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1.
Food Chem ; 350: 129276, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609937

RESUMO

Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with potential mutagenicity, toxicity and carcinogenicity, is ubiquitous in deep-fried foods. Herein, the changes in eight specific PAHs (PAH8) concentration in sunflower oil during frying were investigated by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS). PAH8 concentrations in sunflower oil were 23.92-27.82 µg kg-1 and increased with increasing frying time. The detected BaP levels were 3.64-4.00 µg kg-1, exceeding the upper limit (2 µg kg-1) set by European Union (EU), though below the limiting value (10 µg kg-1) in China. The interaction between BaP and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was explored through various spectroscopic methods and molecular docking. Melting studies, denaturation experiments, ionic strength effects and viscosity measurements indicated that BaP interacted with ctDNA primarily via groove binding as evidenced by circular dichroism analysis and molecular docking. Further gel electrophoresis assays suggested that DNA was damaged at high levels of BaP.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/química , Culinária , DNA/química , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Animais , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
2.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116358, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385892

RESUMO

Polyaromatic phenanthrene (Phe) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are highly toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic contaminants widely dispersed in nature, including saline environments. Polyextremotolerant Rhodotorula mucilaginosa EXF-1630, isolated from Arctic sea ice, was grown on a huge concentration range -10 to 500 ppm- of Phe and BaP as sole carbon sources at hypersaline conditions (1 M NaCl). Selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) supported growth as well as glucose, even at high PAH concentrations. Initially, up to 40% of Phe and BaP were adsorbed, followed by biodegradation, resulting in 80% removal in 10 days. While extracellular laccase, peroxidase, and un-specific peroxygenase activities were not detected, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity peaked at 4 days. The successful removal of PAHs and the absence of toxic metabolites were confirmed by toxicological tests on moss Physcomitrium patens, bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri, human erythrocytes, and pulmonary epithelial cells (A549). Metabolic profiles were determined at the midpoint of the biodegradation exponential phase, with added Phe and BaP (100 ppm) and 1 M NaCl. Different hydroxylated products were found in the culture medium, while the conjugative metabolite 1-phenanthryl-ß-D-glucopyranose was detected in the medium and in the cells. Transcriptome analysis resulted in 870 upregulated and 2,288 downregulated transcripts on PAHs, in comparison to glucose. Genomic mining of 61 available yeast genomes showed a widespread distribution of 31 xenobiotic degradation pathways in different yeast lineages. Two distributions with similar metabolic capacities included black yeasts and mainly members of the Sporidiobolaceae family (including EXF-1630), respectively. This is the first work describing a metabolic profile and transcriptomic analysis of PAH degradation by yeast.


Assuntos
Fenantrenos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , DNA Fúngico , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metaboloma , Rhodotorula
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111292, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919193

RESUMO

As a hydrophobic pollutant, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is difficult to be degraded by microbes due to its poor water solubility. To improve its water solubility, this study harvested a biosurfactant from swine wastewater. The role of the biosurfactant in BaP biodegradation in contaminated water and soil were investigated. The biodegradation kinetics of BaP in contaminated water and the improvement of soil properties were determined. Results showed that critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the biosurfactant was 46.8 mg/L. The biosurfactant has a high pH stability in range of 3-9 and a strong salt stability in NaCl concentration range of 0-20%. At concentrations of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 CMC, the biosurfactant increased BaP water solubility by 1.4, 2.6, 4.0, 5.2 and 6.6 times. BaP biodegradation in contaminated water was effectively promoted by the biosurfactant, and the concentrations of BaP in sludge phase decreased to 1.015 mg/L (47.9% decrement) and 0.675 mg/L (65.4% decrement) when the dosed biosurfactant were 1 and 3 CMC, respectively. The biodegradation kinetics of BaP in contaminated water by the biosurfactant fitted well with the two-compartment kinetic model well (R2 > 0.90). For the bioremediation of BaP contaminated soil, adding 0.1%-0.5% (w/w) biosurfactant biodegraded 39.2%-84.8% of BaP, while the control without biosurfactant was 24.2%. In addition, the application of the biosurfactant significantly improved the properties of the contaminated soil, behaved as the increase in microbial quantity, water holding capacity (WHC) and dehydrogenase (DH) activity of the soil. To sum up, the biosurfactant facilitated the BaP biodegradation and can be effectively used in in-site remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (BaP in this study) contaminated water and soil.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Tensoativos/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cinética , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Solubilidade , Tensoativos/metabolismo , Suínos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 209: 111807, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360291

RESUMO

In the present study, both gaseous and particulate (PM with dae <2.5 µm) phases of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in the ambient air of Hamadan city, Iran. For this reason, two low-volume samplers equipped with glass fiber filters were used for sampling of particulate phase (N = 30) and XAD-2 sorbent tubes were applied for sampling gaseous phase of PAHs (N = 30). The sampling was conducted during warm and cold seasons in 2019. The average of cold/warm season ratios for Σ16PAH and PM concentrations were 1.14 and 0.62, respectively. Summed PAHs concentration were determined to be in the range 0.008-59.46 (mean: 11.61) ng/m3 and 0.05-40.83 (mean: 10.22) ng/m3 for the cold and warm seasons, respectively. A negative Pearson correlation coefficient was obtained for wind speed and relative humidity. The average Benzo (a) Pyrene equivalent carcinogenic (BaPeq) levels in the cold season were lower than the maximum permissible risk level of 1 ng/m3 for BaP. The BaP toxicity equivalency (ΣBaPTEQ) and BaP mutagenicity equivalency (ΣBaPMEQ) appeared to be significantly higher in the cold season (averaging 0.35 and 1.65 ng/m3, respectively) than those in warm season. Health risk assessment was performed for children and adults based on BaPeq, inhalation cancer risk. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs concentration showed that the significant sources of PAH emissions may be related to light duty vehicles (LDVs) in Hamadan. Although, some other sources such as pyrogenic source and petrol combustion were also suggested.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Carcinógenos , Criança , Cidades , Carvão Mineral , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gases , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Mutagênicos , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Vento
5.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 49(286): 282-288, 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827427

RESUMO

The work discusses the occurrence of benzo (a) pyrene in atmospheric air and indoor air, as well as health threats caused by this environmental pollution. The results of research conducted worldwide and in Poland were referred to. Poland belongs to the European Union country, where high levels of benzo(a)pyrene are recorded in both atmospheric air and indoor air (residential houses) exceeding 1ng/m3. Considering the fact that this pollution is highly carcinogenic one should strive to reduce the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene in the air in Poland, recognizing and eliminating its sources. Installation of dedusting equipment in residential areas is possible but expensive. This creates an inequality in the access to fresh air in the rooms. The World Health Organization strongly promotes measures to reduce emissions of benzo(a)pyrene. On the other hand, extensive information campaigns should be carried out to make the public aware of the exposure, its sources and options of prevention.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Polônia
6.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115341, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854063

RESUMO

Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a hazardous compound for human health and for environmental compartments. Its transfer and deposition through the atmosphere affects soil quality. In this context, we quantified the content of BaP and other Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soils of a prominent Coal Region in Transition to test whether the soil screening levels in force are realistic and whether they reflect the complexity of regions closely linked to heavy industries and mining. In this regard, soil screening levels are thresholds often established without considering historical anthropogenic activities that affect soil (diffuse pollution). The 150 soil samples studied showed a notable content of high molecular weight PAHs, and BaP surpassed the threshold levels in practically the entire area. PAH-parent diagrams revealed a relatively homogenous fingerprint of four clusters obtained in a multivariate statistical study. In addition, molecular diagnostic ratios pointed to coal combustion as the main pollution source, whereas only some outliers appeared to be related to specific spills. A BaP threshold was calculated to be 0.24 mg kg-1, over 10 times the limit established in Spain. Finally, a factor analysis revealed a positive correlation of BaP with elements usually emitted in coal combustion processes, such as Tl and V. This observation fosters the hypothesis of a historical and indelible pollution fingerprint in soils whose sources, characteristics and potential environmental and health concerns deserve further attention. All things considered, caution should be taken when using soil screening levels in regions associated with coal exploitation and heavy industry.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Solo , Espanha
7.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127518, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650173

RESUMO

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) family is of environmental concern due to its toxicity, prompting the need of monitoring their long-term trends. Three monitoring programs in Hong Kong report concentrations of ambient PAHs, namely (1) respirable suspending particle (RSP) speciation program that monitored benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (1997 to March 2000), (2) total suspended particle speciation program that monitored BaP (1997-1999), and (3) toxic air pollutant monitoring program that monitors BaP and 16 other PAHs in the combined gas and particulate phases at two general urban stations once or twice a month since January 1998. In this work, we review all the available PAH measurements in Hong Kong during 1997-2016, with emphasis on the temporal trends of BaP and the other 16 PAHs. PAHs of 5-6 rings exhibit an ambiguous decline trend since 1998, with a negative Sen's slope that is statistically significant. Specifically, BaP was reduced by 78% from 1998 to 2016, with a Sen's slope of -0.013 ng m-3 year-1. Correlations of BaP with RSP major species of high source specificity and PAH diagnostic ratios are employed to explore the source origins of PAHs. Our analysis reveals that PAHs mainly come from a combination of vehicular emissions and biomass/coal combustion. The decline trend of PAHs is further found in consistence with the declined particulate matter emissions from vehicular exhaust and biomass/coal combustion. This study fills the data vacancy in the long-term trends of ambient PAHs for the Pearl River Delta region, one of the economically more advanced regions in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , China , Carvão Mineral/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hong Kong , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679725

RESUMO

Hercegovacki prsut as a traditional dry-cured smoked ham (prosciutto) produced by using an open fire that can be potentially contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and can pose a health risk for consumers. The aim of this research was to identify the types and concentrations of 16 PAHs in 34 samples of traditionally smoked prosciutto. Out of 16 investigated PAHs, identified in the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) list of priority pollutants, 14 compounds were detected. Average levels of cancerogenic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and PAH4 (benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), chrysene (Chry), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)) ranged from

Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Poluentes Ambientais , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Fumaça
9.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 3): 115243, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702605

RESUMO

In this study, biomonitoring of nursing Portuguese mothers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and assessment of potential health risks of their infants were performed through determination of 18 PAHs and 6 major metabolites (OH-PAHs) in breast milk. Concentrations of total PAHs ranged between 55.2 and 1119 ng/g fat, being naphthalene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, and phenanthrene the most abundant compounds (68.4% of ∑PAHs). Benzo(a)pyrene, known carcinogenic, was not detected. Total levels of OH-PAHs ranged from 6.66 to 455 ng/g fat with 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 1-hydroxynaphthalene and 1-hydroxyacenaphthene as major compounds (96% of ∑OH-PAHs). Concentrations of ∑PAHs and ∑OH-PAHs were strongly correlated between each other (r = 0.692; p ≤ 0.001) and moderately-to-strongly associated with individual compounds (0.203 < r < 0.841; p ≤ 0.001). The attained data suggest increased levels of PAHs in older nursing mothers (>30 years) and in those whose child had lower weight (up to 3.0 kg). Breast-fed infant presented a median PAHs daily intake of 1.41 µg/kg body weight (total benzo(a)pyrene equivalents of 0.0679 µg/kg) and were exposed to 0.024 µg/kg body weight of ∑PAH4 [benz(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(j)fluoranthene, and chrysene]. Although breast milk is a secure food for newborns, un-metabolized and metabolized PAHs should be included in biomonitoring surveillance studies during breastfeeding to prevent potential health risks for infants.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Idoso , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leite Humano/química , Mães
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427057

RESUMO

Embryos from the marine medaka fish Oryzias javanicus were treated with eight concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2, 5, 10, or 20 µg L--1) after they had been fertilized. Significant mortality and hatching delays were detected in embryos that had been exposed to 10 and 20 µg L-1 BaP for 4 weeks. The mortality rate after hatching was higher in the medaka that had been previously exposed to > 2 µg L-1 BaP. Significant elevations in intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde contents were measured and the mRNA expressions of the antioxidant defense system genes (gst, sod, cat, and gpx) increased in the embryos exposed to 10 and 20 µg L-1 BaP for 1 week. The hsp70, ahr, and cyp1a transcriptional responses were also significantly upregulated in the exposed groups after 1 week. The alterations to the in vivo parameters and molecular components suggested that waterborne BaP had a toxic effect on marine medaka embryos. Finally, fin defects, spinal curvature, and cardiac edema were highly induced when the embryos were exposed to > 5 µg L-1 BaP.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryzias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Oryzias/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(1): 103-106, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a method for determination of benzo[a]pyrene and to analysis of benzo[a]pyrene content in commercially available infant milk powder. METHODS: Firstly, infant milk powder was extracted with ether-petroleum ether(1∶1, V/V) under alkaline conditions, then saponified with 1. 5 mol/L potassium hydroxide ethanol solution. After purification by solid phase extraction column, it was separated on DB-EUPAH chromatographic column(20 m×0. 18 mm×0. 14 µm) and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and quantified using D_(12)-benzo[a]pyrene internal standard. RESULTS: When the benzo[a]pyrene in infant formula was spiked 0. 3, 1. 0, 5. 0 µg/kg, the average recoveries were 116. 7%、86. 0% and 96. 4%, respectively, and the relative standard deviations were 10. 5%、4. 2% and 4. 4%, respectively(n= 6). The limit of quantification was 0. 3 µg/kg, and the detection limit was 0. 1 µg/kg. A total of 40 domestic and imported infant milk powders sold in Hangzhou supermarkets were analyzed. The range of benzo[a]pyrene was <0. 1-0. 25 µg/kg, and the detection rate was 32. 5%. CONCLUSION: The method has the advantages of rapid operation, good purifying effect, sensitiveness and accuracy, and meets the requirements for detection of benzo[a]pyrene in infant milk powder. The investigation reveals that the benzo[a]pyrene content in the currently marketed infant milk powder is at a low level.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fórmulas Infantis/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Pós
12.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126223, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113098

RESUMO

Air quality in large cities has worsened in recent years as a consequence people's health is directly affected. Among the toxic compounds released to environmental air are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs (nitro-PAHs), and oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs). Performant methods to analyze these compounds is necessary to enable adequate monitoring of air quality. Thus, this manuscript presents the development of a highly sensitive method to analyze PAHs, nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs collected from ambient air (PM2.5) and the gas phase for a period of one year in the urban area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. PAHs and their derivatives were extracted by cold fiber solid phase microextraction (CF-SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The proposed method allows simultaneous analysis of 16 PAHs, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs, presenting very good limits of detection and quantification, as well as appropriate precision and recovery. The results obtained for the period of one year allowed different studies. The compounds collected simultaneously from gas and particulate phase showed that total concentration of 16 PAHs were higher in the gas phase than in the particulate. On the other hand, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs presented similar concentration in gas and particulate phases. The potential carcinogenicity of PAHs relative to benzo[a]pyrene showed benzo[a]pyrene equivalents of 0.49 ng m-3. The estimated risk of lifetime lung cancer was 5 × 10-5. Principal component analysis and diagnostic ratio was applied for source distribution indicating that burning of gasoline, diesel and biomass accounted for the PAHs profile in ambient air samples.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Brasil , Respiração Celular , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Gasolina/análise , Humanos , Nitratos/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Oxigênio/química , Material Particulado/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida
13.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(9): 2853-2863, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166521

RESUMO

The total mean ∑[Formula: see text] in samples were from 75.3 to 387.0 ng/g dry weight (d.w) and showed high value in black dry tea, followed by herbal, oolong, and green tea. The mean ∑[Formula: see text] (a combination of benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) values were 54.3 ng/g, 16.4 ng/g, 14.2 ng/g, and 6.6 ng/g for black, herbal, green, and oolong teas, respectively. Concentration for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was from 0.4 to 35.8 ng/g, and the BaP equivalent concentration values ranged from 0.3 to 48.1 ng/g. There was only 1 black tea sample that BaP concentration exceeded the maximum level according to European Union (EU) standards. Tea samples marketed in Vietnam showed insignificant difference with the samples from other origins by same analytical method. Black teas showed high PAHs contents in dry tea samples but the released percentage of sum of PAHs from tea-to-tea infusion was lower than that in other tea type samples. The released percentages of PAH4 from tea-to-tea infusion were 40.7, 15.4, and 1.9 for green, herbal, and black tea. High temperature in black tea manufacturing processes might reduce essential oil content in tea that might effect on the PAHs partially release into the infusion. Indeed, based on EU regulations, we may conclude that tea consumers are safe in risk of exposure to PAHs obtained from teas.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Chá/química , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Camellia sinensis/química , Crisenos/análise , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Fluorenos/análise , Humanos , Folhas de Planta/química , Medição de Risco/métodos , Chás de Ervas/análise , Vietnã
14.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(2): 185-192, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912187

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected and quantified in sediment and edible fish (Megalops atlanticus) from Caleta lagoon (Lagoon of Terminos, Mexico) in order to assess their potential health impact on consumers. Sum PAH concentrations in sediment and fish muscle tissues were dominated by high molecular weight PAH compound (46.4%-93.1%) relative to low molecular weight compounds (6.9%-42.9%). Contamination was associated with local industrial activities and urbanization. The effective range low (ERL: 4022 ng g-1) value were lower suggested adverse biological effect would be rarely observed. While the analysis of PAHs in muscle of M. atlanticus suggests a minimum impact to consumers according to the permitted limits of dibenzo (a, h) anthracene (10 ng g-1) and benzo [a] pyrene (0.1-1.2 µg kg-1). It is advisable to propose environmental strategies to mitigate future environmental damage in the ecosystem.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Ecossistema , Contaminação de Alimentos , México , Medição de Risco
15.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227508, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935242

RESUMO

Herein, the concentrations of food toxicants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), in salmon fillets smoke flavored with different smoking wood chips (oak, apple, bourbon soaked oak, cherry and hickory) and barbecuing were determined. Benzo[a]anthracene (up to 0.24 ng/g) and chrysene (0.22 ng/g) were determined in the raw salmon fillets. While ∑PAH8 (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) in the raw samples ranged between 0.44 and 0.46 ng/g, smoke flavoring increased the amount of ∑PAH8 and the amount varied between 0.47 and 0.73 ng/g. Salmon smoked flavored with bourbon soaked oak, cherry and hickory wood chips and barbecued showed significantly (P <0.05) lower contents of ∑PAH4 (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene) and ∑PAH8 compared to non-smoke flavored barbecued samples. Additionally, smoke flavoring with apple, bourbon soaked oak, and cherry wood chips significantly (P <0.05) reduced the total HAA contents in barbecued salmon. A remarkable result was that the bourbon-soaked oak and cherry wood chips had inhibitory effects on both PAH and HAA contents. In sum, barbecued non-smoke flavored and smoke flavored salmon with different wood chips could be considered safe from the perspective of the detected amounts of PAHs and HAAs in salmon fillets.


Assuntos
Aminas/análise , Aromatizantes/análise , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Crisenos/análise , Fluorenos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Salmão , Fumaça , Madeira/química
16.
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill ; 13(2): 82-87, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937193

RESUMO

The traditional smoking procedure, which is the use of open fire, can lead to the formation of PAHs in sausages. The aim of this paper was to assess the types and concentrations of 16 PAHs in 30 samples of Slavonska kobasica, a traditional smoked sausage. In general, some samples showed high values of anthracene and acenaphthylene. In one sample, acenaphthylene reached the value of 1050 µg/kg and in another 1491 µg/kg anthracene was measured. Cancerogenic benzo(a)pyrene content was little above the maximum limit of 5 µg/kg in four samples, but mainly remained below the limit of quantification. PAH4 (i.c. benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene) were above the maximum limit of 30 µg/kg in three samples. Generally, it can be noted from the results that samples with high PAH4 and benzo(a)pyrene concentrations also have high PAH16 concentrations.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Animais , Antracenos/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Crisenos/análise , Fluorenos/análise , Suínos
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110135, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901537

RESUMO

In the study, first-time personal exposure level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was measured during cooking hours in participants of three different types of kitchen both in the particulate and gaseous phase using traditional and improved cookstoves. Along with that, indoor particulate matter (PM) concentration was also estimated during the cooking hours to examine the impact of intervention in different kitchens. The results of the study clearly revealed that the kitchen characteristics and type of cookstove technology have a significant impact on PM2.5, PM1 and PAHs concentration. Cookstoves intervention has resulted in maximum reduction of PM1 i.e. 75% in an enclosed kitchen followed by semi-enclosed and open kitchen having 71% and 52%, respectively. In addition, correlation analysis of PM2.5 and PM1 with PAHs showed a strong association (r2 = 0.9), showing the affinity of PAHs to bind to fine range of particles. Health risk assessment was also carried out to assess the PM daily dose and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk due to inhalation of PAHs. The study confirmed the personal concentration of PAHs compounds was significantly high (p < 0.05) during use of traditional cookstove compared to improved cookstove among all the three kitchens. Furthermore, to measure the toxicity levels, PAHs concentrations have been converted to benzo[a]pyrene equivalence for calculating cancer and non-cancer effects using toxicity equivalency factors. The overall lifetime carcinogenic risk was the highest 2.5E-03, 6.4E-04 among women who prepared meals in the enclosed kitchen compared to 8.4E-04, 1.3E-04 in semi-enclosed and 2.2E-04, 4.6E-05 in the open kitchen during use of traditional and improved cookstoves, respectively, which exceeded the US EPA standard i.e. 1 × 10-6. The study underlined the importance of personal monitoring for exposure, and risks-based studies along with the time-activity of user to measure the actual inhalation risk for the participants. These findings indicated that women are exposed to hazardous smoke in the indoor kitchen and are at greater risk of developing cancer, especially in rural areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Carvão Mineral/análise , Culinária , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Gases/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
18.
Chemosphere ; 245: 125547, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864950

RESUMO

Pot-culture experiments were conducted to investigate the potential of microorganism-saponin assisted phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd) and benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) co-contaminated soil using Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. Results showed that B[a]P-degrading bacterium (Ochrobactrum intermedium B[a]P-16) inoculation significantly increased root (by 22.1-24.1%) and shoot (by 20.5-23.4%) biomass of S. alfredii, whereas the application of saponin had no effect on the growth of S. alfredii. The saponin solution at 2 g L-1 extracted more Cd and B[a]P than water, saponin enhanced Cd and B[a]P bioavailability in soil and thus promoted their uptake and accumulation in S. alfredii. The activity of B[a]P-16, dehydrogenase and polyphenol oxidase in co-contaminated soil was promoted by growing S. alfredii, and the application of B[a]P-16 and saponins caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in both enzyme activities. The maximum B[a]P removal rate (82.0%) and Cd phytoextraction rate (19.5%) were obtained by co-application of S. alfredii with B[a]P-16 and saponin. The B[a]P-16 and plant promoted biodegradation were the predominant contributors towards removal of B[a]P from soil. A significant (P < 0.05) synergistic effect of B[a]P-16 and saponin on B[a]P and Cd removal efficiency was observed in this study. It is suggested that planting S. alfredii with application of B[a]P-16 and saponin would be an effective method for phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with Cd and PAHs.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Sedum/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Biomassa , Cádmio/análise , Ochrobactrum/fisiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Saponinas/metabolismo , Sedum/microbiologia , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
19.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 61(2): 216-223, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569280

RESUMO

DNA adducts of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) play a critical role in the etiology of gastrointestinal tract cancers in humans and other species orally exposed to PAHs. Yet, the precise localization of PAH-DNA adducts in the gastrointestinal tract, and the long-term postmortem PAH-DNA adduct stability are unknown. To address these issues, the following experiment was performed. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with the PAH carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and euthanized at 24 h. Tissues were harvested either at euthanasia (0 time), or after 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 168 hr (7 days) of storage at 4°C. Portions of mouse tissues were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and immunohistochemically (IHC) evaluated by incubation with r7,t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE)-DNA antiserum and H-scoring. The remaining tissues were frozen, and DNA was extracted and assayed for the r7,t8,t9-trihydroxy-c-10-(N 2 -deoxyguanosyl)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPdG) adduct using two quantitative assays, the BPDE-DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA), and high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ES-MS/MS). By IHC, which required intact nuclei, BPdG adducts were visualized in forestomach basal cells, which included gastric stem cells, for up to 7 days. In proximal small intestine villus epithelium BPdG adducts were visualized for up to 12 hr. By BPDE-DNA CIA and HPLC-ES-MS/MS, both of which used DNA for analysis and correlated well (P= 0.0001), BPdG adducts were unchanged in small intestine, forestomach, and lung stored at 4°C for up to 7 days postmortem. In addition to localization of BPdG adducts, this study reveals the feasibility of examining PAH-DNA adduct formation in wildlife species living in colder climates. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 61:216-223, 2020. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Carcinógenos Ambientais/análise , Adutos de DNA/análise , Animais , Benzo(a)pireno/administração & dosagem , Carcinógenos Ambientais/administração & dosagem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Adutos de DNA/administração & dosagem , Intestino Delgado/química , Medições Luminescentes , Masculino , Camundongos , Estômago/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Distribuição Tecidual
20.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125150, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671302

RESUMO

The paper presents the results of a study of the content of 12 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the snow cover of the city of Ivanovo (Russian Federation). It is shown that their average content exceeds the background level by 6.6 times, which made it possible to identify for which compounds the admission channels are associated with transboundary transport (naphthalene, pyrene, benz [b]fluorantin, benzo [a]pyrene and dibenz [a,h]anthracene), and for which with local emission sources (anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, chrysene, benz [k]fluorantin, and benzo [g,h,i]perylene). According to the known indicator ratios of the concentrations of PAHs, the main sources of release (pyrogenic and mixed) PAHs into the environment were estimated. The combination of experimental data in combination with factor analysis allowed identifying priority PAHs (naphthalene, fluoren, fluoranthene, benzo [a]pyrene and benzo [g,h,i]perylene), which should be included in the environmental monitoring programs of the region. Environmental risk assessments are given, which showed that the level of pollutant does not always adequately reflect the environmental impact for the territories. Thus, the contribution to the total PAH concentration of benz [b]fluorantin is only 9%, and to the amount of environmental risk - 51%. This must be taken into account in order to prioritize the control of individual components of PAHs in environmental objects.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Neve/química , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Crisenos , Fluorenos , Medição de Risco , Federação Russa
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