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1.
Br Poult Sci ; 62(1): 147-155, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902332

RESUMO

1. Monitoring early embryonic growth rate (EGR) has significant economic and animal welfare benefits. This study focuses on monitoring sex-specific early EGR using light transmission, and correlating this with hatching time and chick weight. For broiler eggs in particular, spectral masking of the light brown eggshells needed to be addressed. This was done using longitudinal visible transmission spectroscopy combined with eggshell colour image analysis. 2. Prior to incubation, colour images of eggs were captured followed by daily measurements of transmission spectra of eggs from days one to nine of incubation. The sex of the eggs was subsequently verified 2 d after hatching. 3. To accurately and sensitively determine sex differences in EGR using light transmission, while minimising interference from eggshell colour and thickness, the ratio of longitudinal transmissions was determined to be most effective at 575 and 610 nm. 3. Embryonic growth was detectable from d 3 (72 h) of incubation, 24 h earlier than previously reported lateral transmission measurements. However, at this time, low blood levels meant that no significant sex-differences (P > 0.05) for the mean T575/T610 ratio were detectable. This may have been due, in part, to spectral masking from the light brown eggshells. At d 7, female embryos had a significantly lower (P < 0.05) mean T575/T610 ratio than males. 4. Although the T575/T610 ratio had low correlations with hatching time and hatch-weight of chicks, this could be a good starting point for further non-destructive investigations for such predictions. 5. In conclusion, the methodology had the sensitivity to differentiate sex-specific early EGR in broiler eggs, even with pigmented eggshells, and has the potential to advance precision hatchery management and poultry research.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Óvulo , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Casca de Ovo , Feminino , Masculino
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(3): 3318-3330, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914308

RESUMO

Zoos are very popular facilities visited by entire families with children, who come there to watch live animals. Zoos also provide workplaces for a large number of people directly looking after the animals. For places designed to house animals, regardless of whether they are farm animals, pets, or zoo animals, a higher concentration of both dust and potentially harmful bioaerosols can be expected. Unfortunately, there are almost no studies concerning the concentration of bacterial bioaerosols and particulate matter in animal shelters that would answer the question whether the level of these pollutants is constant or variable and dependent on a particular zoo, group of animals, their number in enclosures, or season. This study aimed to assess the levels of bacterial aerosol in rooms intended for animals (giraffes, camels, elephants, kangaroos, and colobinae) in the Silesian Zoological Garden in Chorzów (Poland). The bioaerosol samples were collected using a six-stage Andersen cascade impactor to assess the concentrations and size distribution of airborne bacteria. Particulate matter (PM10) was assessed using an electronic dust meter. Measurements of microclimate parameters were carried out using the Airflow™ Instruments Velocity Meter TA440, while gas concentrations were determined applying GFG Microtector II G450. The results showed that the concentration of airborne bacteria varied significantly between facilities for the analyzed animal groups. The lowest concentration of the total bacterial aerosol was observed in enclosures for colobinae (approx. 850 CFU/m3), while the highest-in rooms for elephants (approx. 105,600 CFU/m3). The average share of respirable fraction of bacteria was quite high, with values ranging from 62.9 (colobinae) to 86.9% (elephants), indicating potential harmfulness to the health of exposed people. PM10 concentrations were relatively low (10-86 µg/m3) and did not exceed the limit values for occupational exposure. Moreover, the levels of bacterial bioaerosol in almost all cases did not exceed the limit values. As the animals constitute a significant source of bioaerosol, attention should be paid to thorough cleaning of animals and their shelters, as well as maintaining appropriate levels of microclimate parameters in the facilities.


Assuntos
Microclima , Material Particulado , Aerossóis/análise , Microbiologia do Ar , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Bactérias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Polônia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6276, 2020 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293564

RESUMO

Advances in farming technology and intensification of animal agriculture increase the cost-efficiency and production volume of meat. Thus, in developed nations, meat is relatively inexpensive and accessible. While beneficial for consumer satisfaction, intensive meat production inflicts negative externalities on public health, the environment and animal welfare. In response, groups within academia and industry are working to improve the sensory characteristics of plant-based meat and pursuing nascent approaches through cellular agriculture methodology (i.e., cell-based meat). Here we detail the benefits and challenges of plant-based and cell-based meat alternatives with regard to production efficiency, product characteristics and impact categories.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Biotecnologia/métodos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos Especializados , Produtos da Carne , Bem-Estar do Animal , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Comportamento do Consumidor , Dieta Vegetariana , Proteínas de Plantas
4.
Science ; 370(6521): 1152-1155, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273084
5.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(4): 579-584, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356064

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The safety of poultry meat products and contamination with microorganisms is based on appropriate reduction of the presence of pathogens during poultry rearing and is closely related to the level of rearing hygiene, including the type of housing, stocking density, microclimate, sanitation and ventilation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive samples in Iceland during 2016-2018, and to compare the potential influence of individual parameters of welfare on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Positivity of excrement and caecum samples for Campylobacter spp. was determined according to ISO 10272-1: 2006 and 2017. Data of welfare indicators were collected during the rearing period and in the slaughterhouse. RESULTS: Considerable seasonality was observed in the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. The prevalence of campylobacteriosis on the investigated broiler farms was significantly higher (p ˂0.05) during the summer. Comparison of welfare parameters on Campylobacter-positive and Campylobacter-negative farms failed to indicate a significantly higher level of observed welfare indicators in birds from Campylobacter-positive farms (p˃0.05). In comparing small, medium and big farms, a significantly higher occurrence was observed (p<0.05) of the FPD score over 40, stocking density, and the average slaughter weight, and percentage of mortality over 2% in small farms. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive management and the environment affect the welfare of poultry and its resistance to infections (Campylobacteriosis) and thus increase the health risk. Checking the welfare parameters in a slaughter house provides delayed improvement of the environment on farms, but it can also lead to changes in the following production cycles (decreasing of stocking density).


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Islândia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência
6.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 59, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wildlife traps are used in many countries without evaluation of their effect on animal welfare. Trap-capture of wild animals should minimise negative effects on animal welfare, irrespective of whether the animals are trapped for hunting, research, or management purposes. Live-trap capture of wild boar (Sus scrofa) followed by killing inside the trap by gunshot is a recently introduced but disputed hunting method in Sweden. Approval of trap constructions is based on gross necropsy findings of 20 trapped and shot wild boars. For improved animal welfare evaluation, our aim was to study wild boar behaviour during live-trapping in a 16 m2 square corral-style trap. Behavioural assessments were conducted after filming 12 capture events of in total 38 wild boars (five adults, 20 subadults, 13 piglets). Selected behavioural traits were compared with pathological changes (trap-related lesions) found at necropsy of the 20 subadults, to determine if these variables were useful proxies of capture-induced stress in wild boar. RESULTS: The wild boars spent less time resting in the evening than in the night and morning. Using Friedman's ANOVA, there was an overall difference in the time spent foraging. However, we only found a difference between the evening and morning in the Wilcoxon matched pairs test after the Sequential Bonferroni correction, where the wild boars spent more time foraging in the evening than in the morning. Single captured individuals showed more escape behaviours and reacted more strongly to external stimuli than individuals captured in a group. It was more common for animals to charge against the mesh walls of the trap upon human approach compared to upon initial capture when the trap door closed. Trap-related pathological findings due to trauma were documented in 13 of the 20 subadults that were necropsied. Behavioural alterations indicative of capture-induced stress (e.g. charging into the trap walls) were documented in trapped wild boars with no or minor physical injuries (e.g. skin abrasions, subcutaneous haemorrhage). CONCLUSIONS: Behavioural assessment provided valuable information for determination of capture-induced stress in wild boar when evaluating live-trapping in a corral-style trap, whereas pathological evaluation through necropsy did not fully reflect the animal welfare aspects of live-trapping. We emphasize the inclusion of species-specific behavioural data assessment for evaluation of capture-related stress during live-trapping and for testing of new trap constructions before approval.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Restrição Física/veterinária , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Reação de Fuga , Feminino , Masculino , Suécia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242873, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227027

RESUMO

The animal-human relationship is essential for farm animal welfare and production. Generally, gentle tactile and vocal interactions improve the animal-human relationship in cattle. However, cows that are fearful of humans avoid their close presence and touch; thus, the animal-human relationship first has to be improved to a point where the animals accept stroking before their perception of the interactions and consequently the animal-human relationship can become positive. We tested whether the animal-human relationship of cows fearful of humans is improved more effectively by gentle interactions during restraint, allowing physical contact from the beginning, or if the gentle interactions are offered while the animals are free to move, giving them more control over the situation and thus probably a higher level of agency and a more positive perception of the interactions. Thirty-six dairy cows (median avoidance distance 1.6 m) were assigned to three treatments (each n = 12): gentle vocal and tactile interactions during restraint in the feeding rack (LOCK); gentle vocal and, if possible, tactile interactions while free in the barn (FREE); routine management without additional interactions (CON). Treatments were applied for 3 min per cow on 10 d per fortnight for 6 weeks (i.e., three periods). Avoidance and approach behaviour towards humans was tested before the start of the treatment period, and then at 2-week intervals. The recorded variables were reduced to one score by Principal Component Analysis. The resulting relationship score (higher values implying a better relationship with humans) increased in all groups; the increase was stronger in FREE than in CON, with the increase in LOCK being not significantly different from the other treatment groups. Thus, we recommend that gentle interactions with cows should take place while they are unrestrained, if possible.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal , Restrição Física , Tato/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Leite , Registros
8.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241910, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156856

RESUMO

Ensuring good health and welfare is an increasingly important consideration for conservation of endangered species and includes breeding of individuals managed under human care. Understanding how factors in the captive environment affect individual animal wellbeing can be aided by long-term monitoring of biological functioning. This study involved longitudinal assessments (4 to 28 years) of reproductive and adrenal hormones in zoo-housed female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) (age range 4 to ~71 years) to elucidate patterns in adrenal glucocorticoid (GC) activity in association with reproductive and demographic factors, and examine individual response to major social changes. Concentrations of serum and urinary cortisol covaried more consistently with physiological changes (ovarian cycle phase, puberty, pregnancy, lactational anestrus, and age) than with social life events (births, deaths, and facility transfers). Cortisol fluctuated across the ovarian cycle with mean concentrations being higher in the follicular than in the luteal phase, and concentrations were highest in lactational anestrous compared to all other reproductive states. The elephants in this study exhibited substantial individuality in adrenal GC response to major social change, reinforcing the need to assess welfare on an individual basis and to consider factors influencing the impact of perceived stressors, such as social relationships, social support, temperament, and life history. Outcomes from this study deepen our understanding of Asian elephant physiology and highlight the importance of taking intrinsic patterns of hormone secretion into account when evaluating the impact of external factors. Finally, a better understanding of the impact of social change and resiliency in response to real and perceived stressors allows us to improve social management to enhance welfare in both captive settings and free-ranging environments.


Assuntos
Elefantes/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hidrocortisona/urina , Corticosteroides/sangue , Corticosteroides/urina , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Ásia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Elefantes/sangue , Elefantes/urina , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Estudos Longitudinais , Maturidade Sexual
9.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 162(11): 683-695, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140727

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tail lesions caused by tail biting are a major welfare and economic concern in fattening pigs. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence and incidence of tail lesions in undocked pigs on individual animal level during the fattening period, to elucidate potential risk factors associated with tail lesions, and to describe the stockpersons' attitudes towards tail biting on Swiss farms. Thirty-eight farms were visited three times during the fattening period (beginning, mid-point, end). During each farm visit, tail lesions were scored on 30-126 individually marked pigs per farm (total: 2209 pigs), information on potential risk factors for tail lesions was recorded, and a standardized interview with the farmer was conducted to explore his/her opinion on tail biting. Potential risk factors were defined by indices when adequate, and their influence on the occurrence of tail lesions was analyzed using mixed effects logistic regression models. During the first and the second half of the fattening period, on average 14,1 and 15,4 pigs, respectively, out of 100 developed new tail lesions or aggravation of old lesions. The risk for new or aggravated tail lesions increased with higher scores for a «disease index¼ and with increasing group size, and it decreased with higher space allowances and with restrictive compared with ad libitum feeding. The prevalence of tail lesions on arrival was not associated with the incidence of tail lesions in the first and the second half of the fattening period, neither at farm level nor at pen level. In the interviews, farmers expressed their interest in getting professional advice on how to reduce tail biting on their farms. In conclusion, our study identified several risk factors for tail lesions in undocked fattening pigs indicating that the incidence of tail lesions could be reduced by improving animal health and housing conditions.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Métodos de Alimentação/veterinária , Cauda/lesões , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Incidência , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Suínos , Suíça
10.
Vet Rec ; 187(11): 442-444, 2020 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247052
11.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242106, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186369

RESUMO

Wildlife tourism attractions (WTA) are popular in the United States, but they may be harmful to the individual animals involved and we question whether they provide benefits to environmental conservation. Most research on the welfare and environmental implications of WTAs focuses on charismatic mammals, with few studies investigating these issues for reptiles. Here we examine alligator wrestling, including its impact on animal welfare and environmental conservation. Using a sample of 94 relevant YouTube videos of alligator wrestling in Florida representing 16 different venues, we coded the environmental and behavioral characteristics evident in each video. We then performed a content analysis of wrestlers' narration in a subset of 51 videos to analyze the environmental awareness and educational components of alligator wrestling. Our results show systemic welfare harm: 11 venues housed adult alligators together with conspecifics, 96% of alligator wrestling performances facilitated direct contact in the form of physical restraint by one or more human wrestlers, and as many as 96% of the videos did not show a suitable water or waterside features for captive alligators. Furthermore, 12% of performances showed wrestlers flipping alligators onto their backs while 16% showed wrestlers tying alligators' jaws shut, both of which are known to be acute stressors. Finally, just under half of alligator wrestling commentary (49%) addressed environmental conservation topics, and much of this commentary included contradictory or misleading information that is not likely to benefit alligators in the wild. We argue that alligator wrestling serves no role in promoting positive relationships between humans, animals, and the environment, and instead furthers traditional notions of dominion that undermine welfare and conservation aims.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos/fisiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Turismo , Animais , Florida , Humanos
12.
Science ; 370(6513): 179-180, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033210
16.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 599-613, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046916

RESUMO

Statistics show that disasters have expanded in scope and scale, with impacts on both humans and animals. As animals are valued not only for their economic value, but also for their companionship, people sometimes risk their lives to protect them, and emergency responders are expected to safeguard their welfare during emergencies. This paper discusses experiences from different regions of the world in animal disaster risk reduction and management in terms of legislation, funding streams, planning, capacity development, and communications. It is widely recognised that human, animal and environmental well-being are interconnected; therefore, as this is the case, and as veterinarians are at the forefront in ensuring animal welfare, they should be involved throughout the disaster management cycle. While animals and their welfare should always be considered in national disaster management plans, sub-regional authorities must be empowered to integrate animal welfare principles when responding to emergencies and implementing risk reduction programmes. Capacity development is key for Veterinary Services personnel who work in the fields of disaster management and risk reduction. Training tools and curricula developed by different organisations are available to foster skills such as incident coordination, risk communication, or response planning using tools such as the Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS). Intergovernmental organisations also play a significant role in setting the standards and frameworks within which professionals operate.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Médicos Veterinários , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Emergências/veterinária , Humanos
17.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 385-392, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046937

RESUMO

Contingency plans are a key tool to prevent and respond to events of different origins and nature that may affect animal health, animal welfare and veterinary public health needs. They should include a number of elements ranging from assessment and notification systems, financial arrangements and the role of national authorities. To help to ensure their effective and rapid implementation and prevent gaps, they should be based on a clear legal framework; this 'enabling legislation' will provide for basic requirements and the overall content of the plans. This paper first examines the basis of an effective and comprehensive legal framework for national contingency planning and response and considers the formal and substantive contents of such a framework. It then looks at different steps that can be taken to evaluate and strengthen existing national legislation. Finally, it describes the assistance role of the World Organisation for Animal Health in reviewing and developing national legislation.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Saúde Global , Animais , Saúde Pública
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(11): 9774-9790, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076188

RESUMO

Dairy is the most important subsector in the Sri Lankan livestock industry, due to the need to address the growing demand for fresh milk and milk products, and because of its potential influence on the rural economy. The USDA Food for Progress program awarded a 4.5-year Market-Oriented Dairy project to International Executive Service Corps, a not-for-profit organization based in Washington, DC. The objective of the Market-Oriented Dairy project is to support Sri Lanka's dairy sector and catalyze sustainable growth by strengthening the dairy sector through better technological, financial, and management practices benefiting all stakeholders and consumers along the dairy value chain. The University of Florida is working with International Executive Service Corps as technical experts in conducting dairy value chain assessments, identifying gaps and challenges in dairy management practices, extension services, milk quality management standards, and artificial insemination services. Assessment of the dairy value chain in 2018 identified a lack of good quality and quantity of feed, along with poor dairy management practices and ineffective extension services as major constraints to improving dairy productivity in Sri Lanka. In addition, lack of national milk quality standards that are consistent with international benchmarks and inadequate cooling facilities are significant challenges to improving milk quality. The nutritional status of cows is not suitable for optimal reproductive performance, compromising the success of artificial insemination in Sri Lanka. Based on these findings, we developed a dairy assessment tool and provided comprehensive training sessions targeting extension agents, veterinarians, and farmers to promote best practices in dairy management. Beyond training, however, industry support for standardization and monitoring of milk and feed quality are needed, providing opportunities for private investment to support the dairy industry. Similar opportunities are available for forage production and delivery to producers. The broader aim of the Market-Oriented Dairy project intervention is to reduce Sri Lanka's dependency on imported milk and contribute toward the goal of a safe, self-sufficient fresh milk supply.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Indústria de Laticínios/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Feminino , Sri Lanka
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241619, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125443

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effectiveness of combined dietary and enrichment strategies to manage tail biting in pigs with intact tails in a conventional fully-slatted floor housing system. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design was used. Pigs had either a high fibre (weaner 5.3% and finisher 11.6% of crude fibre) or standard fibre diet (weaner 3.7% and finisher 5.9% of crude fibre). In the weaner stage, pigs had either a spruce wooden post (supplied in a wall-mounted dispenser) or a rubber floor toy as a enrichment device, and in the finisher stage, they had either the same or alternate enrichment item. Six hundred and seventy-two pigs were assigned to 48 pens of 14 pigs and followed from weaning until slaughter. Individual tail lesion scores and pen level behaviours were directly recorded every 2 weeks. Twenty-six pens had tail biting outbreaks and 161 injured pigs needed removal for treatment. Pigs fed with the high fibre diet performed more tail biting (p < 0.05) and tended to have a worse tail damage scores than those fed the standard fibre diet (p = 0.08). Pigs which had the floor toy as weaners and wood as finishers tended to have fewer tail lesions in the finisher stage than their counterparts (p = 0.06). Pigs receiving the floor toy as enrichment interacted with the enrichment more frequently overall (p < 0.001) and performed fewer harmful behaviours in the weaner stage (p < 0.05). Overall, higher fibre in the diet in a relatively barren environment did not help reduce tail biting or tail lesions. Altering the fibre level in the pigs' diet and providing a single enrichment device to undocked pigs on fully slatted floors resulted in a high level of tail biting and a large proportion of pigs with partial tail amputation.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Suínos/fisiologia , Cauda/lesões , Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Mordeduras e Picadas/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Feminino , Masculino
20.
J Vet Dent ; 37(3): 149-158, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118460

RESUMO

In developing and emerging countries, many people make a living from picking municipal solid waste to sell for reuse or recycling. These people depend on cost-effective transport vehicles like horse-drawn carts. It is indisputable that the general health of these horses not only plays a major economic role but is a welfare issue as well. Orodental disorders are likely to be of particular importance as they directly impair health, performance, and therefore influence animal welfare and income. However, studies investigating prevalence and distribution of orodental disorders in working horses are scarce. This cross-sectional study is a survey of orodental alterations in 70 South Brazilian urban mixed-breed cart horses. All animals were subjected to a standardized clinical and subsequent specific orodental examination, and no horse had previously received dental treatment. Age and gender-related distribution and correlation of type and prevalence of orodental disorders were assessed. Excessively sharp enamel points (98.6%), cheek tooth diastema (65.7%), and mucosal ulcers (65.7%) occurred most frequently. Diastemata were more likely to be present between maxillary and mandibular Triadan 06/07 and mandibular 10/11. Male horses showed a higher individual number of orodental alterations than females (P = .048). Incisors were often worn down and endodontically affected, occurring most frequently in horses >18 years (P = .004) and males (P = .048). Results indicate a high prevalence of orodental changes among South Brazilian cart horses. Poor orodental health in working horses is an animal welfare issue and may be influenced by the socioeconomic status of waste pickers.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Masculino , Prevalência , Reciclagem , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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