , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal-assisted intervention (AAIs) represent an adequate expression of integrated medicine, according to the One Health approach. We argue that AAIs are interventions based on interspecific relationships between humans and animals. Although there are many studies on the effects of AAIs on animal and human health and wellbeing, research is still needed to give us more data. For example, information is still lacking on the aspects characterizing and influencing the interspecific relationships occurring in AAIs. The efficacy of an intervention based on interspecific relationships will be influenced by different factors, such as attachment styles and personalities of both the animal and the handler, an appropriate choice of animal species and their individuality, animal educational training techniques, the relationship between the handler and the animal, and relational reciprocity between animal, the patients, and members of the working team. METHOD: This article aims to contribute to the study of interspecific relationships in AAIs via theoretical considerations. An interspecific relationship determines the result of safe interventions, which directly influences the welfare of the animal. Results and considerations: AAIs should be evaluated systemically as a network within a process in which every component interacts with and influences other components. Standardized methods using appropriate tests and parameters are needed to better select appropriate animals (i.e., species and individual subjects) using interspecific relational competences as well as appropriate educational training methods and health protocols to assess potential risks.


Assuntos
Vínculo Homem-Animal de Estimação , Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Saúde Única , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Humanos
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