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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 167, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539963

RESUMO

Multifocal tuberculosis is rare in immunocompetent subjects. It is characterized by the involvement of at least two extra-pulmonary sites, associated or not with lung disease. It is often difficult to diagnose. We here report a case of multifocal tuberculosis in a non-immunocompromised black African subject at the Hubert Koutoukou Maga National Hospital and University Center (CNHU-HKM) in Cotonou, Benin. The study involved a 23-year-old man, with no particular previous history, admitted with diffuse abdominal pain associated with alteration of general state. Clinical examination showed severe malnutrition and medium-volume ascites. Imaging tests (chest X-ray, ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scan) showed multiple lung, liver, pancreatic, bone, lymph nodes and colic lesions suggesting multimetastatic tumor. Colonoscopy then showed budding lesion of the cecum. GeneXpert test showed Koch´s bacilli. The anatomo-pathological examination of colic biopsies and GeneXpert sputum test confirmed multifocal tuberculosis. The patient received antituberculosis treatment and nutritional support. However he died. Multifocal tuberculosis is a serious disease that is difficult to diagnose. Then it is frequently mis-diagnosed in tropical areas, especially when it occurs in immunocompetent patients.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Benin , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Colonoscopia , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tuberculose/terapia , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 979, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) using smear microscopy has been based on testing two specimens: one spot and one early morning sputa. Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended to replace, whenever possible, microscopy with GeneXpert® MTB/RIF performed on a single specimen. However, as the bacterial load is higher in early morning specimens than in spot specimens, one could expect lower sensitivity of GeneXpert® MTB/RIF performed only on spot specimens. In this study, we compared results of GeneXpert® MTB/RIF on spot specimens versus early morning specimens, under programmatic conditions in Cotonou, Benin. METHODS: From June to September 2018, all sputa received from presumptive TB patients at the Supranational Reference Laboratory for Tuberculosis of Cotonou were included in the study. From each patient, two specimens were collected (one spot and one early morning) and GeneXpert® MTB/RIF was performed on both specimens. RESULTS: In total, 886 participants were included in the study, of whom 737 provided both sputa and 149 (16.8%) gave only the spot specimen. For the 737 participants who provided both sputa, GeneXpert® MTB/RIF was positive for both specimens in 152 participants; for three participants GeneXpert® MTB/RIF was positive on spot specimen but negative on morning specimen while for another three, the test was positive on morning specimen but negative on spot specimen. The overall percentage of agreement was excellent (99.2%) with a positive and negative percent agreement greater than 98%. CONCLUSION: For TB diagnosis under programmatic conditions in Cotonou, GeneXpert® MTB/RIF in spot specimens gave similar results with the test in morning specimens. Performing GeneXpert® MTB/RIF in both specimens did not significantly increase the number of cases detected. To avoid losing patients from the diagnostic cascade, it is preferable to test sputa produced at the time of the first visit at the health center.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Benin , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Rifampina , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro
3.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 81(3): 367-385, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518919

RESUMO

In Northern Benin, insecticides are used for cotton production. These insecticides can be easily transferred to water ponds close to cotton fields. To monitor insecticides levels in water, sediments and fish samples from water ponds, a GC-MS analytical method was developed to detect residues of endosulfan, DDT and its parent compounds, isomers of HCH, pyrethroids and chlorpyrifos. In addition, the influence of storage conditions of water sample on pesticides determination performance has been studied. The limits of quantification were between 0.16 and 0.32 µg/L in water, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg in sediment and 1 and 2 µg/kg in fish. Twenty samples of water, twenty of sediments and forty of fish were taken in four different water reservoirs at five different times. Alpha-endosulfan, lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin were identified in sediment while p,p'-DDE, α- and ß-HCH, chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin were detected in fish. Only organochlorines were determined in water because of the lack of recovery of pyrethroids from water stored in glass. Concentrations of insecticide residues in sediment for all water ponds ranged from non-detected to 101 µg/kg and from non-detected to 36 µg/kg in fish. Preliminary risk assessment for consumers of the North of Benin showed that the Estimated Daily Intakes were lower than the Acceptable Daily Intakes and Acute Reference Doses for all consumers. However, as one fish can be contaminated by five pesticide residues at the same time, it is not possible to exclude a risk for the consumer due to his exposure to mixtures of pesticides.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Benin , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2704-2706, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545795

RESUMO

Seoul virus is a zoonotic pathogen carried by the brown rat Rattus norvegicus. Information on its circulation in Africa is limited. In this study, the virus was detected in 37.5% of brown rats captured in the Autonomous Port of Cotonou, Benin. Phylogenetic analyses place this virus in Seoul virus lineage 7.


Assuntos
Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal , Vírus Seoul , Animais , Benin/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Ratos , Vírus Seoul/genética
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444125

RESUMO

Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) poses a disproportionate burden on Benin, West Africa. However, no diabetes intervention has yet been developed for Benin's contexts. This study aimed to explore specific cultural beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and environmental factors to help adapt a diabetes self-management program to patients with T2D from Cotonou, in southern Benin. Methods: Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions (FDGs) involving 32 patients with T2D, 16 academic partners, and 12 community partners. The FDGs were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim from French to English, and then analyzed thematically with MAXQDA 2020. Results: Healthy food was challenging to obtain due to costs, seasonality, and distance from markets. Other issues discussed were fruits and vegetables as commodities for the poor, perceptions and stigmas surrounding the disease, and the financial burden of medical equipment and treatment. Information about local food selections and recipes as well as social support, particularly for physical activity, were identified, among other needs. When adapting the curriculum, gender dynamics and spirituality were suggested. Conclusions: The study demonstrates the need for culturally sensitive interventions and a motivation-based approach to health (spiritual and emotional support). It also lays the groundwork for addressing T2D contextually in Benin and similar sub-Saharan African countries.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Autogestão , Benin , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Gene ; 803: 145899, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400278

RESUMO

Small-sized and trypanotolerant West African taurine (Bos taurus) cattle are a unique case of human-mediated process of adaptation to a challenging environment. Extensive gene flow with Sahelian zebu (B. indicus), bigger and with some resistance to tick attack, occurred for centuries and allowed the apparition of stable crossbred populations (sanga) having intermediate characteristics. Up to 237 individuals belonging to 10 different taurine, zebu and sanga cattle populations sampled in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger were typed using the BovineHD BeadChip of Illumina to identify signatures of selection, assessed using three different Extended-Haplotype-Homozygosity-based statistics, overlapping with ancient, originated 1024 or 2048 generations ago, Homozygosity-By-Descent segments in the cattle genome. Candidate genomic regions were defined ensuring their importance within cattle type and using zebu as reference. Functional annotation analysis identified four statistically significant Annotation Clusters in taurine cattle (from ACt1 to ACt4), one (ACs1) in sanga, and another (ACz1) in zebu cattle, fitting well with expectations. ACt1 included genes primarily associated with innate immunity; ACt2 involved bitter taste receptor genes of importance to adaptation to changing environments; ACt3 included 68 genes coding ATP-binding proteins, some of them located on trypanotolerance-related QTL regions, that can partially underlie immune response and the additive mechanism of trypanotolerance; ACt4 was associated with growth and small size (NPPC gene); ACs1 included genes involved in immune response; and ACz1 is related with ectoparasite resistance. Our results provide a new set of genomic areas and candidate genes giving new insights on the genomic impact of adaptation in West African cattle.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Bovinos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Benin , Burkina Faso , Resistência à Doença , Fluxo Gênico , Níger , Melhoramento Vegetal , Seleção Genética
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 434, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387779

RESUMO

The current context of climate change requires the conservation of local zoogenetic resources already very well adapted to the traditional breeding system, rough feeding, and heat and cold stress. This study assessed genetic diversity in local pigs in southern Benin, as a prerequisite for their sustainable use and sustainable management in Benin. A total of 69 individuals including 54 local pigs, 7 Large-White, and 8 hybrids (local pigs × Bush-pig) were genotyped by using 17 microsatellite markers. On the average, 8.94 alleles were detected per locus. Average expected and observed heterozygosities were respectively 0.51 and 0.46. Polymorphic information content was 0.61, and genetic diversity was 0.53. A phylogenetic tree gathered local pigs into three genetic clusters. Genetic structural analyses revealed introgression of Large-White's genes into the local pig's genome. Three groups were identified: hybrids (subpopulation 1), a mixture of Large-White and local pigs (subpopulation 2), and only local pigs (subpopulation 3). Symmetrical allelic distances were higher between subpopulations 1 and 2 (0.787) and then 1 and 3 (0.713). The same trend was detected for genetic distances between pairs of subpopulations. Genetic differentiation between subpopulations 2 and 3 was very weak as a consequence of high gene flow (10.82). Molecular variance analysis showed that 77% of genetic diversity within populations was related to variability between the individuals. These results showed that local pigs in southern Benin are threatened by genetic erosion and suggest prompt actions to implement sustainable conservation strategies.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Alelos , Animais , Benin , Filogenia , Suínos/genética
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 18, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394809

RESUMO

Introduction: cancer is a major cause of death in the world. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and prognostic features of cancers of the pancreas (CP) at the National Hospital and University Center of Cotonou. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study with a prospective and retrospective data collection over a period of ten years, from 1 October 2009 to 31 October 2019. Results: out of 15.102 hospitalizations, we identified 72 cases of CP, reflecting a hospitalization rate of 0.5%. The average age of patients was 59 years. The sex-ratio (H/F) was 1.5. The main reason for consultation was abdominal pain. More than half (51.4%) of patients had metastatic tumor at the time of diagnosis. Histological evidence of adenocarcinoma was only reported in 15.1% of cases. The rate of operable patients was 37.5% while the rate of resectable patients was 2.7%. Palliative chemotherapy was given to 13.9% of patients. The average cost of treatment was 955.882,4 FCFA (23.9 times the Guaranteed Interprofessional Minimum Wage in Benin). Median overall survival was 6 months. Mortality rate was 86.9% (53/61), survival rate at one year was 31.4%, and zero at five years. Palliative surgery (p = 0.021) and chemotherapy (p = 0.023) improved patient survival. Conclusion: cancer of the pancreas, due to its non-specific signs and insidious outcome, is often diagnosed at a late stage. A metastatic tumor and the limited individual and institutional therapeutic possibilities lead to more pejorative prognosis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Benin , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371796

RESUMO

Overlapping micronutrient interventions might increase the risk of excessive micronutrient intake, with potentially adverse health effects. To evaluate how strategies currently implemented in Benin and Ghana contribute to micronutrient intake in women of reproductive age (WRA), and to assess the risk for excess intakes, scenarios of basic rural and urban diets were built, and different on-going interventions were added. We estimated micronutrient intakes for all different scenarios. Four types of intervention were included in the scenarios: fortification, biofortification, supplementation and use of locally available nutrient-rich foods. Basic diets contributed poorly to daily micronutrient intake in WRA. Fortification of oil and salt were essential to reach daily requirements for vitamin A and iodine, while fortified flour contributed less. Biofortified products could make an important contribution to the coverage of vitamin A needs, while they were not sufficient to cover the needs of WRA. Iron and folic acid supplementation was a major contributor in the intake of iron and folate, but only in pregnant and lactating women. Risk of excess were found for three micronutrients (vitamin A, folic acid and niacin) in specific contexts, with excess only coming from voluntary fortified food, supplementation and the simultaneous overlap of several interventions. Better regulation and control of fortification and targeting of supplementation could avoid excess intakes.


Assuntos
Micronutrientes/análise , Terapia Nutricional/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipernutrição/etiologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Benin/epidemiologia , Biofortificação/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/análise , Alimentos Fortificados/estatística & dados numéricos , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Niacina/análise , Terapia Nutricional/efeitos adversos , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Estado Nutricional , Hipernutrição/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitamina A/análise , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1490, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In early March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic hit West Africa. In response, countries in the region quickly set up crisis management committees and implemented drastic measures to stem the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The objective of this article is to analyse the epidemiological evolution of COVID-19 in seven Francophone West African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Senegal) as well as the public health measures decided upon during the first 7 months of the pandemic. METHODS: Our method is based on quantitative and qualitative data from the pooling of information from a COVID-19 data platform and collected by a network of interdisciplinary collaborators present in the seven countries. Descriptive and spatial analyses of quantitative epidemiological data, as well as content analyses of qualitative data on public measures and management committees were performed. RESULTS: Attack rates (October 2020) for COVID-19 have ranged from 20 per 100,000 inhabitants (Benin) to more than 94 per 100,000 inhabitants (Senegal). All these countries reacted quickly to the crisis, in some cases before the first reported infection, and implemented public measures in a relatively homogeneous manner. None of the countries implemented country-wide lockdowns, but some implemented partial or local containment measures. At the end of June 2020, countries began to lift certain restrictive measures, sometimes under pressure from the general population or from certain economic sectors. CONCLUSION: Much research on COVID-19 remains to be conducted in West Africa to better understand the dynamics of the pandemic, and to further examine the state responses to ensure their appropriateness and adaptation to the national contexts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Benin , Burkina Faso , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Costa do Marfim , Guiné , Humanos , Mali/epidemiologia , Níger , SARS-CoV-2 , Senegal/epidemiologia
11.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 44(8): 1237-1242, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366126

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To establish the epidemiological and tomographic profile of macular holes in the Beninese subject. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included consecutive patients seen for macular testing during the period from January 2016 to August 2017 at the St. Anthony of Padua Retinal Testing Center in Cotonou (Benin). All patients who had a macular hole and macular OCT were included. To define macular hole types, we used the 2013 DUKER New Classification and analyzed for each case: age sex, history, involved eye, fellow eye, visual acuity, hole type, hole diameter, status of the vitreous cortex, edge edema, mean macular thickness, presence of vitreomacular traction, epimacular membrane, and retrofoveal choroidal thickness. Patients with a pseudo-macular hole or lamellar hole were excluded. RESULTS: During this study period, 401 patients underwent a macular OCT procedure at the Retinal Testing Center, with 22 patients having a macular hole, of which 15 women and 07 men for a sex ratio of 2.14 women to men. The mean age of the patients was 61±10 years, with a median age of 63 years. The mean diameter of the holes was 705µm±232µm. No small holes were found. The mean central macular thickness was 272µm±39µm. In 52.4% of cases, the condition of the felloweye indicated the presence of vitreomacular traction. The etiological profile of the macular hole found in 72.7% a primary origin, and a secondary origin (diabetic and traumatic) in 13.6% and 9.09% respectively. DISCUSSION: The majority of the macular holes observed were large macular holes, which could be explained by the progressive course of these macular holes as well as late detection. Over half of the fellow eyes showed vitreomacular traction, reflecting the potential risk of bilateralization. CONCLUSION: Macular hole is a pathology of the vitreomacular interface, tending to be large in our geographic context. On OCT, the data found remain comparable those reported in the literature.


Assuntos
Perfurações Retinianas , Idoso , Benin , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perfurações Retinianas/diagnóstico , Perfurações Retinianas/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Acuidade Visual
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6637617, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395621

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen present on a third of the healthy population. The bacterium possesses an extensive arsenal of virulence factors. The pathogenicity is linked with S. aureus high plasticity and its exceptional ability to incorporate foreign genetic material. The aim of the present study was to perform molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from the clinical environment of the CHU-Z Abomey-Calavi/Sô-Ava. Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus bacterium was performed on Chapman agar. Toxin production by isolated S. aureus strains was investigated using the radial immunoprecipitation technique. A colorimetric assay was used to evaluate Staphylococcus aureus lipase (SA-Lipase) production. Finally, the expression of antibiotic resistance genes and genes encoding toxins production was investigated. Our data suggest that none of the isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains expressed the investigated toxin genes. Interestingly, SA-Lipase was produced by 14.28% of our isolated S. aureus strains. The mecA gene was present in 57.14% of the isolated strains, while PVL and TSST-1 genes were identified in 2.85 and 7.14% of S. aureus, respectively. Significant genetic diversity was observed along the hospital environment S. aureus strains. The present study reveals the level of virulence of S. aureus strains isolated in the different units of CHU-Z Abomey Calavi/Sô-Ava through the production of lipase, PVL, and epidermolysins. The molecular study has favored a genetic characterization within the isolated strains.


Assuntos
Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Benin , Enterotoxinas/genética , Exotoxinas/genética , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Leucocidinas/genética , Lipase/genética , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Superantígenos/genética , Virulência
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444357

RESUMO

Youth suicidality is considerably prevalent in low- and middle-income countries, including Benin. Factors such as psychosocial distress, socio-environmental factors, and health risk behaviors are associated with suicidality. However, little is known about how these factors co-occur in these countries. An analysis of these factors taken together would help to identify the profiles most at risk and better target prevention policies. Our study aimed to identify profiles related to these factors and their association with suicidality among adolescents in Benin. Data from the 2016 Global School-Based Student Health Survey were used, and factors related to lifestyle (tobacco and alcohol consumption and physical activity), physical violence, parental support, and psychological distress were studied. Latent class analysis was used to identify the profiles, and a modified Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, was performed to assess the association between these profiles and suicidality. The survey results show that globally, 13.8% of the adolescents (n = 2536) aged 11 to 18 had thought about suicide, 15.6% had planned suicide, and 15.6% had attempted suicide. Four profiles were identified: a low-risk group, one with psychological distress problems, a group with violence problems, and one with alcohol, tobacco, and violence problems. The risk of suicidality, in terms of ideation, planning, or attempting, was higher for adolescents in Profiles 2, 3, and 4 than those in Profile 1 (p < 0.05). Adolescents in Profile 2 were particularly affected by this increased risk (prevalence ratio (PR) for ideation = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.03-1.23; PR for planning = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.04-1.22; PR for attempting = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.01-1.17). This study highlights the typical profiles that may be linked with suicidality among adolescents in Benin. A holistic consideration of these factors could help in planning better preventive measures to reduce suicidality among adolescents in Benin.


Assuntos
Ideação Suicida , Suicídio , Adolescente , Benin/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Fatores de Risco
14.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(11): 5058-5071, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice (Oryza spp) is one of the most consumed cereals in the Republic of Benin. However, rice production is threatened by various pests, which lead to important yield losses. For the development of integrated management strategies responding to the farmers' realities, it is important to document their perceptions, knowledge and management of rice pests. Surveys involving 418 rice farmers to 21 ethnic groups through 39 villages were performed using rural appraisal tools. RESULTS: Farmers perceived birds, specifically weavers as the most important rice pests. The surveyed farmers also identified the variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus L. and rice brown leaf spots [Curvularia lunata (Wakker) Boedijn] as the main pests in the northern region, the pink stem borer, Sesamia calamistis Hampson and rice blast (Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert) Barr) in the southern region, and Z. variegatus and rice yellow mottle virus (genus Sobemovirus) in central Benin. The most important rice storage constraint was rodent attacks and the surveyed farmers proposed 13 key solutions to minimize constraints related to rice storage. Among various pest control methods recorded, farmers used mainly synthetic chemical pesticides. However, the Beninese National Pesticide Management Committee (CNGP) does not recommend most of pesticides used by farmers for rice protection (prohibited pesticides or intended for the protection of other crops). Farming experience, family size, region and number of observed pests have significantly influenced farmers' decision to use pesticides. CONCLUSION: The rice pests perceived by farmers as important vary significantly across regions. These results suggest that integrated pest management programmes which target rice pests accounting for these regional differences will be more effective. The identified variables that influence the use of pesticides must be taken in account in the development of strategies which will encourage farmers to use ecofriendly pest management.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Praguicidas , Agricultura , Benin , Humanos , Percepção
15.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 1206-1208, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314227

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) subtypes in limited-resource settings is imperative for cancer prevention strategies in these regions. The objective of our study is to compare the prevalence of cervical HPV genotypes in women across the African diaspora. METHODS: This study was approved by the African Caribbean Consortium (AC3). Six member institutions (Benin, Ethiopia, The Bahamas, Tobago, Curacao, and Jamaica) provided independently collected HPV data. Prevalence comparisons across for each nation were performed followed by an assessment of anticipated 9-valent vaccine coverage. Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used with significance at P < .05. RESULTS: One thousand three hundred fifty high-risk (HR) and 584 low-risk (LR) HPV subtypes were identified in the entire cohort. The most common HR HPV subtype was HPV 16 (17.9%) of infections. The distribution of HR and LR subtypes varied by country. The proportion of HR-HPV subtypes covered by the current 9-valent vaccine was lower in African countries compared with the Caribbean countries (47.9% v 67.9%; P < .01). No significant difference was seen for LR subtypes (8.1% African continent v 5.2% Caribbean; P = .20). Marked variation in the proportion of infections covered by the 9-valent vaccine persisted in individual countries. CONCLUSION: Significant variations in HPV prevalence were identified among African and Afro-Caribbean women. A large number of women in these regions are potentially uncovered by current vaccination formulation, particularly low-risk HPV infections.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Bahamas , Benin , Curaçao , Etiópia , Feminino , Genótipo , Migração Humana , Humanos , Jamaica , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Trinidad e Tobago
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(3): 670-676, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255739

RESUMO

In 2005, artemether-lumefantrine (AL), an artemisinin-based combination therapy, was introduced as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Benin. Per World Health Organization recommendations to monitor the efficacy of antimalarial treatment, we conducted a therapeutic efficacy study with AL for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Bohicon and Kandi, Benin, from 2018 to 2019. Febrile patients aged 6 to 59 months with confirmed P. falciparum monoinfection received supervised doses of AL for 3 days. We monitored patients clinically and parasitologically on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. A molecular analysis to detect mutations in the P. falciparum Kelch propeller gene (Pfk13) gene was carried out on day 0 samples. A total of 205 patients were included in the study. In Bohicon, the uncorrected adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) proportion was 91.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 84.6-95.8%), whereas in Kandi this proportion was 96.7% (95% CI: 90.6-99.3%). Genotype-corrected ACPR proportions were 96.3% (95% CI: 90.9-99.0%) and 96.7% (95% CI: 90.6-99.3%) in Bohicon and Kandi, respectively. On day 3, 100% of patients in Bohicon and 98.9% of patients in Kandi had undetectable parasitemia. The C580Y mutation in the Pfk13 gene was not observed. AL remains effective for P. falciparum malaria in these two sites in Benin. Monitoring antimalarial efficacy and prevalence of molecular-resistance markers in Benin should be continued to allow for early detection of antimalarial resistance and to guide treatment policies.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Benin , Pré-Escolar , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 528, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322744

RESUMO

Canalization carried out during petroleum exploration is contributing to environmental changes in the Niger Delta. We carried out a study on five decades of canalization in Olero Creek, Benin River, from 1980 to 2020. The study site covered an area of 36.40 km2. Satellite imageries of five epochs (1980, 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020) and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) of 2000, which provided digital elevation models (DEMs) of the study area were collected and analyzed using ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 and ArcGIS 10.6 software. We found that the total length of dredged canal increased from 14.14 km in 1980 to 61.07 km in 2020, spoil banks doubled from 2.05 km2 in 1980 to 4.13 km2 in 2020, and direct wetland loss doubled from 3.76 km2 in 1980 to 7.57 km2 in 2020, with the largest increase occurring between 1990 and 2000. The land use/land cover, topography, and hydrology of the area also changed. Water bodies that originally accounted for 1.17% of the study area in 1980, increased to 22% in 2020, Rhizophora racemosa fringing the waterbodies increased from 11% in 1980 to 47% in 2020, and Rhizophora mangle decreased from over 55% in 1980 to about 23% in 2020. The results of digital elevation model show that the surface area is undulating with the relative topography of the study site ranging from - 5 to 40 m. We conclude that canalization during petroleum exploration was contributing to land use, topographic, and hydrologic changes in the study area.


Assuntos
Hidrologia , Petróleo , Benin , Monitoramento Ambiental , Níger , Rios , Áreas Alagadas
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299867

RESUMO

West African coastal areas including the Beninese coastal zones have undergone an intensification of socio-economic activity in the last few decades that has been strongly driven by the effects of rapid urbanization. This has led to land-use and land cover changes that represent threats to the sustainability of various ecosystem functions. Such dynamics of land use and land cover changes pose challenges to coastal zone management. Correct assessment is vital for policymakers and planners to ensure efficient and sustainable use of the coastal ecosystem services, and it remains crucial to achieving sustainable coastal zone management. This study examines changes in land-use and land cover (LULC) and their impacts on ecosystem services value (ESV) fluctuations in the tropical coastal region of Benin, West Africa. We employed Globe Land 30 image data for the years 2010 and 2020, and the ESV fluctuations during the study period were evaluated using the benefit transfer approach (BTA) with corresponding local coefficients values and the GIS techniques. The results reveal that (1) in the current urbanizing coastal area, the LULC types have changed significantly, with obvious reductions in forest land and waterbodies and a considerable increase in artificial surfaces; (2) the total ESV decreased by 8.51% from USD 7.1557 million in 2010 to USD 6.5941 million in 2020; (3) the intensity of LULC in the coastal region has increased over the last 10 years; (4) regions with high land-use intensity have a high rate of ESV change; and (5) provisioning services are the greatest contributors of ESV (51% in 2010; 41% in 2020), followed by supporting services (37% in 2010; 35% in 2020) and regulating services (25% in 2010; 30% in 2020). Uncontrolled changes in LULC from forest land and waterbodies are the main causes of the loss in total ESV, necessitating urgent measures to improve the coastal ecosystem sustainability through effective planning and policies.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Urbanização , Benin , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1429, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liquid discharges from hospitals (effluents) threaten the environment and are now a central concern of all stakeholders in the health system and those in the protection of the environment. The management of effluents is a major problem in developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of effluent management at the level of university hospital centers (CHU) in the Littoral region in Benin. METHODS: It was a cross-sectional, descriptive, evaluative study that took place in 2020 to assess the "structure", "process" and "results" components according to standard thresholds (Bad: < 60%; Acceptable: [60-80% [and Good: ≥ 80%). RESULTS: In all the CHUs, all the components, as well as the overall quality of the management of hospital effluents, had a score between 0 and 60%, with an assessment deemed bad. The poor quality of the process highlighted the non-compliance with standards relating to the management of hospital liquid discharges. Several factors linked to the "structure", "process" and "results" components at the same time explain this poor management of university hospitals effluents. CONCLUSION: These effluents discharged without prior treatment into wastewater could constitute a source of dissemination of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. It is therefore important to develop methods for treating these effluents before they are released into the natural environment.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Benin , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 304, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178222

RESUMO

Blood transfusion is a medical procedure used to treat patients with labile blood product. Each transfusion of globular concentrate exposes recipients to the risk of red blood cell alloimmunization. The test for red cell antibodies (RCA) ensures the immunohaematological safety of transfused patients. In Benin, this test is not performed in a systematic way or included either in the pre-transfusion or in the post-transfusion tests. The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of red cell antibodies among polytransfused patients. RCA was performed using indirect antiglobulin test on gel-filtration in 51 polytransfused patients including 26 selected in the Department of Hematology and 25 in the Department of Nephrology at the National Hospital and University Center of Cotonou. After phenotyping alloimmunized patients, tests for detecting signs of hemolysis were performed. Clinical data as well as those on transfusion were collected from transfusion registries and medical records. The prevalence of alloimmunization in our study population was 13.73%. The antibodies identified had the following characteristics: association of anti-RH1 and anti-RH3, anti LE1, association of anti-RH3 and anti-FY1. Alloantibodies were more frequent in patients who had received more than 15 packed red blood cells. Laboratory tests showed signs of hemolysis in one alloimmunized patient. There was no correlation between age, sex, clinical diagnosis and the occurrence of red blood cell alloimmunization. The test for red cell antibodies should be systematically performed in polytransfused patients in order to ensure better transfusion recipient safety in Benin.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Hemólise/imunologia , Isoanticorpos/imunologia , Adulto , Benin , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
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