Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 14.081
Filtrar
1.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 219, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Passive integrated transponder devices (PIT tags) are a valuable tool for individual identification of animals. Similarly, the surgical implantation of transmitters and bio-loggers can provide useful data on animal location, physiology and behavior. However, to avoid unnecessary recapture and related stress of study animals, PIT tags and bio-loggers should function reliably for long periods of time. Here, we evaluated the retention of PIT tags, and of very high frequency (VHF) transmitters and bio-loggers that were either implanted subcutaneously or into the peritoneal cavity of Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber). RESULTS: Over a 21-year period, we implanted PIT tags in 456 individuals and failed to detect a PIT tag at recapture in 30 cases, consisting of 26 individuals (6% of individuals). In all instances, we were still able to identify the individual due to the presence of unique ear tag numbers and tail scars. Moreover, we implanted 6 VHFs, 36 body temperature loggers and 21 heart rate loggers in 28 individuals, and experienced frequent loss of temperature loggers (at least 6 of 23 recaptured beavers) and heart rate loggers (10 of 18 recaptured beavers). No VHFs were lost in 2 recaptured beavers. CONCLUSIONS: Possible causes for PIT tag loss (or non-detection) were incorrect implantation, migration of the tag within the body, a foreign body reaction leading to ejection, or malfunctioning of the tag. We speculate that logger loss was related to a foreign body reaction, and that loggers were either rejected through the incision wound or, in the case of temperature loggers, possibly adhered and encapsulated to intestines, and then engulfed by the gastro-intestinal tract and ejected. We discuss animal welfare implications and give recommendations for future studies implanting bio-loggers into wildlife.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Roedores , Roedores , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Reação a Corpo Estranho/veterinária
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(4): 202, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674848

RESUMO

Animal welfare remains a contemporary issue in livestock development as World Organization for Animal Health stresses its importance in the livestock trade. Key elements of good animal welfare include animals being healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, not suffering from unpleasant states such as pain, fear, and distress, and expressing behaviours that are important for their physical and mental health. These are important for the high performance of animals in terms of productivity and product quality. Given the importance of animal welfare in enhancing livestock productivity, quality, food safety, and economic returns, the study aimed to identify the aspects of animal welfare that need more attention among the Zambian smallholder livestock farmers and determine whether the current policy and legal frameworks governing animal welfare are adequate. Using data collected from 271 smallholder households, the study found that routine management practices such as dipping animals, branding, castration, and vaccination were the major animal welfare concerns that needed more attention. Therefore more efforts and extension services should also be dedicated to addressing these concerns. Furthermore, the policy framework guiding animal welfare is inadequate as particular welfare concerns such as housing and nutrition are not well covered. This calls for the revision of the policy framework to incorporate all aspects of animal welfare.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Fazendeiros , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Humanos , Gado , Zâmbia
3.
Poult Sci ; 101(7): 101953, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679668

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to compare the breast meat quality and metabolomic characteristics from broilers that were raised in conventional (conventional farm reared-broilers; CB, n = 20) and legally approved animal welfare farms (welfare farm reared-broilers; WB, n = 20) in aerobic cold storage (1, 3, 5, and 7 d). Compared to CB chickens, the WB chickens had a larger floor size as well as lower stocking density, atmospheric ammonia, and nipple-shared chicken counts. The results demonstrated significantly higher pH, L⁎- and b⁎-value, and lower shear force in CB compared to WB during cold storage. Using 1H NMR analysis, 25 compounds were identified in the chicken breast meat. Partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed based on the identified metabolites. The content of 15 metabolites (1 di-peptide, 9 free amino acids, 2 glycolytic potential-related products, 2 nucleotide-related products, and 1 organic acid) was significantly different due to the rearing environment (CB vs. WB). Among them, all free amino acids were higher in CB than in WB. Six free amino acids (glycine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, valine, and ß-alanine) had variable importance in projection (VIP) score >1, regardless of the number of cold storage days. Therefore, these compounds in the breast meat may be used as potential markers to determine the rearing environment of broilers. Also, this result might be an indication of stress-related meat quality changes in broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Carne , Aminoácidos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Carne/análise
4.
Poult Sci ; 101(7): 101933, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679670

RESUMO

There is a trend toward broiler production systems with higher welfare requirements, that use slower growing broiler strains, apply a reduced stocking density and provide environmental enrichment. Although these separate factors each contribute to increased broiler welfare, there is little information on their combined effect on broiler welfare under commercial conditions, and on the variation in welfare performance of flocks within production systems. The aim of this study was to compare the welfare performance and the between-flock variation in welfare of 3 Dutch commercial broiler production systems differing in welfare requirements: Conventional (C), Dutch Retail Broiler (DRB) and Better Life one star (BLS). We applied a welfare assessment method based on the Welfare Quality broiler assessment protocol, in which we used 5 animal-based welfare measures collected by slaughterhouses and hatcheries (mortality, footpad dermatitis, hock burn, breast irritation, scratches), and 3 resource- or management-based measures (stocking density, early feeding, environmental enrichment). Data were collected for at least 1889 flocks per production system over a 2-year period. To compare the different measures and to generate an overall flock welfare score, we calculated a score on a scale from 0 to 100 (bad-good) for each measure based on expert opinion. The overall flock score was the sum of the scores of the different welfare measures. The results showed that with increasing welfare requirements, a higher total welfare score was found across production systems (BLS > DRB > C; P < 0.0001). Regarding individual measures, C generally had lower (worse) scores than BLS and DRB (P < 0.05), except for scratches where C had highest (best) score (P < 0.001). Both welfare measure scores and the total welfare score of flocks showed large variation within and overlap between systems, and the latter especially when only the animal-based measures were included in the total flock score. Total flock score ranges including animal-based measures only were: 112.1 to 488.3 for C, 113.0 to 486.9 for DRB, 151.3 to 490.0 for BLS (on a scale from 0 [bad]-500 [good]), with median values of 330.8 for C, 370.9 for DRB, and 396.1 for BLS respectively. This indicates that factors such as farm management and day-old chick quality can have a major effect on the welfare performance of a flock and that there is room for welfare improvement in all production systems.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Matadouros , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Tarso Animal
5.
Poult Sci ; 101(7): 101956, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679672

RESUMO

Nicholas Select hens (n = 3,550 poults in each of 2 experimental trials) were randomly placed in 1 of 4 stocking density (SD) treatments of 30, 40, 50, or 60 kg/m2 until 11 wk. Birds were housed in open rooms (67.5 m2) with 4 replications per treatment. Ventilation was adjusted in each room independently to ensure air quality measures did not differ across replicate rooms. At wk 8 and 11, footpad lesions, mobility, feather cover and cleanliness, behavior (recorded), and litter moisture were evaluated. Incidences of aggressive pecking were recorded daily. Heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratios were evaluated at 3, 5, 8, and 11 wk. Data were analyzed using regression analyses in SAS 9.4 (Proc Reg and Proc RSReg; SD as independent variable). Differences were considered significant when P ≤ 0.05. Gait scores were not affected by SD. Average footpad scores worsened with increasing SD at wk 8 (linear) but were not affected at wk 11. Total feather cover scores and average feather cleanliness were poorer at high SD (linear) at wk 8 and 11. The incidence of aggressive pecking and culls for aggressive damage decreased linearly as SD increased. At 5 (linear) and 11 (quadratic) wk, H/L ratios increased as SD increased. At 8 wk, H/L ratios were highest in the 40 kg/m2 treatment (quadratic). At 8 wk, the percentage of birds at the feeder, resting, and total disturbances linearly increased as SD increased. The percentage of birds standing, walking, and litter pecking decreased linearly with increasing SD, while total aggressive behaviors (sum of fighting and aggressive pecking) decreased (quadratic). At 11 wk, the percentage of birds at the drinker, and decreased with increasing SD while resting, feather pecking, and severe disturbances increased as SD increased. Litter moisture increased linearly with increasing SD (wk 11). Turkey hen health and welfare were negatively impacted by higher SD. At low SD, there was notably more aggression which may also impact welfare.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Perus , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Galinhas , Plumas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Abrigo para Animais
6.
Vet Rec ; 190(12): 485, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35713993
7.
Vet Rec ; 190(12): i-ii, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714018

RESUMO

As Lord Trees' fifth intern, Harriet Davenport works in veterinary policy and parliamentary process - a varied role that involves animal welfare and the veterinary professions' contribution to society.


Assuntos
Educação em Veterinária , Internato e Residência , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Humanos , Legislação Veterinária , Políticas , Política
8.
Vet Rec ; 190(12): 505, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714029
9.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 38(2): 245-259, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691627

RESUMO

Epidemiologists have adopted systems thinking as an approach to understanding why health conditions occur in animal populations beyond the knowledge of simple linear relationships. Beef production systems are complex adaptive systems and decisions and policies throughout the system can positively or negatively affect the health of cattle. Those decisions may occur far removed in time or place from the health event and may be logical in the context of other factors in the system. Causal loop diagrams and stock and flow models are tools for sharing and testing thoughts about the ways systems might behave.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Análise de Sistemas , Animais , Bovinos
10.
Meat Sci ; 191: 108874, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667190

RESUMO

This paper analyses meat consumption and consumer attitudes towards meat and meat analogues in Spain, as well as the barriers and motives that could modify meat consumption in the future. Probably, the trend observed in the decline in meat consumption before the pandemic, which stabilized during the pandemic, will be observed again, with health, animal welfare and environmental issues being the main concerns and reasons for the reduction of consumption. The main drivers of meat consumption are the hedonic component, its nutritional characteristics, and its perception as a healthy and indispensable in a balanced diet. Meat analogues can be found in most Spanish supermarkets, some of them produced by large meat industries. Finally, authors highlight the need to provide Spanish consumers with reliable and credible information that will enable them to be aware of the efforts made by the different production players in the meat sector to achieve a more sustainable product and guarantee animal welfare.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Carne , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Atitude , Motivação
11.
Vet Rec ; 190(12): e1736, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabbits are popular pets, but research into their welfare is limited. This study analysed the potential association(s) between the provision of suitable housing and owner demographic factors. METHODS: Data from 2017, 2018 and 2019 PDSA Animal Wellbeing (PAW) report surveys gave a sample of 1333 UK rabbit owners. Whether the rabbit housing was adequate or inadequate was ascertained by asking owners to indicate images of hutch and run size or indoor environment type that were similar to their own. The owner demographic factors collected included gender, education, household income and deprivation. Chi-squared tests and binary logistic regression (univariable and multivariable) were used to investigate factors associated with adequate/inadequate housing. RESULTS: One-third (31.2%) of rabbits lived in inadequate housing and half were housed alone (51.4%). Male owners were more likely to report providing inadequate housing than females (odds ratio [OR] = 1.795, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.319-2.441, p < 0.001). Compared to owners over 55 years old, those aged 25-34 years were more likely to house their rabbits inadequately (OR = 2.050, 95% CI 1.286-3.267, p = 0.003). Owners with a household income below average were more likely to report providing inadequate housing compared to those with a household income above average (OR = 1.406, 95% CI 1.025-1.928, p = 0.035). CONCLUSION: The findings identify that inadequate rabbit housing is provided by owners of all ages, genders and deprivation levels but highlight some particular owner demographics that could be useful to target if resources are limited.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Habitação , Animais , Feminino , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Animais de Estimação , Coelhos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
12.
Animal ; 16(6): 100548, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661519

RESUMO

Improving animal welfare is an important aim of livestock industries and is dependent on human management. Understanding attitudes to change and perceived barriers is therefore a key consideration for welfare scientists. A survey that aimed to investigate farmers' attitudes towards changing goat kid-rearing practices was distributed. Likert scales examined willingness to change and the importance of factors in decision-making alongside open-text responses for further explanation. A total of 242 farmers (United States of America (USA) 72; United Kingdom (UK) 71; Australia 33; Canada 23; New Zealand 20; European Union 14; Other 9) rearing goat kids away from their dams responded. All respondents rated from one (highly unwilling) to seven (highly willing), how willing they would be to supply three enrichment types. Willingness to provide enrichments differed (χ2(2) = 190.114,P < 0.001), with farmers most likely to provide climbing or loose items rather than swinging items. The most common reasons cited for unwillingness to provide enrichment were related to safety (101 responses/76.5%). Those currently abruptly weaning were asked how willing they would be to use gradual weaning methods. Those abruptly weaning from ad libitum milk systems (n = 47) showed no difference in willingness to change to different gradual weaning methods; the median (Interquartile Range (IQR)) for the willingness to change to removing teats was 2 (1-4), reducing milk temperature 3 (1-5) and diluting milk 2 (1-5), with most concerns relating to feasibility. Those abruptly weaning from bottle feeding (n = 18) also showed no difference in willingness to change to gradual weaning methods. Median (IQR) score for willingness to change to reduced number of bottle feeds was 4 (1-7), reducing milk quantity 3 (1-6.25), and diluting milk 1 (1-5), respectively. Health concerns were the most common reason for not being willing to change. All 242 respondents were asked to rate how important different factors are when deciding to implement a new management practice. There was a significant difference in importance between factors (χ2(2) = 34.779, P < 0.001). Median (IQR) importance of the factors was labour/time 5 (4-7), cost 5 (4-7), evidence beneficial to welfare 6 (5-7), evidence beneficial to health 6 (5-7), and evidence beneficial to growth 6 (4-7). To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine goat farmers' attitudes towards changing management practices and could help ensure that future research addresses farmer concerns and therefore has the best opportunity to be implemented on-farm.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Cabras , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Fazendas , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268944, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617350

RESUMO

In commercial pig breeding farms, boars are often exposed to stressful situations, such as confined housing conditions, inadequate environmental temperature, food restriction, lameness, diseases, among other challenges. Confined housing conditions, such as crates, are reported as a major source of stress for pregnant sows, and were banned in the UK and in Europe, however there is limited information about the impact of this housing system for boars. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of three different housing conditions for boars and the consequence on the testicles. We studied 27 crossbred boars (F1 large white and landrace), housed in crates (n = 9), pens (n = 9), or enriched pens (n = 9), during 10 weeks. We collected data of scrotal superficies mean temperature (SSMT) with a thermal camera; we measured testicular parenchyma perfusion (ultrasound evaluation); and we measured sperm characteristics. We found that boars housed in crates had a higher SSMT (p < 0.05) and higher testicular parenchyma perfusion than boars housed in pens and enriched pens (p = 0.01). Regarding the semen features, we found that boars housed in crates showed more agglutinated semen, and higher values of linear curved linear velocity (VCL) than boars housed in pens and enriched pens, both indicators of reduced fertility. These results indicates that boars housed in pens and in enriched pens showed better indicators of testicular health, better sperm motility features (VCL, p = 0.046), and less agglutinated sperm (p < 0;05) than that observed in boars kept in crates.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Motilidade Espermática , Testículo , Animais , Fertilidade , Abrigo para Animais , Masculino , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Suínos
14.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 51(6): 162-177, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641635

RESUMO

Sociocultural changes in the human-animal relationship have led to increasing demands for animal welfare in biomedical research. The 3R concept is the basis for bringing this demand into practice: Replace animal experiments with alternatives where possible, Reduce the number of animals used to a scientifically justified minimum and Refine the procedure to minimize animal harm. The generation of gene-modified sentient animals such as mice and rats involves many steps that include various forms of manipulation. So far, no coherent analysis of the application of the 3Rs to gene manipulation has been performed. Here we provide guidelines from the Committee on Genetics and Breeding of Laboratory Animals of the German Society for Laboratory Animal Science to implement the 3Rs in every step during the generation of genetically modified animals. We provide recommendations for applying the 3Rs as well as success/intervention parameters for each step of the process, from experiment planning to choice of technology, harm-benefit analysis, husbandry conditions, management of genetically modified lines and actual procedures. We also discuss future challenges for animal welfare in the context of developing technologies. Taken together, we expect that our comprehensive analysis and our recommendations for the appropriate implementation of the 3Rs to technologies for genetic modifications of rodents will benefit scientists from a wide range of disciplines and will help to improve the welfare of a large number of laboratory animals worldwide.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal , Ciência dos Animais de Laboratório , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Animais de Laboratório , Camundongos , Ratos , Roedores
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 836: 155602, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523351

RESUMO

The food system produces emissions at all stages, from agriculture and its inputs, and the livestock sector is nowadays one of the most significant contributors to environmental problems. The European swine production system is mainly intensive and generates high external costs such as water and air pollution. As a response to these emerging issues, there is a growing interest in the relationships between marketing and sustainability, with people that have begun to pay much more attention to health, environmental friendliness, and quality of products. The aim of this study is to understand if there is a market for a high-quality "Parma ham PDO", produced in sustainable supply chain at an environmental, health and animal welfare level. In this paper, we use discrete choice experiments to investigate Italian consumer's preferences and their willingness to pay (WTP) for Parma ham PDO with different characteristics, amongst which the use of air scrubber technology reducing pollutants emissions. Results seem to encourage the pork industry in better exploring pollutant emissions' reduction, showing a consumers' willingness to pay for this production technology. Similarly, results of this study can suggest the existence of a niche market for this typology of production.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Carne de Porco , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Comportamento do Consumidor , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Itália , Suínos
16.
Prev Vet Med ; 204: 105665, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597103

RESUMO

Pinkeye (infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, IBK) is an important disease of cattle worldwide. It has a substantial negative impact on farm productivity and is a major cost burden, but specific data on losses are lacking. This study was conducted to understand farmers' perceptions of the impact of pinkeye on farm productivity and animal welfare, and factors influencing the money farmers estimated spending on pinkeye in 2018. Data were collected by the first Australia-wide online survey on pinkeye. There were 1035 suitable responses analysed for impact on farm productivity. From these 82% of respondents represented farms in southern Australia, 58% reported cattle breeding as their main enterprise, and 89% bred animals on farm. Farmers were more likely to rank the impact of pinkeye on farm productivity as high if they had younger cattle, treated cattle with pinkeye more frequently, and as their herd size increased. Fewer farmers chose pinkeye as an animal welfare concern than as an economic and farm management issue, but overall animal welfare was rated by the greatest number of farmers as a high severity concern (n = 691), followed by decreased sale value and farm profits (n = 561). This suggests a shift in the equipoise between the economics of food animal production and animal welfare expectations. The median amount reportedly spent on pinkeye in 2018 by Australian farmers (n = 779) was $250.00 per farm. Farmers reported spending more money on pinkeye as herd size and number of cattle affected by pinkeye increased, their perception of pinkeye impact on farm productivity and animal welfare increased, if they treated pinkeye more frequently, reported higher fly worry, if their herds contained Angus cattle, if they bred on farm, and if they were located in southern Australian regions. Study findings should be used to better understand pinkeye, target expenditure, and improve outcomes for cattle and farmers.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Ceratoconjuntivite , Infecções por Mycoplasma , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Austrália , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendeiros , Fazendas , Humanos , Ceratoconjuntivite/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária
17.
Prev Vet Med ; 204: 105671, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597105

RESUMO

The permanence of a dog in a household is relevant in terms of public health and animal welfare because it implies that the animal is receiving better care and is unlikely to be abandoned. We have performed a survey in a medium-sized city in southeastern Brazil in order to identify predictors associated with the non-permanence of dogs in households as determined one year after the first visit. During the first of two visits to randomly selected domiciles, guardians were asked to complete a structured questionnaire regarding the traits and history of each dog in the household, features of the domicile, characteristics of the guardian and adherence to the principles of responsible companion animal guardianship (RCAG). A second visit to each domicile was performed one year later in order to establish in loco whether the dog still resided in the domicile and, where appropriate, to apply a further questionnaire concerning the fate of the missing animal. The total sample population comprised 513 dogs, of which 98 (19.1%) were verified as no longer resident in the domicile on the occasion of the second visit. Of the absent dogs, 59 had died as a result of fights with stray animals, traffic accidents, diseases or old age, 13 had been sent to alternative addresses, 8 had been donated to third parties and 7 had escaped from the domicile. The fates of the remaining 11 animals were not divulged by the guardians. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the risk of non-permanence was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among male dogs, those that were infested with ticks, had free access to the streets or resided in domiciles near a wooded area, but was significantly lower among wormed and neutered dogs. The adoption of RCAG principles is associated with the permanence of dogs in households and, consequently, in reduction of the stray population, animal well-being and prevention of zoonoses. On this basis, it is important to raise awareness about the concepts of RCAG and to strengthen accountability of guardians that do not take proper care of their animals.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Características da Família , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zoonoses
18.
J Feline Med Surg ; 24(5): 464-465, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502598
19.
Animal ; 16(6): 100536, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35567897

RESUMO

Calves in most dairy farms are separated from their dams either immediately or within a few hours after birth, prompting increasing concern of the society for reasons of animal welfare. The aim of this study was to identify systems to maintain cow-calf contact (CCC) that balance the benefits for calf growth and health against the negative impacts on sellable milk and stress at weaning. We tested reuniting cows and calves for 20 min before (Before-group) or 2.5 h after (After-group) morning milking (in Trial 1) or for a 9 h period between the morning and evening milkings (Half-day-group, in Trial 2). In Control-groups, calves were separated from their dam at birth and fed with artificial nipple with tank milk provided daily at 13% (Trial 1) and 14% (Trial 2) of their BW. In both trials, each practice was applied on a group of 14 dam-calf pairs (7 Holstein [Ho] and 7 Montbéliarde [Mo]). All calves were weaned at a BW of at least 100 kg. In Trial 1, the After-group was prematurely stopped when the calves were eight weeks of age as calf growth became limited (340 g/d) due to low milk intakes (2.97 kg/d). During the first eight weeks of lactation, milk yield at the parlour was 29%, 51% and 42% lower in After-, Before- and Half-day-cows respectively compared to Controls. From week 14 to 16 when all calves were separated from their dam, Before-cows still produced 25% less milk than Control-cows while Half-day-cows reached the milk yield of Control-cows within a week. There were no significant differences in milk somatic cell count and in frequency of health disorders (cows and calves) between suckling and Control-groups. Compared to Control-calves, calf growth until weaning was higher in the suckling calves in Trial 1 (861 vs 699 g/d) and similar in Trial 2 (943 vs 929 g/d). At weaning, Before- and Half-day-calves started to vocalise earlier and continued to vocalise longer than Controls. In conclusion, the best compromise between cow milk yield and calf growth is a long period of CCC (9 h) between the morning and evening milkings. Still abrupt weaning stresses both cows and calves even if CCC has been restricted before separation.


Assuntos
Lactação , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Parto , Gravidez , Desmame
20.
J Anim Sci ; 100(6)2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536191

RESUMO

Considering welfare through the "neonatal and nursery pig perspective" is an exciting approach and one that resonates with consumers. Overlaying this with the Five Domains Model, as we suggest in this review, points to practical on-farm improvements that provide each pig the opportunity to experience positive mental states. The Five Domains Model is broken into physical and functional states, which include Domain 1: Nutrition, Domain 2: Physical Environment, Domain 3: Health, and Domain 4: Behavioral Interaction, and Domain 5: Mental State. The Five Domains Model can build on the breadth and depth of swine welfare science to highlight opportunities to improve welfare on-farm. In Domain 1, management of increasingly large litters is considered, with examples of sow vs. artificial rearing, colostrum quality and quantity, and creep feed management strategies. Efforts can result in positive mental states such as feeling full and content and the ability to experience the pleasure of drinking and food tastes and smells. Domain 2 considers space complexity and access to key resources, along with thermal and physical amenities, to promote feelings of physical comfort. Domain 3 considers pig health in three broads, yet inter-linking categories 1) congenital and hereditary health, 2) environmental pathogen load, and 3) colostrum quality and quantity, and its effect on the microbiome. Improvements can result in a pig that displays vitality and feels healthy. Domain 4 provides the pig opportunities to express its rich behavioral repertoire, specifically positive social interactions, play, and exploration. These efforts can result in pigs feeling calm, safe, comfortable, having companionship, engaged, interested, and rewarded. In conclusion, using the Five Domains Model can highlight numerous opportunities to improve current and future housing and management through the "neonatal and nursery pig perspective" with a focus on inducing positive mental states that can result in improved quality of life and welfare state.


Considering welfare through the "neonatal and nursery pig perspective" is an exciting approach. Overlaying this with the Five Domains Model, as we suggest in this review, points to practical on-farm improvements that provide each pig the opportunity to experience positive mental states. The first four domains consider physical and functional states; with Domains 1 through 4 being Nutrition, Physical Environment, Health, and Behavioral Interaction, respectively. All interweave with Domain 5: Mental state. A plethora of examples are discussed; Domain 1 critiques optimal colostrum intake, and milk and feed quality that result in feelings of fullness and contentment. Domain 2 considers space complexity, key resource access, and thermal and physical amenities with these efforts resulting in feelings of comfort and agency. Domain 3 discusses congenital and hereditary health, environmental pathogen load, colostrum quality and quantity effects on the microbiome, and how these improve pig vitality and feelings of good health and fitness. Domain 4 discusses opportunities for the pig to express its behavioral repertoire, particularly positive social interactions, play, and exploration with feelings of control and agency. Improvements will result in pigs feeling calm, safe, comfortable, enjoying companionship, engaged, interested, and leading a rewarding life.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Qualidade de Vida , Animais , Colostro , Fazendas , Feminino , Gravidez , Suínos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...