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1.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1134-1135: 121877, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785533

RESUMO

PH-797804 is a selective p38 MAPK inhibitor currently evaluated in clinical trials. This study described a validated UPLC-MS/MS combined with one-step protein precipitation extraction method for determination of PH-797804 in rat plasma. After protein precipitation with acetonitrile, the plasma sample was analyzed by a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column, with acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid (70:30) as the mobile phase. Mass spectrometric detection was conducted with a Waters TQ-S mass spectrometer via electrospray, positive-mode ionization, with target quantitative ion pairs of m/z 476.895 → 126.860 for PH-797804, and 482.726 → 269.707 for regorafenib (internal standard). The assay showed a good linearity over the range of 1.0-1600 ng/mL, with acceptable accuracy (RE from -7.8% to 8.5%) and precision (RSD within 8.4%) values. Recovery from plasma was 81.4-90.2% and matrix effect was negligible (93.3-95.4%). The validated method presented a quantification method of PH-797804 in detail for the first time and utilized for a pharmacokinetic study at three dose concentrations after oral administration in Wistar rats. The pharmacokinetic profiles of PH-797804 showed a linear relationship between drug concentration and dose, which provided dosage and safety information on further clinical studies.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/sangue , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Piridonas/sangue , Piridonas/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Benzamidas/química , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Piridonas/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores
2.
Clin Drug Investig ; 39(10): 967-978, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-clinical study data suggest that DS-8500a, a G protein-coupled receptor 119 agonist, exhibits antidiabetic activity, inhibition of some transporters and induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A. Statins are substrates for some transporters and CYP3A that may be coadministered with DS-8500a in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To determine the potential effects of DS-8500a on the pharmacokinetics of statins, we evaluated the effects of repeated oral administration of DS-8500a 75 mg on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin in healthy adults. METHODS: We performed two single-center, open-label, single-sequence studies. In Study I, subjects received single-dose rosuvastatin 10 mg (Period A) and DS-8500a 75 mg once daily + single-dose rosuvastatin 10 mg (Period B). In Study II, subjects received single-dose atorvastatin 10 mg (Period A) and DS-8500a 75 mg once daily + single-dose atorvastatin 10 mg (Period B). Primary pharmacokinetic endpoints were maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin. Safety was evaluated. RESULTS: In Study I, the Cmax and AUC of rosuvastatin increased by 66% and 33%, respectively, when coadministered with DS-8500a, versus rosuvastatin alone. In Study II, the Cmax of atorvastatin increased by 28%, but AUC remained unchanged following coadministration with DS-8500a, versus atorvastatin alone. Treatment-emergent adverse events were mild to moderate and mostly unrelated to the study drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple doses of DS-8500a increased exposure to rosuvastatin and atorvastatin. This short-term study suggests that the impact of DS-8500a coadministration on atorvastatin exposure is limited and may not be clinically relevant. Nevertheless, caution may be necessary when patients are coadministered rosuvastatin with DS-8500a. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT03699774. JAPAN PHARMACEUTICAL INFORMATION CENTER IDENTIFIER: JapicCTI-152878.


Assuntos
Atorvastatina/farmacocinética , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Ciclopropanos/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacocinética , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Oxidiazóis/farmacocinética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/agonistas , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/farmacocinética , Adulto , Atorvastatina/administração & dosagem , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Ciclopropanos/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Interações Medicamentosas/fisiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxidiazóis/administração & dosagem , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/administração & dosagem
3.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 142: 435-448, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306750

RESUMO

Acalabrutinib (Calquence®) 100 mg (bid) has received accelerated approval by FDA for the treatment of adult patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) who have received at least one prior therapy. Acalabrutinib is a substrate of PgP and CYP3A4, with a significant fraction of drug metabolized by first pass gut extraction and 25% absolute bioavailability. The absorption of acalabrutinib is affected by stomach pH, with lower pharmacokinetic exposure observed following co-administration with proton pump inhibitors. During dissolution at pH values below its highest basic pKa, the two basic moieties of acalabrutinib react with protons from the aqueous solution, leading to a higher pH at the drug surface than in the bulk solution. A batch-specific product particle size distribution (P-PSD), was derived from dissolution data using a mechanistic model that was based on the understanding of surface pH and the contribution of micelles to the dissolution rate. P-PSD values obtained for various batches of acalabrutinib products in simple buffers, or in complex fluids such as fruit juices, were successfully integrated into a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model developed using GastroPlus v9.0™. The integrated model allowed the prediction of clinical pharmacokinetics under normal physiological stomach pH conditions as well as following treatment with proton pump inhibitors. The model also accounted for lower pharmacokinetic exposure that was observed when acalabrutinib was co-administered with the acidic beverages, grapefruit juice, (which contains CYP3A inhibitors), and orange drink (which does not contain CYP3A inhibitors), relative to administration with water. The integration of dissolution data in the PBPK model enables mechanistic understanding and the establishment of more robust in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) under a variety of conditions. The model can then distinguish the interplay between dissolution and first pass extraction and how in vivo stomach pH, saturation of gut PgP, and saturation or inhibition of gut CYP3A4, will impact the pharmacokinetics of acalabrutinib.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/química , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Interações Medicamentosas/fisiologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/química , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/farmacocinética , Pirazinas/química , Pirazinas/farmacocinética , Solubilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos
4.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(2): 383-393, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172407

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a phenotypic breast cancer subgroup with a very poor prognosis, despite standard treatments. Combined twice-weekly iniparib and gemcitabine/carboplatin (GC+tw-iniparib) showed benefit over gemcitabine/carboplatin in a randomized phase II trial, and a phase III was initiated comparing these regimens. The present phase II study was initiated to compare GC+tw-iniparib with a more practical once-weekly schedule (GC+w-iniparib) in TNBC. METHODS: Metastatic TNBC patients were randomized to receive iniparib weekly (11.2 mg/kg on days 1 and 8) or twice-weekly (5.6 mg/kg on days 1, 4, 8, and 11) with gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2) and carboplatin (area under the curve 2 on days 1 and 8), every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR). Pharmacokinetics of iniparib and its two metabolites were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 163 patients were randomized, 82 GC+w-iniparib and 81 GC+tw-iniparib. Demographic and baseline characteristics were well balanced. ORR was 34.1% (95% CI 23.9-44.4%) vs. 29.6% (95% CI 19.7-39.6%) and median progression-free survival was 5.5 months (95% CI 4.2-5.7) vs. 4.3 months (95% CI 3.0-5.8) for GC+w-iniparib and GC+tw-iniparib, respectively. Safety was similar across treatment arms in terms of event severity and type. Iniparib plasma concentrations and exposure were two-fold higher with w-iniparib compared to tw-iniparib. Iniparib and its metabolites were cleared rapidly with a terminal half-life of < 1 h, without accumulation. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a doubled maximum concentration with weekly iniparib, no detectable differences in safety or efficacy were observed between the weekly and twice-weekly administration schedules in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier NCT01045304.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/farmacocinética , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/farmacocinética , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Retratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade
5.
Clin Drug Investig ; 39(9): 873-887, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Current pain therapies often do not provide adequate pain relief and have dose-limiting adverse effects. Genetic evidence indicates that NaV1.7 sodium channels are required for pain transduction and therefore represent an important therapeutic target. GDC-0276 is a novel NaV1.7 inhibitor developed for the treatment of pain. This first-in-human trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of orally administered GDC-0276 in healthy subjects. METHODS: This phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed GDC-0276 as powder-in-capsule (PIC) or cyclodextrin solution (CD) single doses (SDs) of 2-270 mg (seven cohorts) and 45-540 mg (five cohorts), respectively. Multiple (MD) PIC doses were administered as total daily doses of 15-540 mg divided into two or three doses/day, up to 10 or 14 days. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events (AEs), vital signs, physical examinations, electrocardiograms, and laboratory tests for up to 15 days after the last day of dosing. GDC-0276 plasma pharmacokinetics were also determined. RESULTS: Three stages included 183 randomized subjects. GDC-0276 plasma exposure increased with dose level for all stages. Exposure was higher in the SD-CD cohorts compared with the equivalent SD-PIC dose levels. SDs were adequately tolerated up to 270 mg (SD-PIC) and 360 mg (SD-CD). Hypotension limited tolerability in the 540-mg SD-CD cohort. Multiple PIC doses were tolerated up to 270 mg twice daily, however liver transaminase elevations were frequently observed. No deaths or serious AEs occurred. CONCLUSION: GDC-0276 exhibited a safety and pharmacokinetic profile that supports its future investigation as a potential therapeutic for pain.


Assuntos
Azetidinas , Benzamidas , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.7/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio , Adolescente , Adulto , Azetidinas/efeitos adversos , Azetidinas/farmacocinética , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Benzamidas/efeitos adversos , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/farmacocinética , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(2 (Supplementary)): 793-798, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103974

RESUMO

Cinitapride has been widely given in gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and dysphagia due to irregularities of GI motilities. Mouth dissolving tablets were prepared for rapid availability and action of drug. Multi-point dissolution studies were conducted in 0.1 N HCl solution of pH 1.2 and phosphate buffer of pH 4.5 and 6.8. Drug release profile showed higher liberation of cinitapride at lower pH then basic medium (<80%). Formulation containing crospovidone (10%) was found to be optimized trial having excellent quality pharmaceutical attributes. The lowest AIC, highest MSC and regression (> 0.9) values were observed for Weibull kinetics in all dissolution medium reflecting the excellent model fitting for the present study. Accelerated stability testing data showed excellent results of drug assay (>99%) along with physical characteristics indicating the absence of drug degradation as well excipient interaction. The estimated shelf life period of various optimized trial formulations was found in between 33 to 41 months.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/química , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Comprimidos/química , Comprimidos/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Tampões (Química) , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Comprimidos/administração & dosagem
7.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 25: 1076029619847524, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088146

RESUMO

The currently available oral anti-Xa agents are claimed to produce their anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects solely by the inhibition of factor Xa. This study profiled various anti-Xa drugs in routinely used laboratory assays to demonstrate that their effects are not solely related to the anti-Xa activities. Apixaban, betrixaban, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban were obtained commercially. Native and citrated whole blood was used for the activated clotting time (ACT) and thromboelastography (TEG). Citrated plasma was used for monitoring the prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), Heptest, and prothrombinase-induced clotting time (PiCT) tests. An amidolytic method was used for the determination of anti-Xa effects. Thrombin-induced fibrinokinetics was monitored optically. Thrombin generation studies were carried out using the calibrated automated thrombogram. All of the anti-Xa agents produced concentration- and assay-dependent effects. In the ACT at 2.5 µg/mL and TEG at 1.0 µg/mL, edoxaban exhibited the strongest anticoagulation effect. In the PiCT, PT, and aPTT assay at 1 µg/mL, edoxaban showed stronger effects than other agents. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of these agents for the inhibition of factor Xa ranged from 340 to >1000 ng/mL. In the thrombin generation inhibition assay, apixaban showed the strongest activity. In the fibrinokinetics, different anti-Xa agents produced varying degrees of inhibition. These results demonstrate that the measured anti-Xa activity alone does not fully reflect the overall biologic spectrum of these agents.


Assuntos
Benzamidas , Inibidores do Fator Xa , Fator Xa/metabolismo , Tempo de Protrombina , Pirazóis , Piridinas , Piridonas , Rivaroxabana , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacocinética , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacologia , Humanos , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacocinética , Piridinas/farmacologia , Piridonas/farmacocinética , Piridonas/farmacologia , Rivaroxabana/farmacocinética , Rivaroxabana/farmacologia , Tiazóis/farmacocinética , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Tromboelastografia
8.
Eur J Med Chem ; 176: 195-207, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103900

RESUMO

Previously, we focused on a series of 2-aminobenzamide-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, compound 9 of which displayed potent HDAC inhibitory activity against HDAC1 and HDAC2, and moderate anti-proliferative activity against several cancer cell lines. In the current study, we have designed and synthesized a series of novel HDAC inhibitors based on thioether moiety with 9 as a lead compound. Representative compounds12 g and 12 h showed apparently potent anti-proliferative activities against five solid cancer cell lines: A549, HCT116, Hela, A375 and SMMC7721, and low cytotoxicity against NIH 3T3 normal cells. Especially, 12 g and 12 h also revealed potent HDAC inhibitory activity against HDAC1, 2 and 3. In addition, the two compounds could arrest cell cycle in G2/M phase and promote cell apoptosis. Moreover, they showed extended inhibition of colony formation and effectively blocked cell migration towards A549 cancer cells. Furthermore, 12 g and 12 h possessed better pharmacokinetic properties than the lead compound 9. Benefiting from these results, we also explored 12 g and 12 h in the A549 xenografts model for in vivo antitumor activity. The in vivo experiment indicated that 12 g and 12 h could evidently augment antitumor activity (TGI = 56.9% and 62.7% respectively).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/uso terapêutico , Sulfetos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzamidas/síntese química , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Benzamidas/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenho de Fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/síntese química , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/toxicidade , Humanos , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Células NIH 3T3 , Sulfetos/síntese química , Sulfetos/farmacocinética , Sulfetos/toxicidade , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(4): 155, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924008

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel formulation of dual-release dry suspension of mosapride citrate (DRDS-MC) was designed which can be quickly released in the stomach while having sustained-release effect. Co-grinding mixture of mosapride citrate (MC) together with L-HPC as hydrophilic excipient was prepared in order to improve the solubility of MC. The co-grinding mixture was characterized by solubility studies, DSC, X-RD, SEM, FTIR, and size distribution before the preparation of the DRDS-MC. Then, the co-grinding mixture was used to prepare DRDS-MC via wet granulation method. The evaluation of DRDS-MC was focused on physicochemical properties, intestinal absorption, and pharmacokinetics. The results of DSC, X-RD, SEM, FTIR, and size distribution indicated that MC resides in co-grinding mixture with no crystalline changes, hydrogen bonds made L-HPC greatly improving the solubility of MC. Then, the dissolution of DRDS-MC reached 70% in pH 1.2 within 2 h, and the 12-h dissolution of MC in pH 6.8 was nearly 80%. The sedimentation volume after 3 h was 0.94 and redispersibility was good. The linear regression equation between in vitro release of DRDS-MC and intestinal absorption fraction in rats was: Y = 29.215 + 47.535*X (r = 0.952). At last, pharmacokinetic studies in beagle dogs demonstrated that DRDS-MC has prolonged effect compared with commercial formulation Gasmotin as a reference. All results indicated that the DRDS-MC could be quickly released in the stomach while having sustained-release effect.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/síntese química , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Absorção Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/síntese química , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/farmacocinética , Morfolinas/síntese química , Morfolinas/farmacocinética , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Preparações de Ação Retardada/síntese química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Cães , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/fisiologia , Excipientes/síntese química , Excipientes/farmacocinética , Absorção Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Solubilidade , Suspensões
11.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 83(4): 787-795, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758651

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Vistusertib is an orally bioavailable dual target of rapamycin complex (TORC) 1/2 kinase inhibitor currently under clinical investigation in various solid tumour and haematological malignancy settings. The pharmacokinetic, metabolic and excretion profiles of 14Carbon-isotope (14C)-labelled vistusertib were characterised in this open-label phase I patient study. METHODS: Four patients with advanced solid malignancies received a single oral solution dose of 14C-labelled vistusertib. Blood, urine, faeces, and saliva samples were collected at various time points during the 8-day in-patient period of the study. Safety and preliminary efficacy were also assessed. RESULTS: 14C-labelled vistusertib was rapidly absorbed following administration (time to maximum concentration (Tmax) < 1.2 h in all subjects). Overall, > 90% of radioactivity was recovered with the majority recovered as metabolites in faeces (on average 80% vs. 12% recovered in urine). The majority of circulating radioactivity (~ 78%) is unchanged vistusertib. Various morpholine-ring oxidation metabolites and an N-methylamide circulate at low concentrations [each < 10% area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-∞)]. No new or unexpected safety findings were observed; the most common adverse events were nausea and stomatitis. CONCLUSIONS: The pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of vistusertib is similar to previous studies using the same dosing regimen in solid malignancy patients. The majority of vistusertib elimination occurred via hepatic metabolic routes.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Morfolinas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfolinas/farmacocinética , Neoplasias/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(6): 6077-6086, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613891

RESUMO

The present study describes the uptake and distribution of fungicides, fluopyram, and tebuconazole in tomato and bell pepper plant tissues from the soil drench application of their combination product fluopyram17.7% + tebuconazole 17.7%. For extraction and cleanup of fluopyram, its metabolite fluopyram benzamide, and tebuconazole samples, the QuEChERS method was used in conjunction with LC-MS/MS. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method determined were 1.5 µg kg-1 and 0.005 mg kg-1, respectively, and recoveries of all analytes from sample matrices remained within the acceptable range of 70-120%. Rapid uptake of the fungicides by tomato and bell pepper plants was observed from the first day onwards. In the tomato plant, the major part of the fungicides accumulated in the roots, whereas in bell pepper plant, it accumulated both in the roots and in the leaves. Accumulation of fluopyram and tebuconazole residues was lowest in tomato and bell pepper fruits which were much below their respective maximum residue limits (MRLs). The highest residue concentration of fluopyram and tebuconazole in tomato fruits was 0.060 and 0.009 mg kg-1; the corresponding values in bell pepper fruits were 0.080 and 0.013 mg kg-1. In field soil, fluopyram residues were 3.18-3.570 mg kg-1 initially which dissipated at the half-life of 36 days. Tebuconazole concentration was 1.57-1.892 mg kg-1 initially, and it dissipated at the half-life of 44.5-49.5 days. The major metabolite of fluopyram, fluopyram benzamide, was detected in plant tissues as well as in soil, and remained within 12% of the parent compound. The results of the study indicated that fluopyram and tebuconazole are less likely of entry into food chain through intake of tomato and bell pepper fruits if these crops are grown on soil contaminated with these fungicides.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/análise , Capsicum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Piridinas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triazóis/análise , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Cromatografia Líquida , Frutas/química , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacocinética , Meia-Vida , Resíduos de Praguicidas/farmacocinética , Piridinas/farmacocinética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triazóis/farmacocinética
13.
Gastroenterology ; 156(5): 1392-1403.e7, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: NVR 3-778 is a first-in-class hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid assembly modulator that can inhibit HBV replication. We performed a proof-of-concept study to examine the safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity of NVR 3-778 in patients with chronic HBV infection. METHODS: We performed a phase 1 study in 73 hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients with chronic HBV infection without cirrhosis. In a 2-part study (part 1 in New Zealand and part 2 in Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, Korea, and the United States), patients were randomly assigned to groups that were given oral NVR 3-778 (100 mg, 200 mg, or 400 mg daily or 600 mg or 1000 mg twice daily) or placebo for 4 weeks. Additional groups received combination treatment with pegylated interferon (pegIFN) and NVR 3-778 (600 mg twice daily) or pegIFN with placebo. RESULTS: Reductions in serum levels of HBV DNA and HBV RNA were observed in patients receiving ≥1200 mg/d NVR 3-778. The largest mean reduction in HBV DNA was observed in the group given NVR 3-778 plus pegIFN (1.97 log10 IU/mL), compared with the groups given NVR 3-778 or pegIFN alone (1.43 log10 IU/mL and 1.06 log10 IU/mL, respectively). The mean reduction in HBV RNA was also greatest in the group given NVR 3-778 plus pegIFN (2.09 log10 copies/mL), compared with the groups given NVR 3-778 or pegIFN alone (1.42 log10 copies/mL and 0.89 log10 copies/mL, respectively). There was no significant mean reduction in HBsAg during the 4-week treatment period. There were no discontinuations and no pattern of dose-related adverse effects with NVR 3-778. CONCLUSIONS: In a phase 1 study of HBeAg-positive patients with chronic HBV infection without cirrhosis, NVR 3-778 was well tolerated and demonstrated antiviral activity. The agent reduced serum levels of HBV DNA and HBV RNA, to the greatest extent in combination with pegIFN. The observed reductions in HBV RNA confirmed the novel mechanism of NVR 3-778. Clinicaltrials.gov no. NCT02112799 (single-center) and NCT02401737 (multicenter).


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacocinética , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Ásia , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Benzamidas/efeitos adversos , DNA Viral/sangue , DNA Viral/genética , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 41(2): 250-261, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604921

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chromogenic anti-Xa assays are the most appropriate tests to estimate the amount of betrixaban in plasma but the sensitivity of available tests is limited and improvements are needed to encompass the on-therapy range. METHODS: Betrixaban was spiked at concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 ng/mL in plasma from healthy donors. Three commercial tests were used (Biophen® DiXaI® , STA® Liquid Anti-Xa, and HemosIL® Liquid Anti-Xa), and adaptation of their sample dilution scheme was performed. These new methodologies were also tested on plasma spiked with amounts of unfractionated heparin (UFH), low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), or fondaparinux covering the on-therapy ranges to evaluate their sensitivity to indirect factor Xa inhibitors. RESULTS: Results showed concentration-dependent decreases in OD/min inversely proportional to the dilutions. While modifications improve the sensitivity of these tests to betrixaban (eg, ½*OD/min of 502 ng/mL [95% CI: 495-508 ng/mL] for Biophen® DiXaI® [1:50] is reduced to 51 ng/mL [95% CI: 50-52 ng/mL] for improved Biophen® DiXaI® [1:5]), results also showed an increased sensitivity to indirect factor Xa inhibitors, except for Biophen® DiXaI® which remains insensitive to UFH and LMWH. CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that the improvement of current chromogenic anti-Xa methodologies enhances the sensitivity of these assays to betrixaban but also to indirect factor Xa inhibitors. This lack of specificity may lead to overestimation of betrixaban concentrations in patients bridged with heparins. To avoid this cross-interference, the use of the Biophen® DiXaI® may be a solution except for fondaparinux which remains active even in the presence of the Biophen® DiXaI® 's specific buffer. For the other chromogenic assays, the conception and validation of specific buffer is required.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacocinética , Piridinas/farmacocinética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Drug Metab Lett ; 13(1): 37-44, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mass balance studies conducted using radiolabeled material (14C or 3H) definitively characterize the Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion (AME) of a drug. A critical aspect of these studies is that the radiotracer maintains its proportion to total drug from its administration to its complete elimination from the body. In the study of GDC-0276 in beagle dogs, we observed that the 14C radiotracer proportion (specific activity) varied through the study. METHOD: High resolution-accurate mass spectrometric measurements of 12C and 14C isotopes of GDC- 0276 and its metabolites in plasma and excreta samples were used to determine the apparent specific activities, which were higher than the specific activity of the dosing formulation. Drug concentrations were adjusted to the observed specific activities to correct the readouts for GDC-0276 AME and PK. RESULTS: The enrichment of 14C, which resulted in higher specific activities, was consistent with faster and more extensive absorption of the radiotracer from the dosing formulation. This resulted in overestimating the dose absorbed, the extent of elimination in urine and bile, and the exposures to circulating metabolites. These biases were corrected by the specific activities determined for study samples by mass spectrometry. CONCLUSION: Assuming that the radiotracer was proportional to total drug throughout a radiolabeled study was not valid in a 14C study in beagle dogs. This presumably resulted from unequal absorption of the radiotracer and nonradiolabeled test articles from the oral dose due to inequivalent solid forms. We were able to provide a more accurate description of the AME of GDC-0276 in dogs by characterizing the differential absorption of the radiotracer.


Assuntos
Azetidinas/farmacocinética , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Absorção Intestinal , Trítio , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Animais , Traçadores Radioativos , Distribuição Tecidual
16.
Xenobiotica ; 49(8): 961-969, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124356

RESUMO

A 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring-containing compound DS-8500a was developed as a novel G protein-coupled receptor 119 agonist. In vivo metabolic fates of [14C]DS-8500a differently radiolabeled in the benzene ring or benzamide side carbon in rats were investigated. Differences in mass balances were observed, primarily because after the oxadiazole ring-opening and subsequent ring-cleavage small-molecule metabolites containing the benzene side were excreted in the urine, while those containing the benzamide side were excreted in the bile. DS-8500a was detected at trace levels in urine and bile, demonstrating extensive metabolism prior to urinary/biliary excretion. At least 16 metabolite structures were proposed in plasma, urine, and bile samples from rats treated with [14C]DS-8500a. Formation of a ring-opened metabolite (reduced DS-8500a) in hepatocytes of humans, monkeys, and rats was confirmed; however, it was not affected by typical inhibitors of cytochrome P450s, aldehyde oxidases, or carboxylesterases in human hepatocytes. Extensive formation of the ring-opened metabolite was observed in human liver microsomes fortified with an NADPH-generating system under anaerobic conditions. These results suggest an in vivo unique reductive metabolism of DS-8500a is mediated by human non-cytochrome P450 enzymes.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/metabolismo , Ciclopropanos/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Oxidiazóis/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/agonistas , Administração Oral , Anaerobiose , Animais , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Benzamidas/sangue , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Radioisótopos de Carbono/química , Ciclopropanos/administração & dosagem , Ciclopropanos/sangue , Ciclopropanos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Oxidiazóis/administração & dosagem , Oxidiazóis/sangue , Oxidiazóis/farmacocinética , Oxirredução , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo
17.
Behav Brain Res ; 359: 671-685, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267715

RESUMO

Recent preclinical studies point to muscarinic and GABAB receptors as novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of schizophrenia. This study was aimed to assess the role of muscarinic and GABAB receptor interactions in animal models of schizophrenia, using positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of GABAB receptor (GS39783), muscarinic M4 (VU0152100) and M5 (VU0238429) receptor, and partial allosteric agonist of M1 receptor (VU0357017). DOI-induced head twitches, social interaction and novel object recognition tests were used as the models of schizophrenia. Analyses of DOI-induced increases in sEPSCs (spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents) were performed as complementary experiments to the DOI-induced head twitch studies. Haloperidol-induced catalepsy and the rotarod test were used to examine the adverse effects of the drugs. All three activators of muscarinic receptors were active in DOI-induced head twitches. When administered together with GS39783 in subeffective doses, only the co-administration of VU0152100 and GS39783 was effective. The combination also reduced the frequency but not the amplitude of DOI-induced sEPSCs. Neither VU0357017 nor VU0238429 were active in social interaction test when given alone, and also the combination of VU0152100 and GS39783 failed to reverse MK-801-induced deficits observed in this test. All muscarinic activators when administered alone or in combination with GS39783 reversed the MK-801-induced disruption of memory in the novel object recognition test, and their actions were blocked by specific antagonists. None of the tested compounds or their combinations influenced the motor coordination of the animals. The compounds had no effect on haloperidol-induced catalepsy and did not induce catalepsy when administered alone. Pharmacokinetic analysis confirmed lack of possible drug-drug interactions after combined administration of GS39783 with VU0357017 or VU0152100; however, when the drug was co-administered with VU0238429 its ability to pass the blood-brain barrier slightly decreased, suggesting potential drug-drug interactions. Our data show that modulation of cholinergic and GABAergic systems can potentially be beneficial in the treatment of the positive and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia without inducing the adverse effects typical for presently used antipsychotics.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Neurotransmissores/farmacologia , Receptores de GABA-B/metabolismo , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Alostérica , Animais , Antipsicóticos/farmacocinética , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacocinética , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia , Indóis/farmacocinética , Indóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Neurotransmissores/farmacocinética , Piridinas/farmacocinética , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Tiofenos/farmacocinética , Tiofenos/farmacologia
18.
Eur J Haematol ; 102(2): 163-173, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Domatinostat (4SC-202) is a selective class I histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi). This phase I study investigated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity in patients with advanced hematological malignancies. METHODS: Domatinostat was administered orally once (QD) or twice daily (BID) on days 1-14 with 7 days off or continuously days 1-21 in a 3 + 3 design at 7 dose levels from 25 to 400 mg total daily dose (TDD). Twenty-four patients were treated with domatinostat. RESULTS: No formal maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined. One dose-limiting toxicity (DLT, grade 4 hypercalcemia) occurred during 200 mg BID continuous treatment. Six patients were reported with ≥ grade 3 treatment-related adverse events (TRAE; grade 3 hematological in three patients, grade 3 and grade 4 liver enzyme increase in 2 patients, grade 4 pulmonary embolism, and grade 4 hypercalcemia in one patient each). Higher grade hepatic TRAE occurred in the 200 mg BID continuous treatment cohort. Out of 24 patients, 1 achieved a complete response, 1 achieved a partial response, and 18 had stable disease as best response. CONCLUSION: Administration of domatinostat was safe, well tolerated with signs of antitumor activity. Four hundred milligram TDD in a 200 mg BID schedule (14 + 7) is the recommended phase II dose for monotherapy.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Benzamidas/efeitos adversos , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacocinética , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Future Oncol ; 15(6): 579-589, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381956

RESUMO

Acalabrutinib received an accelerated US FDA approval for patients with relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma in 2017 and is currently being evaluated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To date, ibrutinib is the only Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor that's approved for treatment of CLL. Acalabrutinib is a second generation BTK inhibitor that binds covalently to the Cys481 residue on BTK and has half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3 nM. In preclinical mouse models, acalabrutinib significantly reduced proliferation of CLL cells. Results of Phase I/II trials revealed overall response rates (ORR) of 96% in treatment-naive, 93% in relapsed/refractory and 76% in ibrutinib intolerant patients with CLL. The most common adverse effects (>20%) were grade 1-2 comprising constitutional symptoms, GI toxicity, rash and myelosuppression. There were limited grade 3 or 4 toxicities, involving syncope, pneumonia, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Benzamidas/efeitos adversos , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Pirazinas/administração & dosagem , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Pirazinas/farmacocinética , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373799

RESUMO

NVR 3-778 is the first capsid assembly modulator (CAM) that has demonstrated antiviral activity in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. NVR 3-778 inhibited the generation of infectious HBV DNA-containing virus particles with a mean antiviral 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 0.40 µM in HepG2.2.15 cells. The antiviral profile of NVR 3-778 indicates pan-genotypic antiviral activity and a lack of cross-resistance with nucleos(t)ide inhibitors of HBV replication. The combination of NVR 3-778 with nucleos(t)ide analogs in vitro resulted in additive or synergistic antiviral activity. Mutations within the hydrophobic pocket at the dimer-dimer interface of the core protein could confer resistance to NVR 3-778, which is consistent with the ability of the compound to bind to core and to induce capsid assembly. By targeting core, NVR 3-778 inhibits pregenomic RNA encapsidation, viral replication, and the production of HBV DNA- and HBV RNA-containing particles. NVR 3-778 also inhibited de novo infection and viral replication in primary human hepatocytes with EC50 values of 0.81 µM against HBV DNA and between 3.7 and 4.8 µM against the production of HBV antigens and intracellular HBV RNA. NVR 3-778 showed favorable pharmacokinetics and safety in animal species, allowing serum levels in excess of 100 µM to be achieved in mice and, thus, enabling efficacy studies in vivo The overall preclinical profile of NVR 3-778 predicts antiviral activity in vivo and supports its further evaluation for safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity in HBV-infected patients.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Capsídeo/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Viral/antagonistas & inibidores , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/farmacologia , RNA Viral/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antígenos Virais/genética , Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Antivirais/sangue , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Benzamidas/sangue , Benzamidas/química , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Capsídeo/química , Capsídeo/metabolismo , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/patologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Piperidinas/sangue , Piperidinas/química , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas do Core Viral/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Core Viral/genética , Proteínas do Core Viral/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
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