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1.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1199-1206, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999198

RESUMO

Potential risks to the fetus or infant should be considered prior to medication during pregnancy and lactation. It is essential to evaluate the exposure levels of drugs and their related factors in addition to toxicological effects. Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological complications in pregnancy; some women continue to use antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) to control seizures. Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are widely prescribed for several women who experience symptoms such as anxiety and insomnia during the postpartum period. In this review, we describe the 1) transport mechanisms of AEDs across the placenta and the effects of these drugs on placental transporters, and 2) the transfer of BZDs into breast milk. Our findings indicated that carrier systems were involved in the uptake of gabapentin (GBP) and lamotrigine (LTG) in placental trophoblast cell lines. SLC7A5 was the main contributor to GBP transport in placental cells. LTG was transported by a carrier that was sensitive to chloroquine, imipramine, quinidine, and verapamil. Short-term exposure to 16 AEDs had no effect on folic acid uptake in placental cells. However, long-term exposure to valproic acid (VPA) affected the expression of folate carriers (FOLR1, SLC46A1). Furthermore, VPA administration changed the expression levels of various transporters in rat placenta, suggesting that sensitivity to VPA differed across gestational stages. Lastly, we developed a method for quantifying eight BZDs in human breast milk and plasma using LC/MS/MS, and successfully applied it to quantify alprazolam in breast milk and plasma donated by a lactating woman.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/metabolismo , Benzodiazepinas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/genética , Aleitamento Materno , Gabapentina/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo , Lamotrigina/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Aminoácidos Neutros Grandes/fisiologia , Troca Materno-Fetal , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Ácido Valproico/metabolismo , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Receptor 1 de Folato/genética , Receptor 1 de Folato/metabolismo , Gabapentina/efeitos adversos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lamotrigina/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Transportador de Folato Acoplado a Próton/genética , Transportador de Folato Acoplado a Próton/metabolismo , Ácido Valproico/efeitos adversos
2.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(7): 998-1001, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To discuss the role of the benzodiazepine class in delirium patient management. METHODS Using the PubMed database, articles were reviewed after the year 2000 containing in their title the words 'delirium' and 'benzodiazepines'. DISCUSSION Delirium is an acute confusional state that leads to altered attention, awareness, and cognition. It presents with some well-established risk factors, especially older individuals with cognitive decline. There is currently no definite consensus regarding its pathophysiology, nor regarding pharmacological measures, especially concerning the benzodiazepine class. CONCLUSION Evidence suggests that there may be a role for the use of pharmacological class in the treatment of this condition, indicating a change in the previously paradigmatic pattern of treatment.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas , Delírio , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Cognição , Delírio/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
3.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago 25, 2020. 28 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117908

RESUMO

En el transcurso de la pandemia de COVID-19, numerosos países, de ingresos bajos, medianos y alto, han visto agotadas sus reservas de medicamentos esenciales necesarios para el manejo de los pacientes con COVID-19 en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI). El plan de preparación para emergencias sanitarias de los países requiere incluir una lista de medicamentos esenciales y otros dispositivos médicos necesarios en las UCI para afrontar emergencias sanitarias. La lista de medicamentos esenciales para el manejo de pacientes que ingresan a unidades de cuidados intensivos con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19 es un documento de orientación fundamental que ayuda a los sistemas de salud de los países a priorizar los medicamentos esenciales que deben estar ampliamente disponibles y ser asequibles para manejar los pacientes en las UCI durante las situaciones de emergencia sanitaria, en este caso con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. Está dirigida a las autoridades sanitaras y a los encargados del manejo del sistema de salud de los países. Esta lista incluye fundamentalmente los medicamentos considerados esenciales para el manejo de los cuadros clínicos que con se observan con mayor frecuencia en pacientes hospitalizados en UCI a causa de una infección por SARS-CoV-2. No se incluyen la mayoría de los medicamentos que comúnmente se encuentran en las UCI para el manejo de otras patologías, comorbilidades o la estabilización del paciente (p. ej., insulina o antihipertensivos), salvo aquellos que pueden requerirse para el tratamiento o apoyo (p. ej., bloqueantes neuromusculares o anestésicos) de las dolencias generadas por la infección. Tampoco se incluyen medicamentos específicos para el tratamiento de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, puesto que no existe, por el momento, evidencia científica de alta calidad que avale su uso, salvo en el contexto de ensayos clínicos controlados. Un equipo de expertos en el tema realizó una búsqueda de información sobre la atención de pacientes en UCI durante la pandemia de COVID-19, en Medline (a través de PubMed), Cochrane, Tripdatabase, Epistemonikos y en buscadores generales de internet (Google). Se identificaron también revisiones o guías generadas por ministerios de Salud de varios países de la Región de las Américas, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), el Instituto Nacional de Salud y Excelencia Clínica (NICE) de Reino Unido, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC) de Estados Unidos y los Institutos Nacionales de Salud (NIH) de Estados Unidos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adulto , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Succinilcolina/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/organização & administração , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Antipiréticos/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/enfermagem , Choque Séptico/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Intubação/enfermagem , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e1610, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report the prevalence and factors associated with the use of benzodiazepines in the general population and those with a mental health condition in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 5,037 individuals from the Sao Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey data were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, designed to generate DSM-IV diagnoses. Additionally, participants were asked if they had taken any medication in the previous 12 months for the treatment of any mental health condition. RESULTS: The prevalence of benzodiazepine use ranged from 3.6% in the general population to 7.8% among subjects with a mental health condition. Benzodiazepine use was more prevalent in subjects that had been diagnosed with a mood disorder as opposed to an anxiety disorder (14.7% vs. 8.1%, respectively). Subjects that had been diagnosed with a panic disorder (33.7%) or bipolar I/II (23.3%) reported the highest use. Individuals aged ≥50 years (11.1%), those with two or more disorders (11.2%), those with moderate or severe disorders (10%), and those that used psychiatric services (29.8%) also reported higher use. CONCLUSION: These findings give an overview of the use of benzodiazepines in the general population, which will be useful in the public health domain. Benzodiazepine use was higher in those with a mental health condition, with people that had a mood disorder being the most vulnerable. Furthermore, females and the elderly had high benzodiazepine use, so careful management in these groups is required.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678526

RESUMO

The Psychiatric Consultation Service at Massachusetts General Hospital sees medical and surgical inpatients with comorbid psychiatric symptoms and conditions. During their twice-weekly rounds, Dr Stern and other members of the Consultation Service discuss diagnosis and management of hospitalized patients with complex medical or surgical problems who also demonstrate psychiatric symptoms or conditions. These discussions have given rise to rounds reports that will prove useful for clinicians practicing at the interface of medicine and psychiatry.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Desprescrições , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Delírio do Despertar/diagnóstico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Delírio do Despertar/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Exame Neurológico , Pandemias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Propofol/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/terapia
7.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(4): 681-694, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505260

RESUMO

Alcohol use is a common social and recreational activity in our society. Misuse of alcohol can lead to significant medical comorbidities that can affect essentially every organ system and lead to high health care costs and utilization. Heavy alcohol use across the spectrum from binge drinking and intoxication to chronic alcohol use disorder can lead to high morbidity and mortality both in the long and short term. Recognizing and treating common neurologic, gastrointestinal, and hematological manifestations of excess alcohol intake are essential for those who care for hospitalized patients. Withdrawal is among the most common and dangerous sequela associated with alcohol use disorder.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/economia , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/economia , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Gabapentina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(6): 491-496, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475142

RESUMO

Six articles in the June 2020 issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry address the overall construct of cognition. These articles have a broad connection to cognition, which is itself a broad concept. From the experimental psychology perspective, cognition is the set of processes associated with attending, learning, knowing, and remembering. From the clinical perspective, a number of neuropsychiatric conditions are defined by the presence of cognitive impairment, with onset ranging from childhood, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual disability, to later life, such as dementia. Other conditions have notable cognitive impairments even if specific cognitive impairments are not an explicit part of their formal diagnostic criteria, including autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Thus, the array of articles in this issue are related to each other and also may make important points about the role of cognition in everyday functioning and the connections between cognitive impairments in neuropsychiatric conditions and in the human population in general. Further, these articles address the neurobiological substrates that have an impact on cognition, with important implications in other domains, such as genomics. Finally, through sophisticated research methods, they clarify the results of previous studies that were affected by a variety of methodological challenges.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Cognição , Demência/epidemiologia , Sono , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(4): 506-511, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530890

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anaesthesia and sedation are ubiquitous in contemporary medical practice. Developments in anaesthetic pharmacology are targeted on reducing physiological disturbance whilst maintaining or improving titrateability, recovery profile and patient experience. Remimazolam is a new short-acting benzodiazepine in the final stages of clinical development. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical experience with remimazolam comprises volunteer studies and a limited number of clinical investigations. In addition, laboratory investigations explore the implications of its 'soft drug' pharmacology. SUMMARY: Remimazolam provides effective procedural sedation with superior success rates and recovery profile when compared to midazolam. Comparisons with propofol are required. Preliminary studies suggest potential for using remimazolam as the hypnotic component of general anaesthesia. Definitive studies are awaited. As a benzodiazepine, remimazolam could be evaluated as an anticonvulsant and for intensive care sedation.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas/farmacologia , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Sedação Consciente , Humanos , Midazolam , Propofol
12.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed to treat anxiety disorders and have been associated with falls and fractures in older adults. It is unknown whether benzodiazepines increase fracture risk in youth. We examined whether youth with anxiety disorders initiating benzodiazepine treatment have an increased risk of fractures compared with youth initiating selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). METHODS: We used claims from commercially insured children (6-17 years) and young adults (18-24) with a recent anxiety disorder diagnosis, initiating benzodiazepines or SSRIs (2008-2016). Youth were followed until fracture, treatment discontinuation or switching, disenrollment, 3 months, or December 31, 2016. The primary end point was diagnostic codes for upper and lower limb fractures. Incident fracture rates, incident rate ratios (IRRs), and incident rate differences (IRDs) were estimated with propensity score inverse probability of treatment weighting. RESULTS: The cohort included 120 715 children and 179 768 young adults. In children, crude fracture rates during treatment were 33.1 per 1000 person-years (PYs) for benzodiazepine initiators and 25.1 per 1000 PYs for SSRI initiators. Adjusted IRR and IRD were 1.53 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-2.50) and 13.4 per 1000 PYs. Risk was heightened in children initiating long-acting benzodiazepines versus SSRIs (adjusted IRR = 2.30 [95% CI: 1.08-4.91]). Fracture rates were lower in young adults, with minimal differences between treatments (adjusted IRR = 0.85 [95% CI: 0.57-1.27]; adjusted IRD = -1.3 per 1000 PYs). CONCLUSIONS: An increased rate of fractures in children, but not young adults, with anxiety disorders initiating benzodiazepine treatment compared to SSRI treatment suggests a need for increased caution in the weeks after benzodiazepine initiation in children.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Fraturas Ósseas/induzido quimicamente , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200029, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines are the most widely used psychoactive drugs, despite the risks associated with their prolonged use, especially among older adults. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of benzodiazepines among community-dwelling people aged ≥ 75 years. METHODS: The study was conducted among members of the baseline (in 1997) and survivors (in 2012) of the Bambuí Project cohort. The prevalence of benzodiazepine use was estimated separately for each year, and the comparison between them was performed using the Poisson regression model with robust variance. RESULTS: The prevalence of benzodiazepine use was higher in 2012 (33.9%) compared to 1997 (24.9%). After multiple adjustments, the difference in prevalence did not remain significant in study population (PR = 1.25; 95%CI 0.99 - 1.60), unlike that observed in the female stratum (PR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.84). Clonazepam was the strongest-growing drug between the two years (PR = 4.94; 95%CI 2.54 - 9.62). CONCLUSION: This study showed an important increase in benzodiazepine use in an older adult population. These results are concerning as these drugs are contraindicated for use in older adults, mainly if used chronically, and are available in the national list of essential medicines. Health professionals should be aware of the risks involved in its use regarding this population.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(6): 497-505, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252539

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Benzodiazepines and Z-drugs are two of the most prescribed agents worldwide. However, because of their cognitive side effects, the question of their influence on the risk of dementia has been raised. The authors examined the association of benzodiazepines, Z-drugs, and other anxiolytics with incident dementia in patients with affective disorders. METHODS: The authors conducted a cohort and nested case-control study of 235,465 patients over age 20 who were identified in the Danish National Patient Registry as having had a first-time hospital contact for an affective disorder between 1996 and 2015. From the Danish National Prescription Registry, information was obtained on all prescriptions for benzodiazepines, Z-drugs, and other anxiolytics, and patients were followed for incident dementia (defined by hospital discharge diagnosis or acetylcholinesterase inhibitor use). Cox proportional hazards and conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios and odds ratios with adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical variables. RESULTS: A total of 75.9% (N=171,287) of patients had any use of benzodiazepines or Z-drugs, and during the median follow-up of 6.1 years (interquartile range, 2.7-11), 9,776 (4.2%) patients were diagnosed with dementia. Any use of benzodiazepines or Z-drugs showed no association with dementia after multiple adjustments in either the cohort analysis or a nested case-control design. In the cohort analysis, the number of prescriptions and the cumulated dose of benzodiazepines or Z-drugs at baseline were not associated with dementia. In the nested case-control study, where prescriptions were counted from 1995 until 2 years before the index date, there was a slightly higher odds ratio of dementia in patients with the lowest use of benzodiazepines or Z-drugs (odds ratio=1.08, 95% CI=1.01, 1.15) compared with no lifetime use. However, patients with the highest use had the lowest odds of developing dementia (odds ratio=0.83, 95% CI=0.77, 0.88). CONCLUSIONS: This large cohort study did not reveal associations between use of benzodiazepines or Z-drugs and subsequent dementia, even when exposures were cumulated or divided into long- and short-acting drugs. Some results were compatible with a protective effect.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Azabicíclicos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Diazepam/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Oxazepam/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco
16.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(16): 960-968, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the management of travel fatigue and jet lag in athlete populations by evaluating studies that have applied non-pharmacological interventions (exercise, sleep, light and nutrition), and pharmacological interventions (melatonin, sedatives, stimulants, melatonin analogues, glucocorticoids and antihistamines) following long-haul transmeridian travel-based, or laboratory-based circadian system phase-shifts. DESIGN: Systematic review Eligibility criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and non-RCTs including experimental studies and observational studies, exploring interventions to manage travel fatigue and jet lag involving actual travel-based or laboratory-based phase-shifts. Studies included participants who were athletes, except for interventions rendering no athlete studies, then the search was expanded to include studies on healthy populations. DATA SOURCES: Electronic searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Google Scholar and SPORTDiscus from inception to March 2019. We assessed included articles for risk of bias, methodological quality, level of evidence and quality of evidence. RESULTS: Twenty-two articles were included: 8 non-RCTs and 14 RCTs. No relevant travel fatigue papers were found. For jet lag, only 12 athlete-specific studies were available (six non-RCTs, six RCTs). In total (athletes and healthy populations), 11 non-pharmacological studies (participants 600; intervention group 290; four non-RCTs, seven RCTs) and 11 pharmacological studies (participants 1202; intervention group 870; four non-RCTs, seven RCTs) were included. For non-pharmacological interventions, seven studies across interventions related to actual travel and four to simulated travel. For pharmacological interventions, eight studies were based on actual travel and three on simulated travel. CONCLUSIONS: We found no literature pertaining to the management of travel fatigue. Evidence for the successful management of jet lag in athletes was of low quality. More field-based studies specifically on athlete populations are required with a multifaceted approach, better design and implementation to draw valid conclusions. PROSPERO registration number The protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO: CRD42019126852).


Assuntos
Síndrome do Jet Lag/terapia , Esportes , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Ritmo Circadiano , Terapia por Exercício , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Jet Lag/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Jet Lag/fisiopatologia , Luz , Refeições , Melatonina/análogos & derivados , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Sono , Promotores da Vigília/uso terapêutico
17.
J Clin Neurosci ; 75: 242-244, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249176

RESUMO

In the absence of pathogenesis-targeted therapy in most types of primary dystonia, the current management strategy is largely symptomatic. Our aim was to comparatively evaluate the patients' perception of symptomatic benefits with the medical treatment of primary dystonia. We reviewed the medical records of 206 patients who received medical treatment upon diagnosis of primary dystonia. The patients were prescribed five different dystonia medications: clonazepam, trihexyphenidyl, nortriptyline, baclofen, and levodopa. Patients tried one type of medicine during each following week and whether each medication was beneficial was recorded in a binary fashion. Subgroups analysis was performed according to the body distribution, duration, ages at onset and treatment of dystonia. A total of 172 patients were included in the analysis. The majority (84%) had focal dystonia, most frequently cervical dystonia and blepharospasm. Clonazepam received the most favorable response (40%), followed by baclofen (20%) and trihexyphenidyl (20%). Patients with focal limb dystonia gave higher rate of positive responses to levodopa (24%) compared to other focal dystonia subgroups. Clonazepam, followed by baclofen and trihexyphenidyl is a useful pharmacologic option for primary dystonia. Levodopa can be considered for isolated limb dystonia.


Assuntos
Distúrbios Distônicos/diagnóstico , Distúrbios Distônicos/tratamento farmacológico , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Baclofeno/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Resultado do Tratamento , Triexifenidil/uso terapêutico
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