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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 767: 144916, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human exposure to air pollutants, and specifically to particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), may pose a relevant risk on human health. AIM: To evaluate the personal exposure of adults living and working in Milan (Italy) by environmental and biological monitoring. METHODS: Personal exposure of 51 volunteer adults to PM2.5, PM2.5-10 and selected VOCs, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m + p-xylene, methyl tert-butyl ether, naphthalene, hexane, cyclohexane, heptane, and limonene was assessed along a 24-h period via personal cascade impactors and radial diffusive samplers. Urine spot samples were collected to investigate the corresponding urinary biomarkers. Time-activity patterns were filled in by participants to explore the performed activities. Multiple regression models were applied to investigate the association between personal exposure, biomarker levels, and tobacco smoke, traffic exposure, commuting mode, cooking activities, and personal characteristics. RESULTS: Median personal exposure to PM2.5, PM2.5-10, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene o-xylene, m + p-xylene, methyl tert-butyl ether, naphthalene, hexane, cyclohexane, heptane, and limonene were 36.1, 7.8, 2.3, 7.8, 2.1, 1.8, 4.7, 0.8, 0.3, 1.4, 2.5, 1.6, and 59.9 µg/m3, respectively. Median levels of urinary benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene o-xylene, m + p-xylene, naphthalene, hexane, and heptane were 78.0, 88.1, 21.5, 15.2, 43.9, 21.0, 11.0, and 22.5 ng/L, respectively. For personal exposure, multiple regression models explained up to 67% (PM2.5) and 61% (benzene) of variability, with major contribution from commuting mode and environmental exposure. For biological monitoring, multiple regression analysis explained up to 74% of urinary benzene, with a major contribution given by creatinine, and secondary contributions by commuting mode, personal exposure to airborne benzene and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Personal exposure to air pollutants was lower than that measured in the past in Milan. Personal exposure was mainly driven by traffic variables, while internal dose was mainly driven by personal characteristics and smoking habit.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Benzeno/análise , Monitoramento Biológico , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Itália , Material Particulado/análise
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(2): 94, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507416

RESUMO

Nowadays, workers in petrochemical industry might be exposed to organic volatile compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX). The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of BTEX contaminations and the biological index in employees of petrochemical sites in the west of Iran. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study on 30 stations and 60 inhalation and biological samples collected in winter and summer. The NIOSH 2549 and 1501 methods were used for sampling and analyzing the inhaled samples. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) equipped with flame ionization detector and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure the volatile contaminations. The results showed that the mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, and xylene were significantly different in summer and winter. Significant and strong correlations were observed between the concentrations of benzene, toluene, and xylene and the biological values (r > 0.7). Moreover, the concentration of benzene (ß = 0.836), toluene (ß = 0.718), and xylene (ß = 0.786) predicted the changes in their biological values. Given the hazardous concentrations of benzene and toluene in industrial plants and the correlation of the concentration levels and biological values, management and control strategies should be implemented to eliminate and reduce the pollutants and the effects.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Xilenos , Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Tolueno/análise , Xilenos/análise
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111707, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396038

RESUMO

The distribution and concentration of organic compounds in the environment have attracted great interest mainly due to their capability of bioaccumulation, dispersion, and danger to living organisms. Factors such as urbanization, population growth, and the emergence of new technologies contribute to the increase in pollutant emissions, especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). These compounds are emitted by several sources, becoming more common in work environments, influencing indoor air quality (IAQ), which can cause health damage, in addition to increasing the likelihood of cancer development. In this context, we developed a semipermeable membrane device (SPMD), consisting of low density polyethylene membrane (8 cm long × 3 cm wide), filled with 3 mL of acetonitrile, for passive sampling of toluene (and benzene) in gas phase. With this configuration, the SPMD needed 24 h exposure to the indoor air in order to achieve equilibrium. The target compounds were quantified in the acceptor phase by HPLC-DAD. The optimized SPMD was tested for the collection of toluene and benzene in six chemistry laboratories at Fluminense Federal University and in five nail salons in the city of Niterói, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The developed sampling method was able to identify the analytes in the indoor air of the studied environments, and was easy to operate, with no need to clean up the extracts, allowing their direct injection into the chromatographic system.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Benzeno/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Tolueno/análise , Brasil , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 209: 111855, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The composition and concentration distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surgical smoke had seldomly been reported. This study aimed to investigate the profile of VOCs and their concentration in surgical smoke from breast surgery during electrocautery in different tissues, electrosurgical units, and electrocautery powers. METHODS: Thirty-eight surgical smoke samples from 23 patients performed breast surgery were collected using evacuated stainless steel canisters. The concentrations of 87 VOCs in surgical smoke samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The human tissues, electrosurgical units, and electrocautery power were recorded. RESULTS: The median level of total VOCs concentrations in surgical smoke samples from mammary glands (total VOCs: 9953.5 ppb; benzene: 222.7 ppb; 1,3-butadiene: 856.2 ppb; vinyl chloride: 3.1 ppb) using conventional electrosurgical knives were significantly higher than that from other tissues (total VOCs: 365.7-4266.8 ppb, P < 0.05; benzene: 26.4-112 ppb, P < 0.05; 1,3-butadiene: 15.6-384 ppb, P < 0.05; vinyl chloride: 0.6-1.8 ppb, P < 0.05) using different electrosurgical units. A high methanol concentration was found in surgical smoke generated during breast surgery (641.4-4452.5 ppb) using different electrosurgical units. An electrocautery power of ≥ 27.5 watts used for skin tissues produced a higher VOCs concentration (2905.8 ppb). CONCLUSIONS: The surgical smoke samples collected from mammary glands using conventional electrosurgical knives had high VOCs concentrations. The carcinogens (including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and vinyl chloride) and methanol were found in the surgical smoke samples from different electrosurgical units. The type of electrosurgical unit and electrocautery power used affected VOCs concentrations in surgical smoke.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Salas Cirúrgicas , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Benzeno/análise , Neoplasias da Mama , Butadienos , Carcinógenos/análise , Eletrocoagulação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Fumaça/análise
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111562, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low benzene exposure leads to hematotoxicity, but we still lack sensitive early monitoring and early warning markers. Benzene is associated with inflammation, which is mainly mediated by cytokines network. However, until now few studies have conducted high-throughput detection of multi-cytokines to get a global view of cytokine changes and screen for markers of benzene-induced toxicity. We hypothesized that cytokine profiles mediate benzene-induced hematotoxicity. METHODS: 228 subjects consisting of 114 low benzene exposed workers and 114 healthy controls were recruited at Research Center of Occupational Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing. The serum concentrations of 27 cytokines were detected by cytokinomics array, urinary benzene series metabolites were measured by UPLC-MS/MS, and peripheral blood cell counts were observed by basic blood test. RESULTS: Among 27 cytokines, IL-9 and MIP1-α were significantly lower, but IL-4, IL-10, IL-15, MCP-1, TNF-α and VEGF were significantly higher in benzene exposure group than controls. Urinary benzene metabolite S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) was significantly higher in benzene exposure group and had a negative linear relationship with WBC count. S-PMA was only significantly associated with IL-9, meanwhile IL-9, IL-15 and VEGF had a positive linear relationship with WBC count. The bootstrapping mediation models showed that the effect of S-PMA on WBC count was partially explained by IL-9 for 10.11%. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that exposure to benzene was associated with alternation of blood cell count and cytokine profiles in workers exposed to low levels of benzene, especially decreases of WBC count and IL-9. We also found IL-9 partially mediated the effect of low benzene exposure on WBC count, which may be a potential and promising early monitoring and early warning marker of benzene hematotoxicity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/metabolismo , Benzeno/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Acetilcisteína/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Benzeno/análise , Biomarcadores/urina , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239716, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile organic compounds such as gasoline and other fuels are associated with a wide variety of deleterious health effects including liver and kidney diseases. Gasoline station workers are exposed to a mixture of hydrocarbons during dispensing. However, no published studies investigated the liver and renal function tests of gasoline station workers in Ethiopia. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess liver and renal function tests among gasoline station workers. METHOD: A comparative cross sectional study was conduct from January 2018 to April 2018 at Mekelle city, Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Liver and renal function tests were analyzed on gasoline exposed (n = 43) and controls (n = 47) by Pentra C400 automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Student independent t-test and one way-ANOVA statistical methods were employed using SPSS Ver23. P-value < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. RESULT: The mean level of ALT, AST, Urea, creatinine, and uric acid was significantly higher among gasoline stations workers when compared to control study participants. There was also a significant increase in ALT, AST, Urea, creatinine and uric acid among gasoline stations with above 6 years exposure when compared with those exposed for ≤2 and3-6years. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that increasing liver and renal parameters may be associated with exposure to gasoline and it is dependent on time of exposure to gasoline.


Assuntos
Gasolina/análise , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Adulto , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/análise , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gasolina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Rim/química , Fígado/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Instalações de Transporte
7.
J Chromatogr A ; 1633: 461627, 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128970

RESUMO

A Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxothiophene) (PEDOT)/UiO-66 composite was electrodeposited on an etched stainless-steel wire as head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coating. A robust, well controlled thickness, and uniform coating of metal organic framework composites can be realized by the electrodeposited strategy. The incorporated UiO-66 not only enhanced the uniformity and stability of the composite coating, but also effectively decreased the stacking phenomenon of PEDOT and improved its extraction efficiency, which was over 100 times higher than that of the PEDOT coating without UiO-66. The composite coating was used to enrich seven types of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ion-exchange resins, including methyl cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, ortho-xylene, styrene, para-xylene and divinyl-benzene. The results of adsorption isotherm analysis showed that π stacking effect played dominant role between the composite coating and VOCs in the extraction process. The composite coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. A determination method for seven kinds of VOCs was established by HS-SPME coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Under the optimal experimental conditions, the detection linear range (LRs) was 0.09-100 ng mL-1, and the detection limit (LODs) was 0.03-0.06 ng mL-1 (S/N = 3). The method was applied for the migration detection of VOCs in four types of ion-exchange resin, which showed satisfactory recovery (84.5-117.2%).


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Polímeros/química , Tiofenos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Benzeno/análise , Benzeno/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa , Ionização de Chama , Resinas de Troca Iônica/química , Limite de Detecção , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Aço Inoxidável/química , Tolueno/análise , Tolueno/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Xilenos/análise , Xilenos/isolamento & purificação
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111027, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888595

RESUMO

The available evidence on the indoor air quality of operating rooms (ORs) in the Low- and Middle-income Countries (LMICs) is very scarce. Moreover, there is no study on the comparing the concentration of indoor air pollutants in different ORs. Therefore, this study aimed to measure and compare the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) concentrations in the air of different ORs in hospitals of Sabzevar, Iran. Moreover, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of exposure to these pollutants were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations technique. This cross-sectional study was based on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) passive sampling of eight ORs including General surgery, Curettage, Eye surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic, Laparoscopic, Cesarean and Ear, nose, throat (ENT) in two monthly campaigns from November 2019 to February 2020. One-way ANOVA and Post-hoc analyses were used to compare the concentration of BTEX compounds in different ORs. The overall mean (standard deviation (SD)) of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and total BTEX concentrations were 10.0 (1.8), 7.2 (1.9), 1.8 (0.6), 0.4 (0.2) and 19.4 (4.1) µg/m3. The Curettage OR had the highest (12.93 µg/m3) and ENT OR had the lowest (7.42 µg/m3) benzene concentrations. The highest concentrations of toluene, ethylbenzene and total BTEX were observed in General surgery OR. The cancer risks of exposure to benzene in all ORs were higher than the acceptable range recommended by Unite State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1 × 106). However, the hazard quotient (HQ) values for all ORs were at safe level (HQ < 1). Overall, our study suggested that the concentrations of BTEX compounds were significantly difference in different ORs and benzene had a carcinogenic risk for personnel and surgical staff in different ORs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Salas Cirúrgicas/normas , Fumaça/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Tolueno/análise , Xilenos/análise
9.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115464, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866878

RESUMO

Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers (BTEX) are known to affect environmental air and health quality. In this study, the levels of BTEX compounds were determined in indoor air environments during the winter generated by several different heaters: diesel pot-bellied heater with chimney (DH); electric heater (EH); unfluted gas heater (GH); kerosene heater (KH); and wood pot-bellied heater with chimney (WH). The samples were collected using a diffusion passive adsorbent (activated charcoal) and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the heaters differ in the quantity of BTEX released during operation. The KH was the most polluted heater based on BTEX measurement, followed by DH. The ∑BTEX for heaters were observed as follows: KH (290 µg m-3); DH (120 µg m-3); GH (84 µg m-3); WH (31 µg m-3); EH (16 µg m-3). Toluene was the predominant compound in all air samples. In KH and DH, the toluene to benzene ratios (T/B) were higher than 4 due to fuel evaporation, while GH had a T/B ratio of 3.9, indicating that the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was the main source. Moreover, a risk assessment was performed to evaluate where the cancer risks (CR) for benzene and ethylbenzene exceeded the critical values (10-6). KH was found to be the most harmful heater for residents, followed by DH and GH. For non-carcinogenic compounds, hazard quotients (HQ) were found to be less than one and thus unlikely to cause health problems.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Jordânia , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Tolueno/análise , Xilenos/análise
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(35): 44519-44527, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770338

RESUMO

Urinary benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) can be used as a reliable biomarker of exposure to these pollutants. This cross-sectional study aimed to employ biomonitoring to assess BTEX exposure among South Pars Gas Field (SPGF) workers in Assaluyeh, Iran. Forty employees who were working on the site were recruited as the case group. Besides, 31 administrative employees were recruited as the control group. Pre-shift and post-shift spot urine samples were collected from the subjects in the case group, while the subjects in the control group provided mid-morning urine samples. Overall, 111 urine samples, including 80 samples from the case group and 31 samples from the controls, were collected. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to determine the urinary levels of BTEX compounds. The median urinary levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene in the post-shift samples of the exposed group were 1.24, 2.28, 0.5, 1.32, and 1.5 µg/l, respectively. Significant differences were observed in urinary BTEX levels among smokers and non-smokers in both studied groups (p < 0.05). Accordingly, the median urinary BTEX concentrations in smokers were 2 to 6.5 times higher than the corresponding values in non-smoker subjects. Smoking status was the only predictor of the urinary BTEX concentration. Our findings revealed that refinery workers are exposed to significant levels of BTEX compounds. Considering the health risks associated with BTEX exposure for refinery workers, implementation of suitable control strategies, such as using appropriate personal protective equipment and improving on-site ventilation systems, are recommended reducing their exposure to BTEX via the inhalation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Exposição Ocupacional , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Monitoramento Biológico , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Gás Natural , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Tolueno/análise , Xilenos/análise
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717818

RESUMO

In Brazil, gas station workers are occupationally exposed to the benzene present in gasoline. Brazilian law indicates the use of trans,trans-muconic acid(t,t-MA) as a biomarker of benzene exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of exposure to benzene in gas station workers, through the quantification of t,t-MA present in urine. A total number of 269 gas station workers divided into 179 filling station attendants exposed by inhalation and dermal route and 90 convenience store workers exposed only by inhalation were included. A control group was formed by 100 office workers, without occupational exposure to benzene. The urinary levels of t,t-MA were evaluated by HPLC with a UV detector. Gas station workers showed higher mean values of t,t-MA (0.204 mg/g creatinine; 95% CI 0.170-0.237) than office workers (0.126 mg/g creatinine; 95% CI 0.0817-0.1693). T,t-MA levels were higher in convenience store workers exposed to gasoline only by inhalation (0.221 mg/g creatinine; 95% CI 0.160-0.282), than in those exposed to gasoline by inhalation and dermal route-filling station attendants (0.195 mg/g creatinine; 95% CI 0.155-0.235). Gas station workers with a higher level of t,t-MA had epistaxis. T,t-MA values were higher in the Downtown (0.15 mg/g creatinine) region's workers than in the more affluent South Zone region's workers (0.07 mg/g creatinine). Smoking habits influenced the urinary t,t-MA values, while the frequency of consumption of industrialized and frozen foods showed no influence.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Adulto , Idoso , Benzeno/análise , Biomarcadores , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Ácido Sórbico/análogos & derivados , Adulto Jovem
12.
Toxicol Lett ; 331: 235-241, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562636

RESUMO

The study aims to investigate the influence of exposure to low concentrations of benzene on urinary biomarkers of nucleic acid oxidative damage and methylation. Benzene exposure was characterized for 93 coke production workers by measuring both airborne benzene and S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) and unmodified benzene (U-B) in urine samples, collected at the end of the shift (ES) and at the next morning before shift (next BS). In the same urinary samples, biomarkers of nucleic acid oxidative damage and methylation were determined. Urinary concentrations of cotinine and creatinine were also determined to evaluate the smoking effect and to normalize urinary concentrations of analytes, respectively. The biomarkers of benzene internal dose, of oxidative damage (8-hydroxyy-7,8-dihydroguanine, 8-hydroxy-7,8-dihydroguanosine and 8-hydroxy-7,8-2'deoxyguanosine) and some of the biomarkers of nucleic acid methylation (5-Methyl-Cytosine, 1-Methyl-Guanine and 7-Methyl-Guanine) were higher in the ES than the next BS samples. Positive associations between ES 5-Methyl-Cytosine and both SPMA and U-B were found. In conclusion, occupational exposure to low levels of benzene seems to be related to urinary ES 5-Methyl-Cytosine that could be a possible biomarker to evaluate the changes of the nucleic acid methylation status.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Benzeno/toxicidade , Citosina/urina , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ácidos Nucleicos/metabolismo , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Benzeno/análise , Biomarcadores/urina , Citosina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Metilação , Oxirredução
13.
Food Chem ; 331: 127278, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569965

RESUMO

1H quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy technique has certain advantages such as low-temperature operation, authentic structural prediction and short data acquisition time. In this study, a 1H qNMR method was developed for the analysis of propenylbenzenes (eugenol and seven analogues) in the essential oils, a broadly distributed class of natural flavours. It was validated in terms of specificity (methoxy/acetate signal), linearity (range 0.05-5.00 mg per assay), sensitivity (limit of detection and quantification 4.4 and 14.9 µg/mL respectively), accuracy and precision. The qNMR technique was utilized during the sensory or activity-guided identification of chavibetol as the key odorant and antioxidant in the betel (Piper betle L., Bangla cultivar) oil, a widely consumed chewing stimulant and valuable flavouring agent. The method was also applied for the evaluation of six different post-harvest drying techniques for betel leaves through the quantitative analysis of unambiguously identified propenylbenzene markers (chavibetol, chavibetol acetate and 4-allyl-1,2-phenylene diacetate).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Odorantes/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Piper betle/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Benzeno/análise , Benzeno/química , Dessecação , Eugenol/análogos & derivados , Eugenol/análise , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Micro-Ondas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(29): 36306-36315, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556985

RESUMO

Release of analytes from their native matrix and diffusion into the gas phase is the rate-limiting step for the sampling of volatiles in complex solid samples. This limitation is more serious in the solvent-less and solvent-free microextraction sampling strategies. In this research, a three-stage reinforced sampling strategy including high-pressure/sonication/low-pressure was introduced for fast and efficient release of analytes in soil samples. For this purpose, a novel ultrasound-assisted pressure-regulated solid-phase microextraction (UA-PR-SPME) device was developed. It was coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and carried out for the determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX, as the model analytes) in complex solid samples. Graphene oxide/3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (GO-APTES) nanocomposite was synthesized and used as the SPME fiber coating. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) were obtained 0.1-0.4 ng/g. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 2.4-5000 ng/g. Relative standard deviations (RSDs%) were calculated 5.1-7.0% (n = 6). The developed technique was employed for the analysis of BTEX in contaminated soil samples.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Solo , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Tolueno/análise , Xilenos/análise
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(5): 321, 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358693

RESUMO

Environmental friendly building materials (BMs) get more attention due to their potential to reduce carbon and air pollutant emissions. However, recycled building materials (RBMs) have no required standard of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. This study was mainly about the assessment of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), as well as carbonyls emissions from recycled building materials, including gypsum board (GB), calcium silicate board (CSB), fiber cement board (FCB), class I built wall tile (WT), and waterproof gypsum board (WGB). The highest initial and final levels of BTEX were observed on CSB, followed by GB and FCB, and no detectable BTEX were observed on WT and WGB. Benzene was with the highest level among all identified BTEX. Emissions of carbonyls were observed on all materials. The highest initial and final levels of carbonyls were observed on GB, followed by FCB and CSB, while the lowest ones were detected on WT and WGB. The final (96-h) steady-state emissions of BTEX from GB and CSB were 9 and 37 times those from conventional pairs and 27 and 41 times those from low-VOC pairs. Similarly, the final steady-state emissions of carbonyls from GB and CSB were 4.8 and 1.3 times those from conventional pairs and 16 and 2.5 times those from low-VOC pairs. The requirement of evaluation standard for VOC emissions from RBMs is highly recommended to protect consumers. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Materiais de Construção , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Materiais de Construção/análise , Reciclagem , Tolueno/análise , Xilenos/análise
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(21): 26332-26349, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363457

RESUMO

To assess the ecological risk resulting from an accidental gasoline spill upstream from a wetland, groundwater and sediment sampling was carried out during two campaigns at the 48th and 52nd months after the spill had occurred. In total, 21 groundwater monitoring wells in the affected area were sampled plus an additional reference well located upstream from the accident location. Seven sediment sampling points were selected inside the wetland, plus a reference point upstream from the accident. Physicochemical parameters, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene and o-xylene) and metal concentrations were analysed to estimate the chemical risk. Acute (Allivibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis, Hyalella azteca) and chronic (Artemia salina and Desmodesmus subspicatus) toxicity assays were performed with groundwater and sediments elutriate to determine the ecotoxicological risk. Results from groundwater indicated an extreme chemical level of risk in14 out of 21 monitoring wells. These 14 wells also exhibited free-phase gasoline and lead (Pb) concentrations above the threshold values adopted by this study. The presence of Pb, however, could not be associated with the gasoline accident. High acute and chronic toxicities were reported for the majority of wells. Conversely, the risks associated with the sediments were considered low in most sampling points, and the ecotoxicity found could not be related to the presence of gasoline. Groundwater flow modelling results have evidenced the migration of the contamination plume towards the wetland. Thus, to prevent contamination from reaching the protected area, more effective groundwater clean-up techniques are still required.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Benzeno/análise , Ecossistema , Gasolina/análise , Medição de Risco , Tolueno/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Xilenos/análise
17.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127077, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438124

RESUMO

The ultra-deep adsorptive desulfurization (ppb level) of benzene remains a challenging subject with the need to construct efficient adsorbent systems. Herein, a kind of ruthenium-based adsorbent functionalized with bimetallic Ru-Al was rationally designed using Al2O3 as support (denoted as 0.8%Ru-1.2%Al/Al2O3). It was found that the co-anchoring of Ru and Al species endows the Ru-based adsorbent unique adsorption capability, which is able to completely eliminate sulfur compounds in benzene, and exhibiting a much higher breakthrough sulfur capacity than that of the 0.8%Ru/Al2O3. Remarkably, under the industrial experiment conditions, 0.8%Ru-1.2%Al/Al2O3 exhibited excellent long-term stability for more than 1200 h, showing the potential for industrial application. Various characterization techniques, including BET, XRD, SEM, TEM, TPD-MS, TPR and XPS, were used to investigate the correlation between the adsorption performance and the microstructure of the adsorbents. Over 0.8%Ru-1.2%Al/Al2O3, the ultra-thin aluminum additive is beneficial to improve the dispersion of Ru species, which therefore exhibits desirable desulfurization efficiency. Moreover, the enhanced performance is also correlated to the presence of the suitable Ru active centers generated from the selective coverage by Al species. It leads to an optimal exposure of the Ru active centers, which would facilitate the interaction of S-Ru and the improvement of the desulfurization activity.


Assuntos
Benzeno/análise , Rutênio/química , Adsorção , Alumínio , Óxido de Alumínio/química , Espaços Confinados , Enxofre , Compostos de Enxofre
18.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126932, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402880

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential sources of heavy metals in fine air particles (PM2.5) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and isomeric xylenes (BTEX) in gas phase indoor air. PM2.5 samples were collected using a low volume sampler. BTEX samples were collected using passive sampling onto sorbent tubes and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For the lower and upper floors of the evaluated building, the concentrations of PM2.5 were 96.4 ± 2.70 µg/m3 and 80.2 ± 3.11 µg/m3, respectively. The compositions of heavy metals in PM2.5 were predominated by iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and aluminum (Al) with concentration of 500 ± 50.07 ng/m3, 466 ± 77.38 ng/m3, and 422 ± 147.38 ng/m3. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the main sources of BTEX were originated from vehicle emissions and exacerbate because of temperature variations. Hazard quotient results for BTEX showed that the compounds were below acceptable limits and thus did not possess potential carcinogenic risks. However, a measured output of lifetime cancer probability revealed that benzene and ethylbenzene posed definite carcinogenic risks. Pollutants that originated from heavy traffic next to the sampling site contributed to the indoor pollution.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Tolueno/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Xilenos/análise
19.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126957, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402885

RESUMO

In the soil of contaminated coking sites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) are typical indicator compounds. Generally, PAHs are enriched in the topsoil layer. BTEX, with higher water solubilities and lower organic carbon-water partitioning coefficients (Koc), are distributed deeper than PAHs. However, current models have employed predictions using single compounds to mimic the migration of BTEX at contaminated coking sites. Such models have not considered the influence of the upper soil layer, where PAHs are enriched. An attempt to fill this gap was made by setting up a control soil column experiment in this study. One column was filled with undisturbed soil (column #1) and the other with PAH-contaminated soil (column #2) to simulate the theoretical and actual surface soil layers, respectively. The results showed that in column #2, the toluene gas concentration of the headspace and time required to reach steady state were notably greater than those in column #1. High-throughput sequencing revealed that there were large microbial community structure differences between the two soil columns throughout the experiment, while some genera that degrade toluene with high efficiency emerged noteworthily in column #2. This implied that the upper soil layer enriched with PAHs was conducive to the degradation of toluene vapor. Applying this finding to human health exposure assessment of toluene suggests that the potential exposure level should be reduced from the current predicted level given the unanticipated attenuation at contaminated coking sites.


Assuntos
Coque , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Tolueno/análise , Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Solubilidade , Xilenos/análise
20.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126841, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416388

RESUMO

Benzene is a globally occurring environmental and occupational pollutant that causes leukemia. To better understand telomere length (TL) as a function of benzene toxicity, we recruited 294 shoe-making workers and 102 controls from Wenzhou, China in 2011. Biomarkers of TL, cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) frequency, and white blood cells (WBC) were measured. In total, 18 polymorphic sites in environmental response genes, including metabolic and DNA repair genes, were analyzed. Results indicate that benzene exposure led to a longer TL at a threshold of 32 mg/m3-year of cumulative exposure dose (CED). Furthermore, the TL was longer in members of the damaged group, when evaluated for MN frequency (P < 0.001) and reduced WBC (P < 0.001), than in those of the normal group. Workers carrying genotype TT (ß = 0.32, P = 0.042) in rs3212986 of ERCC1 and genotype TC (ß = 0.24, P = 0.082) in rs1051740 of mEH exon3 were associated with a longer TL as compared to the wild-type group. TA (ß = -0.53, P < 0.001) in rs6413432 of CYP2E1 was associated with a shorter TL. Benzene exposure interacted with the TA type in rs6413432 (ß = 0.003, 95% CI: 0, 0.006, P = 0.042) and the CC type in rs1051740 (ß = 0.007, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.013, P = 0.015) after adjusting for confounding factors. Our results indicate that benzene induces an increase in TL at a threshold of CED ≥32mg/m3-year. Rs1051740, rs3212986, and rs6413432 were found to be involved in benzene-induced telomere growth; in particular, rs1051740 and rs6413432 interacted with the benzene exposure, resulting in an extended TL.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Benzeno/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Telômero , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Benzeno/toxicidade , China , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético , Sapatos
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