Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 780
Filtrar
1.
Toxicol Lett ; 322: 12-19, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899212

RESUMO

Benzene exposure is a risk factor of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), during such carcinogenesis long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important epigenetic regulators. HOTAIRM1 (HOXA transcript antisense RNA, myeloid-specific 1) plays an indispensable role in the development of AML. Hydroquinone (HQ) is one major metabolite of benzene and its ideal replacement in toxicology research. But the influence of benzene or HQ on HOTAIRM1 expression in AML associated pathway is still unclear. In the TK6 cells with short-term exposure to HQ (HQ-ST cells) or long term HQ exposure induced malignant transformed TK6 cells (HQ-MT cells), the relationship between DNMT3b and HOTAIRM1 was explored. Comparing to counterparts, HOTAIRM1 expression was increased firstly and then decreased in HQ-ST cells, and definitely decreased in HQ-MT cells; while the expression change tendency of DNMT3b was in contrast to that of HOTAIRM1. Moreover, the average HOTAIRM1 expression of 17 paired workers being exposed to benzene within 1.5 years was increased, but that of the remaining 92 paired workers with longer exposure time was decreased. Furthermore, in 5-AzaC (DNA methyltransferase inhibitor) or TSA (histone deacetylation inhibitor) treated HQ-MT cells, the expression of HOTAIRM1 was restored by reduced DNA promoter methylation levels. HQ-MT cells with DNMT3b knockout by CRISPR/Cas9 displayed the promoter hypomethylation and the increase of HOTAIRM1, also confirmed in benzene exposure workers. These suggest that long term exposure to HQ or benzene might induce the increase of DNMT3b expression and the promoter hypermethylation to silence the expression of HOTAIRM1, a possible tumor-suppressor in the AML associated carcinogenesis pathway.


Assuntos
Benzeno/efeitos adversos , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/biossíntese , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroquinonas/toxicidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/induzido quimicamente , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Indução Enzimática , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/enzimologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Doenças Profissionais/enzimologia , Doenças Profissionais/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Medição de Risco
2.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113476, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902537

RESUMO

Exposure to chemicals produced by petrochemical industrial complexes (PICs), such as benzene, ionizing radiation, and particulate matters, may contribute to the development of leukemia. However, epidemiological studies showed controversial results. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize the association between residential exposure to PICs and the risk of leukemia incidence, focusing on exposure-response effects. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases for studies published before September 1st, 2019. Observational studies investigating residential exposure to PICs and the risk of leukemia were included. The outcome of interest was the incidence of leukemia comparing to reference groups. Relative risk (RR) was used as the summary effect measure, synthesized by characteristics of populations, distance to PICs, and calendar time in meta-regression. We identified 7 observational studies, including 2322 leukemia cases and substantial reference groups, in this meta-analysis. Residential exposure to PICs within a maximal 8-km distance had a 36% increased risk of leukemia (pooled RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.14-1.62) compared to controls, regardless of sex and age. In terms of leukemia subtypes, residential exposure to PICs was associated with the risks of acute myeloid leukemia (AML, pooled RR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.12-2.31) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, pooled RR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.11-6.42). In meta-regression, the positive association occurred after 10 years of follow-up with a pooled RRs of 1.21 (95% CI = 1.02-1.44) and then slightly increased to 1.77 (95% CI = 1.35-2.33) at 30 years after follow-up. No effect modification was found by sex, age, and geographic locations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Leucemia/induzido quimicamente , Petróleo/toxicidade , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Indústria Química , Humanos , Incidência , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Risco
3.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 37(10): 737-745, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726503

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the antioxidant mechanism of diallyl sulfide (DAS) in antagonizing the reduction in peripheral blood white blood cells (WBC) induced by benzene in rats. Methods: A total of 60 specific pathogen-free adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, with a body weight of 180-220 g, were selected, and after 5 days of adaptive feeding, they were randomly divided into blank control group, DAS control group, benzene model group, benzene+low-dose DAS group, benzene+middle-dose DAS group, and benzene+high-dose DAS group, with 10 rats in each group. The rats in the benzene+low-dose DAS group, the benzene+middle-dose DAS group, the benzene+high-dose DAS group, and the DAS control group were given DAS by gavage at a dose of 40, 80, 160, and 160 mg/kg·bw, respectively, and those in the blank control group and the benzene model group were given an equal volume of corn oil; 2 hours later, the rats in the benzene model group, the benzene+low-dose DAS group, the benzene+middle-dose DAS group, and the benzene+high-dose DAS group were given a mixture of benzene (1.3 g/kg·bw) and corn oil (with a volume fraction of 50%), and those in the blank control group and the DAS control group were given an equal volume of corn oil. The above treatment was given once a day for 4 consecutive weeks. At 1 day before treatment, anticoagulated blood was collected from the jugular vein for peripheral blood cell counting. After anesthesia with intraperitoneally injected pentobarbital (50 mg/kg·bw), blood samples were collected from the abdominal aorta, serum was isolated, and the thymus, the spleen, and the femur were freed at a low temperature to measure oxidative and antioxidant indices. The femur at one side was freed for WBC counting in bone marrow. Results: Compared with the blank control group, the benzene model group had significant reductions in the volume, weight, and organ coefficient of the spleen and the thymus (P<0.05) ; compared with the benzene model group, the benzene+low-dose DAS group, the benzene+middle-dose DAS group, and the benzene+high-dose DAS group had significant increases in the volume of the spleen and the thymus and the weight and organ coefficient of the spleen (P<0.05), and the benzene+middle-dose DAS group and the benzene+high-dose DAS group had significant increases in the weight and organ coefficient of the thymus (P<0.05). Compared with the blank control group, the benzene model group had a significant reduction in WBC count in peripheral blood and bone marrow (P<0.05), and compared with the benzene model group, the benzene+middle-dose DAS group and the benzene+high-dose DAS group had a significant increase in WBC count in peripheral blood and bone marrow (P<0.05). Compared with the blank control group, the benzene model group had a significant increase in the serum level of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P<0.05) and significant reductions in total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) (P<0.05) ; compared with the benzene model group, the benzene+high-dose DAS group had a significant reduction in the serum level of MDA and significant increases in T-SOD activity, GSH level, GSH/GSSG ratio, and T-AOC (P<0.05). Compared with the blank control group, the benzene model group had a significant increase in the level of MDA (P<0.05) and significant reductions in GSH level, GSH/GSSG ratio, and T-AOC (P<0.05) in the spleen; compared with the benzene model group, the benzene+low-dose DAS group, the benzene+middle-dose DAS group, and the benzene+high-dose DAS group had a significant reduction in MDA level (P<0.05) and significant increases in GSH level and T-AOC (P<0.05), and the benzene+high-dose DAS group had significant increases in T-SOD activity and GSH/GSSG ratio (P<0.05). Compared with the blank control group, the benzene model group had a significant increase in the level of MDA in bone marrow cells (BMCs) and peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) (P<0.05) and a significant reduction in T-AOC in PBMCs (P<0.05) ; compared with the benzene model group, the benzene+low-dose DAS group, the benzene+middle-dose DAS group, and the benzene+high-dose DAS group had a significant reduction in the level of MDA in BMCs and PBMCs (P<0.05), and the benzene+high-dose DAS group had significant increases in GSH level and GSH/GSSG ratio (P<0.05) . Conclusion: DAS can antagonize the benzene-induced reduction in peripheral blood WBC, possibly by exerting an anti-oxidative stress effect.


Assuntos
Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Leucopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Animais , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Glutationa/análise , Leucopenia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/análise
4.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177695

RESUMO

Objective: To learn about the cardiovascular health effects of workers expose to benzene-toluene-xylene and noise in painting workshop of automobile manufacturing enterprises, and to provide intervention measures and strategies for the health of workers. Methods: The effects of noise exposure, benzene-toluene-xylene exposure and combined exposure on workers' blood pressure and electrocardiogram were analyzed through epidemiological investigation, workplace monitoring and occupational health examination in several automobile enterprises which had carried out occupational hazard factors monitoring and occupational health examination in our hospital from April to October 2017. Results: There were differences in age, sex, working years, smoking, drinking and physical exercise among workers in different exposure groups (P<0.05) . The systolic blood pressure level of workers in benzene-toluene-xylene exposure group and combined exposure group was significantly different comparing with control group (P< 0.05) , After the factors of age and working years were adjusted. The abnormity rate of electrocardiogram in workers were not statistically significant in all groups (P>0.05) . Conclusion: The benzene-toluene-xylene exposure and noise combined with benzene-toluene-xylene exposure in painting workshop of automobile manufacturing enterprises has positive influence on the systolic blood pressure of workers. Regular physical examination and health intervention measures should be strengthened to improve health.


Assuntos
Benzeno , Sistema Cardiovascular , Exposição Ocupacional , Tolueno , Xilenos , Automóveis , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Tolueno/efeitos adversos , Xilenos/efeitos adversos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(25): e16117, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232959

RESUMO

The study aimed to find novel effect biomarkers for occupational benzene exposure and chronic benzene poisoning (CBP), which might also provide clues to the mechanism of benzene toxicity.We performed a comparative serological proteome analysis between healthy control workers with no benzene exposure, workers with short-term benzene exposure, workers with long-term benzene exposure, and CBP patients using 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF-MS. Two of the differentially expressed proteins were then selected to be validated by immune turbidimetric analysis.A total of 10 proteins were found to be significantly altered between different groups. The identified deferentially expressed proteins were classified according to their molecular functions, biological processes, and protein classes. The alteration of 2 important serum proteins among them, apolipoprotein A-I and transthyretin, were further confirmed.Our findings suggest that the identified differential proteins could be used as biomarkers for occupational benzene exposure and CBP, and they may also help elucidate the mechanisms of benzene toxicity.


Assuntos
Benzeno/toxicidade , Proteômica/métodos , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Eletroforese em Gel Diferencial Bidimensional/métodos
6.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 32(4): 441-464, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099343

RESUMO

Professional drivers are exposed to a number of factors that have a negative influence on their health status. These include vibrations, noise, the lack of fresh air in the car cabin, shift work (frequently at night), monotony resulting from permanent repetition of certain actions, static loads due to immobilization in a sitting position, stress resulting from the need to ensure safety in heavy traffic, as well as air pollution (dust, volatile organic substances, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, dioxins, furans and others). Factors associated with the specificity of the profession of a driver, including exposure to chemical substances, result in an increased risk of the development of many diseases, i.e., obesity, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, extensive genitourinary pathology experienced by taxi drivers, lung cancer and other forms of cancer. In the case of drivers, especially those covering long distances, there are also actual difficulties related to ensuring a proper diet. Although attempts at interventional research that would change the principles of nutrition, as well as ensure physical activity and weight reduction, have been made, their results have not been satisfactory. The paper focuses on the discussion on the role of a diet and dietary phytochemicals in the prevention of adverse health effects of such chemicals as a mix of chemicals in the polluted air, benzo(a)pyrene, benzene and metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel), which are the main sources of exposure in the case of transport workers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(4):441-64.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Dieta , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Benzo(a)pireno/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Estado Nutricional , Transportes
7.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(8): 527-529, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Only a small number of studies have reported on the association of parental occupational exposure to benzene and risk of childhood and adolescent leukaemias. We examined associations with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in this population-based study in Denmark. METHODS: Benzene was largely banned from Danish workplaces after 1975, thus this case-control study focused on the immediately prior years. Paediatric cancer cases (

Assuntos
Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Paterna/efeitos adversos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Res ; 175: 100-107, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The chemicals benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) are neuroactive. Exposures often co-occur because they share common sources. We examined neurologic effects of environmental BTEX exposure among U.S. Gulf coast residents taking into account concomitant exposures. METHODS: We measured blood concentrations of BTEX in 690 Gulf state residents. Neurologic symptoms were ascertained via telephone interview. We used log-binomial regression to estimate associations between blood BTEX levels and self-reported neurologic symptoms independently for the presence of any neurologic, central (CNS), or peripheral nervous system (PNS) symptoms. We estimated associations in single chemical models mutually adjusted for co-occurring BTEX and used weighted quantile sum regression to model associations between the combined BTEX mixture and neurologic symptoms. RESULTS: Half (49%) of participants reported at least one neurologic symptom. Each BTEX chemical was associated with increased CNS and PNS symptoms in single-chemical models comparing the highest to lowest quartile of exposure. After adjusting for coexposures, benzene was associated with CNS symptoms among all participants (PR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.27, 3.57) and among nonsmokers (PR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.35, 3.91). After adjusting for coexposures, associations with toluene were apparent only for reporting multiple PNS symptoms (PR = 2.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 4.16). In mixture analyses, a one-quartile increase in BTEX exposure was associated with neurologic symptoms (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.98). The weighted quantile sum index weighted benzene most heavily, which was consistent with single chemical analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing blood benzene concentration was associated with increased prevalence of CNS symptoms. In this sample, BTEX-associated neurologic effects are likely driven by exposure to benzene and, to a lesser extent, toluene.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Poluição por Petróleo , Adulto , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Derivados de Benzeno/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tolueno/efeitos adversos , Tolueno/sangue , Xilenos/efeitos adversos , Xilenos/sangue
9.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211780, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768598

RESUMO

Current efforts to assess human health response to chemicals based on high-throughput in vitro assay data on intra-cellular changes have been hindered for some illnesses by lack of information on higher-level extracellular, inter-organ, and organism-level interactions. However, a dose-response function (DRF), informed by various levels of information including apical health response, can represent a template for convergent top-down, bottom-up analysis. In this paper, a general DRF for chronic chemical and other health stressors and mixtures is derived based on a general first-order model previously derived and demonstrated for illness progression. The derivation accounts for essential autocorrelation among initiating event magnitudes along a toxicological mode of action, typical of complex processes in general, and reveals the inverse relationship between the minimum illness-inducing dose, and the illness severity per unit dose (both variable across a population). The resulting emergent DRF is theoretically scale-inclusive and amenable to low-dose extrapolation. The two-parameter single-toxicant version can be monotonic or sigmoidal, and is demonstrated preferable to traditional models (multistage, lognormal, generalized linear) for the published cancer and non-cancer datasets analyzed: chloroform (induced liver necrosis in female mice); bromate (induced dysplastic focia in male inbred rats); and 2-acetylaminofluorene (induced liver neoplasms and bladder carcinomas in 20,328 female mice). Common- and dissimilar-mode mixture models are demonstrated versus orthogonal data on toluene/benzene mixtures (mortality in Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes, following embryonic exposure). Findings support previous empirical demonstration, and also reveal how a chemical with a typical monotonically-increasing DRF can display a J-shaped DRF when a second, antagonistic common-mode chemical is present. Overall, the general DRF derived here based on an autocorrelated first-order model appears to provide both a strong theoretical/biological basis for, as well as an accurate statistical description of, a diverse, albeit small, sample of observed dose-response data. The further generalizability of this conclusion can be tested in future analyses comparing with traditional modeling approaches across a broader range of datasets.


Assuntos
2-Acetilaminofluoreno/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Bromatos/efeitos adversos , Clorofórmio/efeitos adversos , Modelos Biológicos , Tolueno/efeitos adversos , 2-Acetilaminofluoreno/farmacologia , Animais , Benzeno/farmacologia , Bromatos/farmacologia , Clorofórmio/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Camundongos , Oryzias , Ratos , Tolueno/farmacologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The base excision repair (BER) pathway and nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway play important roles in the repair of benzene-induced genetic damage, and the effects of polymorphisms in these pathways on genetic damage and global DNA methylation are of great interest. METHODS: Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BER (XRCC1: rs25489, rs25487; APE1: rs1130409) and NER pathways (XPA: rs1800975; XPC: rs2228000, rs2228002; XPD: rs13181, rs1799793; XPG: rs17655; ERCC1: rs3212986) were analyzed by a Kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) assay to find associations with cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) frequency and global DNA methylation in 294 shoe factory workers and 102 control participants. RESULTS: Workers who possessed the following genotypes were associated with high MN frequency: rs25487 AA (FR (95% CI): 1.50 (1.16,1.9), p = 0.002, reference GG); rs1130409 GG (FR (95% CI): 1.28 (1.05,1.55), p = 0.010, reference TT); rs17655 GC (FR (95% CI): 1.18 (1.02,1.38), p = 0.038, reference GG); and rs3212986 TT (FR (95% CI): 1.55 (1.31,1.83), p < 0.001, reference GG). Workers with four and three mutant alleles showed 3.72-fold (OR (95% CI): 3.72 (1.34, 10.03), p = 0.009) and 2.48-fold (OR (95% CI): 2.48 (1.27, 4.88), p = 0.008) increased risk of genetic damage compared with workers with no or one mutant allele, and a dose-response relationship was found by the trend test (p = 0.006). The rs1130409 variant allele (GG+GT) was associated with low global DNA methylation (ß=-0.20, 95% CI: -0.42, 0.03, p = 0.045). CONCLUSION: In benzene-exposed workers, BER and NER pathway polymorphism haplotypes are associated with different levels of chromosome damage and had little effect on global DNA methylation.


Assuntos
Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/análise , Dano ao DNA , Metilação de DNA , Reparo do DNA , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína 1 Complementadora Cruzada de Reparo de Raio-X/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Liase (Sítios Apurínicos ou Apirimidínicos)/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Endonucleases/genética , Genoma Humano , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Prognóstico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteína 1 Complementadora Cruzada de Reparo de Raio-X/genética , Proteína de Xeroderma Pigmentoso Grupo A/genética , Proteína Grupo D do Xeroderma Pigmentoso/genética
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 657: 28-35, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies have demonstrated that the criteria air pollutants increased the risk of exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), few have explored the effects of ambient benzene and toluene on COPD. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of ambient benzene and toluene on emergency COPD (eCOPD) hospitalizations. METHODS: We obtained daily mean and maximum concentrations of benzene and toluene during April 1, 2011 - December 31, 2014 from the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department, and daily counts of eCOPD hospitalizations from the Hospital Authority. Generalized additive distributed lag models were used to estimate the percentage excess risk (ER%) of eCOPD hospitalizations per interquartile range (IQR) increase in ambient benzene and toluene. RESULTS: The ER% estimates of eCOPD hospitalizations post cumulative exposure of up to two days were 2.62% (95%CI: 0.17% to 5.13%) and 1.42% (0.16% to 2.69%), for per IQR increase of daily mean benzene (1.4µg/m3) and toluene (4.6µg/m3), respectively. People below the age of 65 had a significantly higher risk of eCOPD hospitalizations associated with daily maximum toluene than the elderly. CONCLUSIONS: Ambient benzene and toluene might be environmental stressors for acute exacerbations of COPD in the Hong Kong population.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Tolueno/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 649: 620-628, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176473

RESUMO

Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with various adverse health effects including respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Exposure data for some specific pollutants and settings are however still insufficient and mechanisms underlying negative health outcomes are not fully elucidated. This pilot study aimed to assess individual exposure to three traffic-related air pollutants, black carbon (BC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene, and the relationship with respiratory and oxidative stress outcomes in a cross-sectional sample of 48 green space workers in Brussels, Belgium. Participants were followed during four consecutive working days in 2016-2017 during which their individual exposure to BC, PAHs, benzene and more generally air pollution was measured using aethalometers, urinary biomarkers (1-hydroxypyrene, 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, S-phenylmercapturic acid) and questionnaires. Data on respiratory health and oxidative stress were collected using questionnaires and respiratory/urinary biomarkers (exhaled nitric oxide [NO], 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]). Associations between exposure and health outcomes were investigated using comparison tests and linear regression models, after stratification by present-day smoking status. Spatial variation in BC exposure was high, with concentrations varying between 0.26 and 5.69 µg/m3. The highest levels were recorded during transport and, to a lesser extent, in green spaces located in the vicinity of roads with high traffic intensity. Concentrations of PAHs and benzene biomarkers did not systematically exceed the limits of detection. Among smokers, respiratory inflammation increased linearly with exposure to BC measured over the four days of follow-up (ß = 8.73, 95% CI: 4.04, 13.41). Among non-smokers, oxidative stress increased linearly with BC measured on the fourth day (ß = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.52, 4.24). Despite some limitations, this work supports the hypothesis that BC induces respiratory inflammation and oxidative stress. It also highlights the value of this compound as well as exhaled NO and urinary 8-OHdG biomarkers to detect early/mild effects of air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Fuligem/efeitos adversos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Bélgica , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo , Projetos Piloto , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/fisiopatologia , População Urbana
13.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 137(6): 486-490, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollutants has several effects on human health, including during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether exposure to benzene and toluene among pregnant women contributes to preterm delivery. DESIGN AND SETTING: Longitudinal study using data on newborns from mothers living in São José dos Campos (SP) in 2016, who had been exposed to benzene and toluene. METHODS: A logistic regression model with three hierarchical levels was constructed using maternal variables relating to newborns, and using benzene and toluene concentrations in quartiles. Occurrences of cesarean births, twins or malformations were excluded. Maternal exposure windows of 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days prior to delivery were considered. RESULTS: Out of the 9,562 live births, 3,671 newborns were included and 343 newborns were born at less than 37 weeks of gestation (9.3%). The average birth weight was 3,167.2 g. Exposure to benzene and toluene was significantly associated (P = 0.04) with preterm delivery in the five-day window. There was no association in any of the other exposure windows. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to identify that maternal exposure to benzene and toluene has an acute effect on preterm delivery.


Assuntos
Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Tolueno/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Med. segur. trab ; 64(252): 271-294, jul.-sept. 2018. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182336

RESUMO

Antecedentes: Policías de tráfico, conductores y otros profesionales, están expuestos de forma aguda y crónica a hidrocarburos ambientales del tráfico que pueden conllevar un riesgo para la salud. Dichos tóxicos, están presentes en la contaminación ambiental. En la literatura revisada no hemos encontrado protocolos ni EPIs para estas profesiones laborales, poniendo de relieve que aún queda mucho por desarrollar en este campo. En este artículo, revisamos la evidencia existente en cuanto a efectos nocivos en la salud por la exposición laboral a hidrocarburos en ambiente exterior. Objetivos: Determinar la evidencia científica existente en la literatura acerca de los efectos biológicos de la exposición crónica laboral a hidrocarburos ambientales en los trabajadores expuestos a tráfico (y/o rodeados de HAPs). Material y Métodos: Búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed, Toxnet, Scopus, Embase, y webs institucionales de donde recopilamos 25 artículos. Resultados: Se han evidenciado cambios y efectos biológicos nocivos por exposición a los hidrocarburos ambientales (en su mayoría debidos al tráfico), así como la presencia de metabolitos en análisis biológicos de trabajadores expuestos. Dichos efectos han afectado al sistema reproductor, al sistema cardiovascular e incluso a la reparación de DNA. Conclusiones: Parecen existir efectos nocivos para el organismo debidos a la exposición laboral ambiental. Se encontró asociación estadística significativa en la disminución de la reparación del DNA y en el aumento de metabolitos relacionados con hidrocarburos en sangre y orina


Background: Traffic officers, drivers and other professionals previously exposed to other environmental traffic hydrocarbons, are acutely and chronically exposed to multiple hazardous substances that can affect health. These toxics are present in environmental pollution. In the literature reviewed, neither protocols nor PPEs have been found for these professions, which highlight the need to be taken into consideration. In this article, the existing evidence regarding the adverse health effects due to the exposure to hydrocarbons in external working environments is reviewed. Objectives: To determine the existing scientific evidence in literature about the biological effects of the work-related chronic exposure to environmental hydrocarbons in jobs exposed to traffic (and/or surrounded by PAHs). Materials and Methods: 25 articles have been compiled from Bibliographic research in Pubmed, Toxnet, Scopus, Embase, and institutional websites. Results: Changes and harmful biological effects due to exposure to environmental hydrocarbons (most of them caused by traffic) and the presence of metabolites in the biological analyses of exposed workers have been evidenced. Such effects have affected both the reproductive and cardiovascular systems and even DNA repair. Conclusions: Adverse effects on the organism due to environmental exposure in the workplace seem to take place. Significant statistical association was found in the decrease of DNA repair and in the increase of metabolites related with hydrocarbons in blood and urine


Assuntos
Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Polícia , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/legislação & jurisprudência , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082675

RESUMO

Air pollution in urban areas is a major concern as it negatively affects the health of a large number of people. The purpose of this study was to assess the inhalation health risk for exposure to PM10 and benzene of the populations living in three Italian cities. Data regarding PM10 and benzene daily measured by "traffic" stations and "background" stations in Torino, Perugia, and Lecce during 2014 and 2015 were compared to the limits indicated in the Directive 2008/50/EC. In addition, an inhalation risk analysis for exposure to benzene was performed for adults and children by applying the standard United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) methodology. The levels of PM10 detected in Torino exceeded the legal limits in both years with an increased mean concentration >10 µg/m³ comparing with background station. Benzene concentrations never exceeded the legislative target value. The increased cancer risk (ICR) for children exposed to benzene was greater than 1 × 10-6 only in the city of Torino, while for adults, the ICR was higher than 1 × 10-6 in all the cities. The results suggest the need for emission reduction policies to preserve human health from continuous and long exposure to air pollutants. A revision of legal limits would also be recommended.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Criança , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Itália , Medição de Risco , População Urbana
16.
Toxicol Lett ; 298: 70-75, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086327

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of various factors that modulate the metabolism of benzene, including smoking habits, metabolic genotype of GST and co-exposure to toluene, on the levels of three biomarkers, i.e. urinary benzene (UB), S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) and t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA), in 146 refinery workers exposed to low levels of air benzene (AB) in the range <1.5-529.2 µg/m3 (mean value 32.6 µg/m3). The study confirmed the validity of SPMA as a good biomarker of benzene exposure even at low levels of exposure. It was also confirmed that cigarette smoking is the main confounding factor when assessing biological monitoring data of occupational exposure to AB. Our data indicate that the GSTT1, but not the GSTM1 genotype, significantly increases the urinary levels of SPMA, even at low levels of exposure. It is not known, though, whether subjects with a GSTT1 "null" genotype may be more susceptible to the effects of benzene. Finally, environmental toluene appears to inhibit the metabolism of benzene to SPMA even at low concentrations, also resulting in an underestimation by SPMA levels of the actual exposure of workers to benzene.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/urina , Benzeno/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Acetilcisteína/análogos & derivados , Acetilcisteína/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Biotransformação , Fumar Cigarros/urina , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo Genético , Medição de Risco , Ácido Sórbico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Sórbico/metabolismo , Tolueno/efeitos adversos , Urinálise , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 55: 156-161, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case-control study was to assess the effect of occupational benzene exposure on the risk of colorectal cancer, including its subtypes. METHODS: The study included 181,709 colon cancer and 109,227 rectal cancer cases diagnosed between 1961 and 2005 in Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Cases were identified from the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study (NOCCA) cohort. Five controls per case were selected from the same cohort, matched for country, birth year, and sex. Occupational benzene exposure for each study participant was estimated by linking their job titles to country specific job-exposure matrices. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by using conditional logistic regression models. The results were adjusted for physical strain at work, formaldehyde, ionizing radiation and wood dust. RESULTS: Increased risk was observed for all colorectal cancer (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.05-1.18) for the high decile of cumulative benzene exposure, indicating a statistically significant dose-response relationship. This excess risk was mainly seen in ascending colon (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.13-1.43), and transversal colon (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.41). The ORs in the highest exposure category were markedly higher in women than in men in all subsites of colon and rectum. CONCLUSION: This study showed an association between workplace benzene exposure and colorectal cancer. The risk was restricted to ascending and transversal colon, and was the strongest among women.


Assuntos
Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho
18.
Occup Environ Med ; 75(8): 562-572, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: While several monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are classified as definite or possible carcinogens to humans, little data exist on their role in prostate cancer (PCa). We examined occupational exposure to benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) and styrene and PCa risk in a population-based case-control study in Montreal, Canada. METHODS: Cases aged ≤75 years diagnosed with PCa in 2005-2009 (n=1920) and population controls frequency-matched on age (n=1989) provided detailed work histories. Experts evaluated the certainty, frequency and concentration of exposure to monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in each job lasting ≥2 years. Logistic regression estimated OR and 95% CIs for PCa risk, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Exposures to BTX were highly intercorrelated, except for durations of exposure at substantial levels. Ever exposure to any BTX was associated with overall PCa (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.53), while the OR for styrene was 1.19. However, increases in risk were largely confined to low-grade tumours, with ORs of 1.33 (95%CI 1.08 to 1.64) and 1.41 (95% CI 0.85 to 2.31) for ever exposure to any BTX and styrene, respectively, and a duration response pattern for any BTX. Risks for low-grade tumours were elevated among men exposed ≥25 years at substantial levels of benzene (OR 2.32) and styrene (OR 2.44). Some cumulative exposure categories showed increased risks but without clear trends. CONCLUSION: Exposure to any BTX was associated with higher risks of overall PCa. Prolonged exposures at the substantial level to benzene and styrene increased risks of low-grade tumours. These novel findings were independent from PCa screening.


Assuntos
Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Próstata/induzido quimicamente , Estireno/efeitos adversos , Tolueno/efeitos adversos , Xilenos/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Canadá , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Razão de Chances , Medição de Risco
19.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 68(11): 1248-1268, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024836

RESUMO

The Veterans Cohort Mortality Study began in 1999 in collaboration with Washington University in St. Louis, comprising ~70,000 male military veterans. We published six research papers on this cohort, considering the dynamics of all-cause mortality as the subjects aged and environmental parameters changed. This paper summarizes those results and presents new results by age group. Pollutants included monitored and modeled criteria pollutants, vehicular traffic density (annual km driven per unit of county land area), and modeled nationwide levels of hazardous species. In addition to spatial relationships, we examined the effects of exposure timing through separate analyses of sequential follow-up and exposure periods from 1976 to 2001. Risks associated with peak ozone decreased with lag between exposure and response, suggesting acute effects. Risks associated with traffic were invariant over time and consistent across five exposure databases. Associations with ozone were also coherent across databases; we found no consistent associations with particulate matter. Epidemiology considers both spatial and temporal relationships; most long-term studies focus on spatial gradients at a given time, thus masking effects of cohort aging and other trends during follow-up. Our new analyses distinguished between these temporal effects by analyzing age deciles for which separate mortality risks had been estimated for nationwide levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), benzene, and traffic density during four sequential follow-up subperiods, thus providing 40 sets of mortality risk coefficients. We used ordinary least squares regression to define relationships with subject age and follow-up year for the data set of 40 coefficients. We found strong nonlinear relationships between subject age and mortality coefficients for smoking, climate, poverty status, and air pollution; only smoking and climate coefficients changed over time as well. We concluded that these pollutant-mortality relationships reflected differences among the veterans' residential locations rather than changes in their pollution exposures during follow-up. We saw no evidence that cleaner air reduced mortality. Implications: Recent air pollution mortality studies emphasize PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm); we show associations with many other pollutants and a measure of traffic intensity. Control policies should thus be based on multipollutant analyses. We found no reduced risks with improved air quality after distinguishing cohort aging from purely temporal effects; longitudinal studies of accountability must thus account for changes in demography and exposures. Our studies of exposure timing indicate mainly coincident responses and no evidence for cumulative effects typical of smoking; we had no information on personal exposures. We found the strongest risks were associated with high-traffic locations rather than outdoor air quality per se.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Estados Unidos , Veteranos
20.
Int J Cancer ; 143(6): 1367-1373, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29633247

RESUMO

Exposure to benzene increases the risk for acute myeloid leukemia and possibly other types of cancer in adults. For children, only limited evidence about benzene and cancer exists. A few studies have indicated that benzene may increase risk for some subtypes of childhood cancer but not for others. We aimed to investigate if outdoor levels of benzene at the residence increase the risk for subtypes of leukemia, lymphoma and CNS tumor in children. We identified 1,989 children diagnosed with leukemia, lymphoma or CNS tumor during 1968-1991 in the Danish Cancer Registry and randomly selected 5,506 control children from the Danish population, matched on sex, age and calendar time. We traced residential history of all children from 9 months before birth to time of diagnosis, calculated outdoor benzene concentration at all addresses and summarized cumulative exposure over fetal and childhood periods separately. We used conditional logistic regression for the statistical analyses. Benzene exposure during childhood above the 90th percentile was associated with relative risks for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) of 1.0 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.6-1.7) and 1.9 (95% CI: 0.3-11.1), respectively, when compared with exposure levels below the median. For CNS tumors, there was a tendency of lower risk for ependymoma and higher risk for medulloblastoma in association with higher exposure. In conclusion, benzene was associated with higher risk for childhood AML, but not ALL, which is consistent with the few previous studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Linfoma/etiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA