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1.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1134-1135: 121877, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785533

RESUMO

PH-797804 is a selective p38 MAPK inhibitor currently evaluated in clinical trials. This study described a validated UPLC-MS/MS combined with one-step protein precipitation extraction method for determination of PH-797804 in rat plasma. After protein precipitation with acetonitrile, the plasma sample was analyzed by a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column, with acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid (70:30) as the mobile phase. Mass spectrometric detection was conducted with a Waters TQ-S mass spectrometer via electrospray, positive-mode ionization, with target quantitative ion pairs of m/z 476.895 → 126.860 for PH-797804, and 482.726 → 269.707 for regorafenib (internal standard). The assay showed a good linearity over the range of 1.0-1600 ng/mL, with acceptable accuracy (RE from -7.8% to 8.5%) and precision (RSD within 8.4%) values. Recovery from plasma was 81.4-90.2% and matrix effect was negligible (93.3-95.4%). The validated method presented a quantification method of PH-797804 in detail for the first time and utilized for a pharmacokinetic study at three dose concentrations after oral administration in Wistar rats. The pharmacokinetic profiles of PH-797804 showed a linear relationship between drug concentration and dose, which provided dosage and safety information on further clinical studies.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/sangue , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Piridonas/sangue , Piridonas/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Benzamidas/química , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Piridonas/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores
2.
Molecules ; 24(19)2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574962

RESUMO

A number of new compounds containing the 4-(aminomethyl)benzamide fragment as a linker were designed and synthesized, and their biological activities were evaluated as potential anticancer agents. The cytotoxicity activity of the designed compounds was studied in two hematological and five solid cell lines in comparison with the reference drugs. Targeted structures against eight receptor tyrosine kinases including EGFR, HER-2, HER-4, IGF1R, InsR, KDR, PDGFRa, and PDGFRb were investigated. The majority of the compounds showed a potent inhibitory activity against the tested kinases. The analogues 11 and 13 with the (trifluoromethyl)benzene ring in the amide or amine moiety of the molecule were proven to be highly potent against EGFR, with 91% and 92% inhibition at 10 nM, respectively. The docking of synthesized target compounds for nine protein kinases contained in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) database was carried out. The molecular modeling results for analogue 10 showed that the use of the 4-(aminomethyl)benzamide as a flexible linker leads to a favorable overall geometry of the molecule, which allows one to bypass the bulk isoleucine residue and provides the necessary binding to the active center of the T315I-mutant Abl (PDB: 3QRJ).


Assuntos
Benzamidas/química , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Benzamidas/síntese química , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Desenho de Drogas , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/química , Humanos , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Estrutura Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the previous decade a new class of benzamide-based inhibitors of 2-trans enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) with unusual binding mode have emerged. Here we report in silico design and evaluation of novel benzamide InhA-Mt inhibitors with favorable predicted pharmacokinetic profiles. METHODS: By using in situ modifications of the crystal structure of N-benzyl-4-((heteroaryl)methyl) benzamide (BHMB)-InhA complex (PDB entry 4QXM), 3D models of InhA-BHMBx complexes were prepared for a training set of 19 BHMBs with experimentally determined inhibitory potencies (half-maximal inhibitory concentrations IC50exp). In the search for active conformation of the BHMB1-19, linear QSAR model was prepared, which correlated computed gas phase enthalpies of formation (∆∆HMM) of InhA-BHMBx complexes with the IC50exp. Further, taking into account the solvent effect and entropy changes upon ligand, binding resulted in a superior QSAR model correlating computed complexation Gibbs free energies (∆∆Gcom). The successive pharmacophore model (PH4) generated from the active conformations of BHMBs served as a virtual screening tool of novel analogs included in a virtual combinatorial library (VCL) of compounds containing benzamide scaffolds. The VCL filtered by Lipinski's rule-of-five was screened by the PH4 model to identify new BHMB analogs. RESULTS: Gas phase QSAR model: -log10(IC50exp) = pIC50exp = -0.2465 × ∆∆HMM + 7.95503, R2 = 0.94; superior aqueous phase QSAR model: pIC50exp = -0.2370 × ∆∆Gcom + 7.8783, R2 = 0.97 and PH4 pharmacophore model: p IC 50 exp = 1.0013 × p IC 50 exp - 0.0085, R2 = 0.95. The VCL of more than 114 thousand BHMBs was filtered down to 73,565 analogs Lipinski's rule. The five-point PH4 screening retained 90 new and potent BHMBs with predicted inhibitory potencies IC50pre up to 65 times lower than that of BHMB1 (IC50exp = 20 nM). Predicted pharmacokinetic profile of the new analogs showed enhanced cell membrane permeability and high human oral absorption compared to current anti-tuberculotics. CONCLUSIONS: Combined use of QSAR models that considered binding of the BHMBs to InhA, pharmacophore model, and ADME properties helped to recognize bound active conformation of the benzamide inhibitors, permitted in silico screening of VCL of compounds sharing benzamide scaffold and identification of new analogs with predicted high inhibitory potencies and favorable pharmacokinetic profiles.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/química , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Benzamidas/química , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Desenho de Drogas , Modelos Moleculares , Oxirredutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Oxirredutases/química , Sítios de Ligação , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Ligantes , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
4.
Eur J Med Chem ; 183: 111717, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557611

RESUMO

In our previous study, we reported a series of N-phenylisonicotinamide derivatives as novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors and identified N-(3-cyano-4-((2-cyanobenzyl)oxy)phenyl)isonicotinamide (compound 1) as the most potent one with an IC50 value of 0.312 µM. To further optimize the structure and improve the potency, a structure-based drug design (SBDD) strategy was performed to construct the missing H-bond between the small molecule and the Asn768 residue of XO. We introduced a tetrazole moiety at the 3'-position of the phenyl to serve as an H-bond acceptor and obtained a series of N-(3-(1H-tetrazol-1-yl)phenyl)isonicotinamide derivatives (2a-t and 6-8). Besides, to investigate the influence of the amide-reversal, some N-(pyridin-4-yl)-3-(1H-tetrazol-1-yl)benzamide derivatives (3c, 3e, 3i, 3k and 3u) were also synthesized and evaluated. Biological evaluation and structure-activity relationship analysis demonstrated that the 3'-(1H-tetrazol-1-yl) moiety was an excellent fragment for the N-phenylisonicotinamide scaffold; a substituted benzyloxy, especially, an m-cyanobenzyloxy (e.g., 2s), linking at the 4'-position was welcome for the potency; and the amide-reversal could damage the potency, so maintenance of the N-phenylisonicotinamide scaffold was essential. In summary, starting from compound 1, the SBDD effort successfully identified a promising XO inhibitor 2s (IC50 = 0.031 µM), with a 10-fold gain in potency. Its potency was very close to the positive control topiroxostat (IC50 = 0.021 µM). A Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated that compound 2s acted as a mixed-type XO inhibitor. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the tetrazole moiety could occupy the Asn768-sub-pocket with N-4 atom accepting an H-bond from the Asn768 residue, as expected.


Assuntos
Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Niacinamida/síntese química , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Benzamidas/química , Bovinos , Desenho de Drogas , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Niacinamida/metabolismo , Nitrilos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Piridinas/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tetrazóis/química , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3976, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484928

RESUMO

Although chirality has been recognized as an essential entity for life, it still remains a big mystery how the homochirality in nature emerged in essential biomolecules. Certain achiral motifs are known to assemble into chiral nanostructures. In rare cases, their absolute geometries are enantiomerically biased by mirror symmetry breaking. Here we report the first example of asymmetric catalysis by using a mirror symmetry-broken helical nanoribbon as the ligand. We obtain this helical nanoribbon from a benzoic acid appended achiral benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide by its helical supramolecular assembly and employ it for the Cu2+-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction. By thorough optimization of the reaction (conversion: > 99%, turnover number: ~90), the enantiomeric excess eventually reaches 46% (major/minor enantiomers = 73/27). We also confirm that the helical nanoribbon indeed carries helically twisted binding sites for Cu2+. Our achievement may provide the fundamental breakthrough for producing optically active molecules from a mixture of totally achiral motifs.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/química , Cobre/química , Reação de Cicloadição , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Benzamidas/síntese química , Catálise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Modelos Químicos , Estrutura Molecular , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Estereoisomerismo
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5527-5540, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413561

RESUMO

Background: Nonspecific tumor targeting, potential relapse and metastasis of tumor after treatment are the main barriers in clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer, hence, inhibiting relapse and metastasis of tumor is significant issues in clinic. Purpose: In this work, chidamide as a histone deacetylases inhibitor (HADCi) was bound onto a pH-responsive block polymer folate polyethylene glycol-b-poly(aspartic acid) (PEG-b-PAsp) grafted folate (FA-PEG-b-PAsp) to obtain the block polymer folate polyethylene glycol-b-poly(asparaginyl-chidamide) (FA-PEG-b-PAsp-chidamide, FPPC) as multimodal tumor-targeting drug-delivery carrier to inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and tumor metastasis in mice. Methods: Model photosensitizer pyropheophorbide-a (Pha) was encapsulated by FPPC in PBS to form the polymer micelles Pha@FPPC [folate polyethylene glycol-b-poly(asparaginyl-chidamide) micelles encapsulating Pha]. Pha@FPPC was characterized by transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering; also, antitumor activity in vivo and in vitro were investigated by determination of cellular ROS level, detection of cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, PDT antitumor activity in vivo and histological analysis. Results: With favorable and stable sphere morphology under transmission electron microscope (TEM) (~93.0 nm), Pha@FPPC greatly enhanced the cellular uptake due to its folate-mediated effective endocytosis by mouse melanoma B16-F10 cells and the yield of ROS in tumor cells induced by PDT, and mainly caused necrocytosis and blocked cell growth cycle not only in G2 phase but also in G1/G0 phase after PDT. Pha@FPPC exhibited lower dark cytotoxicity in vitro and a better therapeutic index because of its higher dark cytotoxicity/photocytotoxicity ratio. Moreover, Pha@FPPC not only significantly inhibited the growth of implanted tumor and prolonged the survival time of melanoma-bearing mice due to both its folate-mediated tumor-targeting and selectively accumulation at tumor site by EPR (enhanced permeability and retention)effect as micelle nanoparticles but also remarkably prevented pulmonary metastasis of mice melanoma after PDT compared to free Pha, demonstrating its dual antitumor characteristics of PDT and HDACi. Conclusion: As a folate-mediated and acid-activated chidamide-grafted drug-delivery carrier, FPPC may have great potential to inhibit tumor metastasis in clinical photodynamic treatment for cancer because of its effective and multimodal tumor-targeting performance as photosensitizer vehicle.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/química , Benzamidas/química , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Micelas , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/análogos & derivados , Clorofila/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
7.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454968

RESUMO

In this work, a highly selective fluorescent chemosensor N-(2-(2-butyl-1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-6-yl)hydrazine-1-carbonothioyl)benzamide (L) was prepared and characterized. An assay to detect the presence of cobalt(II) ions was developed by utilizing turn-on fluorescence enhancement with visual colorimetric response. Upon treatment with Co2+, a remarkable fluorescence enhancement located at 450 nm was visible to naked eyes accompanied with a distinct color change (from pink to colorless) in a CH3CN/HEPES (4/1, v/v, pH = 7.4) solution due to the formation of a 1:1 complex at room temperature. In addition, the linear concentration range for Co2+ was 0-25 µM with the limit of detection down to 0.26 µM. Thus, a highly sensitive fluorescent method based on chelation-assisted fluorescence enhancement was developed for the trace-level detection of Co2+. The sensor was found to be highly selective toward Co2+ ions with a large number of coexisting ions. Furthermore, the L probe can serve as a fluorescent sensor for Co2+ detecting in biological environments, demonstrating its low toxic properties to organisms and good cell permeability in live cell imaging.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/síntese química , Cobalto/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Naftalimidas/química , Animais , Benzamidas/química , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Colorimetria , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacologia , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular
8.
J Mol Model ; 25(8): 247, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342175

RESUMO

We used a new descriptor called the Klopman index in our software of the "molecular comparative electron topology" (MCET) method to reduce the uncertainty resulting from the descriptors used in QSAR studies. The 3D pharmacophore model (3D-PhaM), which can demonstrate three-dimensional interaction between the ligand -receptor (L-R), is only possible with local reactive descriptors (LRD). The Klopman index, containing both Coulombic and frontier orbital and interactions of atoms of the ligand, is a good LRD. Molecular conformers having the best matching atoms with the template conformer can be selected as one of the most suitable spatial structures for interaction with the receptor, and the LRD values of the atoms in this conformer serve to determine 3D-PhaM. The 3D-PhaM of the N-benzyl benzamide derivatives, such as the melanogenesis inhibitor, was determined by ligand-based MCET and confirmed by the structure-based FlexX docking method. For compounds of the training set (42) and the external cross validation test set (6), the Q2 (0.862) and R2 (0.913) of the statistical parameters were calculated, respectively, and were checked by rm2 (0.85) of the stringent validation.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Benzamidas/química , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Melaninas/biossíntese , Modelos Moleculares , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Incerteza , Domínio Catalítico , Elétrons , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Ligantes
9.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 103: 109716, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349431

RESUMO

Improved therapeutic effects can be achieved by the delivery of combination of drugs through multifunctional cell targeted nanocarrier systems. The present investigation reports the preparation of Poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanospheres loaded with the novel combination such as Rutin (R) and Benzamide (B) as drugs using water-oil-water (w/o/w) emulsion method. Dual drug loaded PLGA nanospheres (R/B@PLGA) were stabilized by poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) coating and characterized in terms of morphology, size, surface charge, and structural chemistry by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Zeta potential analysis, UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The inhibitory effects of rutin and benzamide on MDA-MB-231 (triple negative breast cancer-TNBC) cells using the drug loaded PLGA nanospheres as well as their non-toxic features were evaluated in vivo. The anticancer activity of the R/B@PLGA nanospheres through cell cycle disruption and apoptotic induction was assessed in vitro by flow cytometry analysis. Further, the in vitro antioxidant capacity, pH-based drug release and hemocompatible property were also investigated. It was shown that the R/B@PLGA nanospheres lacked genotoxic potential and they did not alter the antioxidant enzyme activities and histological features of zebrafish. Hence, this dual drug delivery system (DDS) not only actively targets multidrug-resistance (MDR) associated phenotype but also improves the therapeutic efficiency by its non-toxic nature towards enhanced cancer cell focused delivery and sustained release of therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Benzamidas , Portadores de Fármacos , Nanosferas , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico , Rutina , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzamidas/química , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Nanosferas/química , Nanosferas/uso terapêutico , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/farmacologia , Rutina/química , Rutina/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Peixe-Zebra
10.
J Mol Model ; 25(8): 223, 2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302811

RESUMO

Four novel ligands, namely N-benzhydryl benzamide, N, N-diphenethyl benzamide, N, N-dihexyl benzamide, and N, N-dioctyl benzamide (L1, L2, L3, and L4, respectively), based on the benzamide unit were designed and computed for their different properties, such as absorption spectrum, dipole moment, theoretically expected biological properties, and frontier molecular orbitals, by evaluating the HOMO/LUMO energy orbitals strength with DFT approaches and comparing these properties with the R benzamide properties available in literature. All molecules have a suitable frontier molecular orbital diagram and L1 exhibits maximum absorption at 246.8 nm due to the strong electron donating effect of the diphenylmethane ligand group. Moreover, strongly extended conjugated groups caused a redshift in absorption spectra. Newly designed molecules may show strong biological activities against cancer, bacterial diseases, and harmful fungal disorders. Graphical abstract Orbital energy, electron density and frontier molecular orbitals view of four designed novel benzamide derivates.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/química , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Benzamidas/síntese química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Ligantes , Conformação Molecular , Fenômenos Ópticos , Termodinâmica
11.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 142: 435-448, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306750

RESUMO

Acalabrutinib (Calquence®) 100 mg (bid) has received accelerated approval by FDA for the treatment of adult patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) who have received at least one prior therapy. Acalabrutinib is a substrate of PgP and CYP3A4, with a significant fraction of drug metabolized by first pass gut extraction and 25% absolute bioavailability. The absorption of acalabrutinib is affected by stomach pH, with lower pharmacokinetic exposure observed following co-administration with proton pump inhibitors. During dissolution at pH values below its highest basic pKa, the two basic moieties of acalabrutinib react with protons from the aqueous solution, leading to a higher pH at the drug surface than in the bulk solution. A batch-specific product particle size distribution (P-PSD), was derived from dissolution data using a mechanistic model that was based on the understanding of surface pH and the contribution of micelles to the dissolution rate. P-PSD values obtained for various batches of acalabrutinib products in simple buffers, or in complex fluids such as fruit juices, were successfully integrated into a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model developed using GastroPlus v9.0™. The integrated model allowed the prediction of clinical pharmacokinetics under normal physiological stomach pH conditions as well as following treatment with proton pump inhibitors. The model also accounted for lower pharmacokinetic exposure that was observed when acalabrutinib was co-administered with the acidic beverages, grapefruit juice, (which contains CYP3A inhibitors), and orange drink (which does not contain CYP3A inhibitors), relative to administration with water. The integration of dissolution data in the PBPK model enables mechanistic understanding and the establishment of more robust in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) under a variety of conditions. The model can then distinguish the interplay between dissolution and first pass extraction and how in vivo stomach pH, saturation of gut PgP, and saturation or inhibition of gut CYP3A4, will impact the pharmacokinetics of acalabrutinib.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/química , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Interações de Medicamentos/fisiologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/química , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/farmacocinética , Pirazinas/química , Pirazinas/farmacocinética , Solubilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos
12.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 142: 421-434, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306753

RESUMO

Drug product dissolution for four batches of acalabrutinib 100 mg capsules were analyzed with in vitro dissolution in various pH conditions and in media containing synthetic surfactant micelles or biorelevant micelles. Non-sink conditions, where the drug is unionized, were used to derive a batch specific drug product particle size distribution (P-PSD). The purpose of this P-PSD is to serve as an input in physiological based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to calculate in vivo dissolution in various administration conditions. The P-PSD was used to predict dissolution in all other conditions tested, introducing a different Unstirred Water Layer (UWL) thickness for free- and micelle-bound drug and the calculation of surface solubility using a theoretical model. With the proposed P-PSD approach and proposed model inputs, percent dissolved at all time points and for all conditions and batches were adequately anticipated with an 11% overprediction. In contrast, the use of drug substance laser diffraction particle size data with equivalent inputs to the models led to an underprediction of observed percent dissolved by 31% overall. Finally, the use of bulk solubility instead of surface solubility led to an overall 48% overprediction of the dissolution data. Batch specific P-PSD were used to predict in vivo dissolution of acalabrutinib drug products with PBPK models. The current limitations of PBPK models for integration of in vitro dissolution are also discussed and improvements are suggested to improve future predictions.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazinas/química , Solubilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Cápsulas/química , Micelas , Modelos Biológicos , Tamanho da Partícula
13.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(9): e1900304, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338947

RESUMO

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) plays an important regulatory role in various signaling pathways; such as PI3 K/AKT, which is closely related to the occurrence and development of tumors. At present, the most reported active GSK-3 inhibitors have the same structure: lactam ring or amide structure. To find out the GSK-3ß small molecule inhibitor with novel, safe, efficient and more uncomplicated synthesis method, we analyzed in-depth reported crystal-binding patterns of GSK-3ß small molecule inhibitor with GSK-3ß protein, and designed and synthesized 17 non-reported 3,5-diamino-N-substituted benzamide compounds. Their structures were confirmed by 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, and HR-MS. The preliminary screening of tumor cytotoxicity of compounds in vitro was detected by MTT, and their structure-activity relationships were illustrated. The results have shown that 3,5-diamino-N-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]benzamide (4d) exhibited significant tumor cytotoxicity against human colon cancer cells (HCT-116) with IC50 of 8.3 µm and showed commendable selectivity to GSK-3ß. In addition, Compound 4d induced apoptosis to some extent and possessed modest PK properties.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Desenho de Drogas , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzamidas/síntese química , Benzamidas/química , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/síntese química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(25): 26184-26192, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280445

RESUMO

In the standard ISO soil toxicity test using Collembola, adult survival and juvenile production are the only endpoints that can be attainable. The information on egg production and egg hatching cannot be investigated in the ISO test. To overcome this limitation, in this study, the effects of teflubenzuron on life history parameters of Yuukianura szeptyckii (Collembola) were investigated with a compressed soil test. Teflubenzuron is an insect growth regulator and has a negative effect on egg production, and egg hatching process of arthropods. LC50 decreased with increases in exposure period from 6.97 mg/kg in the third week to 3.60 mg/kg in the fourth week. The EC50 for egg and juvenile production was 0.57 mg/kg and 0.26 mg/kg, respectively. The hatching rate decreased significantly from 46 to 7% as the concentration increased from 0.25 to 1.00 mg/kg, respectively, and the molting frequency was significantly affected only at > 4 mg/kg. The toxic contribution rate (TCR) was defined as the ratio of juvenile production at an exposure concentration compared with the control, and a simple life history model was developed for TCR estimations. At the lower concentrations (< 0.3 mg/kg), the hatching rate reduction was a main contributor to the total toxicity, but the adult mortality and egg production reduction were the main contributors at the higher concentrations (> 2.0 mg/kg). The contribution of egg production reduction remained relatively constant. Since collembolan populations in the soil can be composed of various developmental stages, the differences in the sensitivity to chemicals depending on the developmental stages should be included in the assessment of the toxic impact on soil ecosystems.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Animais , Artrópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzamidas/química , Ecossistema , Dose Letal Mediana , Solo , Testes de Toxicidade
15.
Eur J Med Chem ; 179: 470-482, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271959

RESUMO

A series of 3-(imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-3-ylethynyl)-2-methylbenzamides was designed and synthesized as new tropomyosin receptor kinases (Trks) inhibitors by utilizing a structure-guided optimization strategy. One of the most potent compounds 9o suppressed TrkA/B/C with IC50 values of 2.65, 10.47 and 2.95 nM, respectively. The compound dose-dependently inhibited brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-mediated TrkB activation and suppressed migration and invasion of SH-SY5Y-TrkB neuroblastoma cells expressing high level of TrkB. Inhibitor 9o also inhibited the proliferation of SH-SY5Y-TrkB cells with an IC50 value of 58 nM, which was comparable to that of an US FDA recently approved drug LOXO-101. Compound 9o may serve as a new lead compound for further anti-cancer drug discovery.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Desenho de Drogas , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Receptor trkB/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Benzamidas/síntese química , Benzamidas/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Imidazóis/síntese química , Imidazóis/química , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Pirazinas/síntese química , Pirazinas/química , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Nanoscale ; 11(29): 13934-13946, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305839

RESUMO

Tumor associated macrophage (TAM)-based immunotherapy has been presented as a promising strategy in cancer therapy. The combination of TAM-based immunotherapy with sorafenib (SF) could be conceivably quite more effective in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. A co-delivery system was superior in improving the co-accumulation of two drugs in tumor tissues for chemoimmunotherapy, while in the case of selective targeting of separated cells such as tumor cells and immune cells, a novel targeted co-delivery strategy was badly required. In this study, twin-like core-shell nanoparticles (TCN) were developed for synchronous biodistribution and separated cell targeting delivery of SF and TAM re-polarization agents IMD-0354 to cancer cells and TAM to enhance tumor-localized chemoimmunotherapy, respectively. First of all, SF loaded cationic lipid-based nanoparticles (SF-CLN) and mannose-modified IMD-0354 loaded cationic lipid-based nanoparticles (M-IMD-CLN) were prepared, respectively. SF on the surface of SF-CLN and mannose on the M-IMD-CLN were regarded as targeting ligands for selective targeting delivery of SF-CLN and M-IMD-CLN to cancer cells and TAM separately. Then, pH-responsive charge reversal polymer O-carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMCS) was coated on the SF-CLN and M-IMD-CLN to obtain twin-like CMCS/SF-CLN and CMCS/M-IMD-CLN, respectively. The results of cellular uptake assay on Hepa1-6 cells and RAW 264.7 cells in vitro, respectively, as well as the results of tumor tissue distribution of SF and IMD-0354 in vivo suggested that CMCS/SF-CLN and CMCS/M-IMD-CLN exhibited similar properties in vitro and synchronous biodistribution in vivo, and were efficient at separated cell targeting delivery. What's more, the results of antitumor efficiency in vivo and phenotype analysis of TAM in tumor tissues proved that CMCS/SF-CLN and CMCS/M-IMD-CLN exhibited superior synergistic antitumor efficacy and M2-type TAM polarization ability compared with SF treatment in Hepa1-6 tumor bearing mice. Consequently, TCN which was the combination of co-administration and nano-drug delivery systems has great potential to be used in tumor-localized chemoimmunotherapy in clinics.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/imunologia , Nanopartículas/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Animais , Benzamidas/química , Benzamidas/metabolismo , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/química , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Manose/química , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Sorafenibe/química , Sorafenibe/metabolismo , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Tecidual
17.
Eur J Med Chem ; 178: 818-837, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252286

RESUMO

Mercaptobenzamide thioesters and thioethers are chemically simple HIV-1 maturation inhibitors with a unique mechanism of action, low toxicity, and a high barrier to viral resistance. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) profile based on 39 mercaptobenzamide prodrug analogs exposed divergent activity/toxicity roles for the internal and terminal amides. To probe the relationship between antiviral activity and toxicity, we generated an improved computational model for the binding of mercaptobenzamide thioesters (SAMTs) to the HIV-1 NCp7 C-terminal zinc finger, revealing the presence of a second low-energy binding orientation, hitherto undisclosed. Finally, using NMR-derived thiol-thioester exchange equilibrium constants, we propose that thermodynamics plays a role in determining the antiviral activity observed in the SAR profile.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/metabolismo , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Benzamidas/metabolismo , Benzamidas/farmacologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Termodinâmica , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Benzamidas/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Eur J Med Chem ; 177: 457-466, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181405

RESUMO

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in cancer, degenerative diseases and inflammation. The currently applied HDAC inhibitors in the clinic lack selectivity among HDAC isoforms, which limits their application for novel indications such as inflammatory diseases. Recent, literature indicates that HDAC 3 plays an important role among class I HDACs in gene expression in inflammation. In this perspective, the development and understanding of inhibitory selectivity among HDACs 1, 2 and 3 and their respective influence on gene expression need to be characterized to facilitate drug discovery. Towards this aim, we synthesized nine structural analogues of the class I HDAC inhibitor Entinostat and investigated their selectivity profile among HDACs 1, 2 and 3. We found that we can explain the observed structure activity relationships by small structural and conformational differences between HDAC 1 and HDAC 3 in the 'lid' interacting region. Cell-based studies indicated, however, that application of inhibitors with improved HDAC 3 selectivity did not provide an anti-inflammatory response in contrast to expectations from biochemical evidence in literature. Altogether, in this study, we identified structure activity relationships among class I HDACs and we connected isoform selectivity among class I HDACs with pro- and anti-inflammatory gene transcription in macrophages.


Assuntos
Anilidas/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Anilidas/síntese química , Anilidas/química , Anilidas/metabolismo , Animais , Benzamidas/síntese química , Benzamidas/química , Benzamidas/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Histona Desacetilase 1/química , Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilase 2/metabolismo , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/síntese química , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/química , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/química , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Ligação Proteica , Células RAW 264.7 , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
19.
Eur J Med Chem ; 178: 232-242, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185413

RESUMO

As a continuation to our research, a series of novel Bcr-Abl inhibitors incorporated with 6-phenyl-1H-indazol-3-amine as hinge binding moiety (HBM) were developed based on confirmation analysis. Biological results indicated that these compounds exhibited an enhanced inhibition against Bcr-AblWT and Bcr-AblT315I in kinases assays, along with improved anti-proliferative activities in K562 cell assays. In particular, compound Y9 displayed comparable potency with that of imatinib. It potently inhibited Bcr-AblWT and Bcr-AblT315I kinases with IC50 of 0.043 µM and 0.17 µM, respectively. Furthermore, compound Y9 inhibited the proliferation of K562 and K562R cells with IC50 of 1.65 µM and 5.42 µM, respectively. Therefore, 6-phenyl-1H-indazol-3amine as HBM, combined with flexible linker, is a successful strategy contribute to research on T315I mutant resistance, and compound Y9 could be served as a starting point for further optimization.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Indazóis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Benzamidas/síntese química , Benzamidas/química , Benzamidas/metabolismo , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenho de Drogas , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/química , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , Indazóis/síntese química , Indazóis/química , Indazóis/metabolismo , Células K562 , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mutação , Piperazinas/síntese química , Piperazinas/química , Piperazinas/metabolismo , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Maleabilidade , Ligação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo
20.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 42(8): 1375-1384, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172262

RESUMO

Simultaneous (SPW and propyzamide) wastewater treatment and the production of biochemicals by Rhodopseudomonas capsulata (R. capsulata) were investigated with supplement of soybean processing wastewater (SPW). Compared to control group, propyzamide was removed and biochemicals production were enhanced with the supplement of SPW. Propyzamide induced camH gene expression through activating MAPKKKs gene in MAPK signal transduction pathway. The induction of camH gene and CamH occurs after 1 day for R. capsulata. However, lack of organics in original wastewater did not maintain R. capsulata growth for over 1 day. The supplement of SPW provided sufficient carbon source for R. capsulata under three addition dosages. This new method resulted in the mixed (SPW and propyzamide) wastewater treatment and improvement of biochemicals simultaneously, as well as the realization of reutilization of wastewater and R. capsulata as sludge. Meanwhile, high-order nonlinear mathematical model of the relationship between propyzamide removal rate, Xt and Xt/r, was established.


Assuntos
Benzamidas , Rodopseudomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Benzamidas/química , Benzamidas/metabolismo
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