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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228817, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032382

RESUMO

Abamectin is a common biocide used to control agricultural insect pests. However, the water insolubility of abamectin may result in extra organic solvent introduced in the environment. To solve this issue, it is desirable to develop nanoformulations to encapsulate abamectin with environment-friendly polymers. In this study, two polylactic acid based abamectin nanoformulations were prepared. The average particle sizes, measured by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope, were 240 nm and 150 nm, respectively. The insecticidal activity of these nano-formulated abamectin was examined in the laboratory on the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The acute toxicity of nano-formulated abamectin on non-target aphid predator Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was also evaluated by topical, residual and oral exposure. The two nano-formulated abamectin had comparable insecticidal effect with commercial abamectin formulation against the pea aphid. Taking median lethal concentration (LC50) as the toxicological endpoint, nanoformulations had higher contact toxicity and lower oral toxicity to first-instar larvae of the predator A. bipunctata. These results are expected to contribute to the application of solvent-free nano-formulated pesticides that comply with the integrated pest management (IPM) strategies.


Assuntos
Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Nanoestruturas/química , Poliésteres/química , Animais , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Composição de Medicamentos , Inseticidas/química , Ivermectina/química , Ivermectina/toxicidade , Dose Letal Mediana , Tamanho da Partícula
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 192: 110292, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035396

RESUMO

The ladybeetle Propylea japonica is a widely distributed natural enemy in many agricultural systems. P. japonica is often used as a test organism for safety assessments of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis crops. Plant varieties expressing the Vip3Aa insecticidal protein are not currently commercially available in China. In this study, protease inhibitor E-64 was used as a positive control to examine the responses of P. japonica larvae to a high concentration of Vip3Aa proteins. Larvae that were fed E-64 had increased mortality and prolonged developmental period, but these parameters were unaffected when larvae were fed Vip3Aa. The epithelial cells of midguts were intact and closely connected with the basal membrane when larvae were fed Vip3Aa, but the epithelial cells degenerated in the E-64 treatment. The activities of antioxidative enzymes and expression levels of detoxification-related genes in P. japonica larvae were not altered after exposure to Vip3Aa; however, these biochemical and molecular parameters were significantly changed in the E-64 treatment. The results demonstrate that Vip3Aa protein is not harmful to the predator P. japonica.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/toxicidade , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Animais , China , Besouros/genética , Besouros/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/enzimologia , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo
3.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(3): e21630, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621115

RESUMO

The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) is a major agricultural pest of solanaceous crops. An effective management strategy employed by agricultural producers to control this pest species is the use of systemic insecticides. Recent emphasis has been placed on the use of neonicotinoid insecticides. Despite efforts to curb resistance development through integrated pest management approaches, resistance to neonicotinoids in L. decemlineata populations continues to increase. One contributing factor may be alterations in insect fatty acids, which have multiple metabolic functions and are associated with the synthesis of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes to mitigate the effects of insecticide exposure. In this study, we analyzed the fatty acid composition of L. decemlineata populations collected from an organic production field and from a commercially managed field to determine if fatty acid composition varied between the two populations. We demonstrate that a population of L. decemlineata that has a history of systemic neonicotinoid exposure (commercially managed) has a different lipid composition and differential expression of known metabolic detoxification mechanisms relative to a population that has not been exposed to neonicotinoids (organically managed). The fatty acid data indicated an upregulation of Δ6 desaturase in the commercially managed L. decemlineata population and suggest a role for eicosanoids and associated metabolic enzymes as potential modulators of insecticide resistance. We further observed a pattern of delayed emergence within the commercially managed population compared with the organically managed population. Variations in emergence timing together with specific fatty acid regulation may significantly influence the capacity of L. decemlineata to develop insecticide resistance.


Assuntos
Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Animais , Besouros/enzimologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia
4.
Bull Entomol Res ; 110(2): 195-200, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571556

RESUMO

Dung-colonizing beetles provide a range of ecosystem services in farmland pasture systems. However, such beetles are declining in Northern temperate regions. This may, in part, be due to the widespread use of macrocyclic lactones (MLs) and synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) in livestock farming. These chemicals are used to control pests and parasites of cattle; the residues of which are excreted in dung at concentrations toxic to insects. While the lethal effects of such residues are well known, sublethal effects are less understood. Any effects, however, may have important consequences for beetle populations, particularly if they affect reproduction. To investigate, the impact of ML and SP exposure on the reproductive output of Onthophagus similis (Scriba), a Northern temperate dung beetle species, was examined. In laboratory trials, field-collected adult O. similis exposed to the ML ivermectin at 1 ppm (wet weight) over a period of 3 weeks had smaller oocytes (p = 0.016), smaller fat bodies and reduced motility compared to the control. In a farm-level investigation, cattle dung-baited pitfall trapping was undertaken on 23 beef cattle farms in SW England, which either used MLs (n = 9), SPs (n = 7) or neither chemical (n = 7). On farms that used no MLs or SPs, 24.2% of females caught were gravid. However, on farms that used MLs no gravid females were caught, and only 1% of the beetles caught on farms using SPs were gravid (p < 0.001). The association between ML and SP use and impaired reproductive output suggests that the use of such chemicals is likely to be ecologically damaging.


Assuntos
Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Ivermectina/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Bull Entomol Res ; 110(1): 106-114, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190655

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of the antiparasitic drug ivermectin on the dung beetles Copris acutidens Motschulsky, Onthophagus bivertex Heyden, O. lenzii Harold and Phelotrupes auratus auratus Motschulsky in Japan. Ivermectin was detected in cattle dung from 1 to 3 or 7 days post-treatment, with a peak at 3 days post-treatment in two pour-on administrations (500 µg kg-1). In C. acutidens, adult survivals and numbers of brood balls were significantly reduced in dung collected at 3 and 7 days post-treatment, and adult emergence rates were significantly decreased in dung collected at 7 and 14 days post-treatment. Feeding activity of C. acutidens was inhibited in dung collected at 3 days post-treatment, but was not significantly different from that seen in control dung at 7 and 14 days post-treatment. In O. bivertex and O. lenzii, there were no effects of ivermectin on adult survival or feeding activities, but the numbers of brood balls of O. bivertex constructed in dung collected at 3 and 7 days post-treatment were significantly lower than observed with control dung. The adult emergence rates of O. bivertex and O. lenzii were significantly reduced in dung collected at 1 to 3 and 1 to 7 days post-treatment, respectively. In P. auratus, there were no effects of ivermectin on adult survival, oviposition, feeding activity, or larval survival (until the third instar) in dung at 3 days post-treatment. The environmental risks affecting the populations of dung beetles in Japan are discussed.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/toxicidade , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Ivermectina/toxicidade , Animais , Antiparasitários/análise , Fezes/química , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Ivermectina/análise , Masculino , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(4): 4178-4189, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828706

RESUMO

As for developing effective integrated pest management (IPM), it is necessary to understand the sublethal effects of common insecticides on the non-target beneficial arthropods. In this lab-scale study, the sublethal effects of two anthranilic diamide insecticides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole on the populations of 7-spot ladybird Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were determined and compared using an age-stage, TWO-SEX life table and CONSUME-MSChart computer program. Cyantraniliprole at low-lethal concentrations of 1 and 10 mg L-1 significantly prolonged the larval stages and reduced the total adult longevity, compared with the control. Additionally, the net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and mean generation time (T) were significantly reduced in the group treated with 10 mg L-1 of cyantraniliprole. Similarly, the net predation (C0), the finite predation rate (ω), and stable predation rate (ψ) were significantly reduced by cyantraniliprole at 1 and 10 mg L-1. In contrast, no significant difference in the demographic parameters above was determined for chlorantraniliprole at 1 mg L-1. Therefore, C. septempunctata population may develop faster and possess greater predation potential against aphids under the exposure of chlorantraniliprole, compared to cyantraniliprole. Chlorantraniliprole may be a preference to cyantraniliprole as a combined alternative with ladybeetle predators in IPM framework.


Assuntos
Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Predatório , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , ortoaminobenzoatos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Afídeos , Larva
7.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(1): e21642, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667890

RESUMO

The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata [Say]) is an insect pest that can significantly harm potato plants worldwide. Control of this insect relies heavily on chemical insecticides such as chlorantraniliprole. Nevertheless, the complete molecular signature associated with response to this compound is lacking in L. decemlineata. In this study, amplification and quantification by qRT-PCR (quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) of targets relevant to chlorantraniliprole were undertaken in insects exposed to this chemical. This approach showed modulation of numerous cytochrome P450s, such as CYP350D1 and CYP4Q3, as well as upregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-1-3p and miR-305-5p, in chlorantraniliprole-exposed insects. Functional assessment of transcript targets predicted to be regulated by these miRNAs was performed and revealed their likely impact on transcriptional regulation. RNAi-based targeting of CYP350D1 notably provided preliminary evidence of its underlying implication for chlorantraniliprole response in L. decemlineata. Overall, this study strengthens the current knowledge of the molecular changes linked to chlorantraniliprole response in L. decemlineata and provides novel targets with potential relevance to chlorantraniliprole susceptibility in this insect pest of global relevance.


Assuntos
Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Besouros/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , ortoaminobenzoatos/farmacologia , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109849, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677571

RESUMO

Harmonia axyridis is an important predator of several pest species and is part of many Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. To assess the risks of pesticide application to H. axyridis, we studied the effects of sulfoxaflor on H. axyridis larvae. At 72 h after treatment, the acute toxicity LR50 was 311.9476 g a. i. ha-1 by the residual contact method. This result indicated low-contact toxicity against second-instar H. axyridis larvae. The LR50 of the F1 generation decreased from 69.96 to 36.41 g a. i. ha-1 in a long-term toxicity test. The daily hazard quotient (HQ) for H. axyridis larvae lowered the safety threshold value in the first 5 d. However, the HQ values were greater than 2 during days 6-18 after sulfoxaflor treatments. We determined the No Observed Effect Application Rates of sulfoxaflor on the survival (<11.25 g a. i. ha-1), duration of larval and pupal stages (45 g a. i. ha-1), adult stage (90 g a. i. ha-1), total pre-oviposition period, adult pre-oviposition period (45 g a. i. ha-1), and reproduction (11.25 g a. i. ha-1). Pupation, adult emergence, and eggs counts of H. axyridis were reduced after sulfoxaflor treatments. The predation ability and population demography parameters were significantly impaired by higher application rates. At 90 g a. i. ha-1 or less, sulfoxaflor was slightly harmful to H. axyridis but a rate of 180 g a. i. ha-1 was moderately harmful. These results demonstrated that sulfoxaflor is harmful to H. axyridis when applied at high application rates.


Assuntos
Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas/toxicidade , Compostos de Enxofre/toxicidade , Animais , Besouros/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Larva/fisiologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Controle de Pragas , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/fisiologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade
9.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124857, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726599

RESUMO

Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (coleoptera: chrysomelidae), is the important pest of potato all over the world. This insect pest is resistant to more than 50 active compounds belonging to various chemical groups. Potential of RNA interference (RNAi) was explored to knock down transcript levels of imidacloprid resistant genes in Colorado potato beetle (CPB) under laboratory conditions. Three important genes belonging to cuticular protein (CP), cytochrome P450 monoxygenases (P450) and glutathione synthetase (GSS) families encoding imidacloprid resistance were targeted. Feeding bio-assays were conducted on various stages of imidacloprid resistant CPB lab population by applying HT115 expressing dsRNA on potato leaflets. Survival rate of insects exposed to CP-dsRNA decreased to 4.23%, 15.32% and 47.35% in 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae respectively. Larval weight and pre-adult duration were also affected due to dsRNAs feeding. Synergism of RNAi with imidacloprid conducted on the 2nd instar larvae, exhibited 100% mortality of larvae when subjected to reduced doses of GSS and CP dsRNAs along with imidacloprid. Utilization of three different dsRNAs against imidacloprid resistant CPB population reveal that dsRNAs targeting CP, P450 and GSS enzymes could be useful tool in management of imidacloprid resistant CPB populations.


Assuntos
Besouros/genética , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Genes de Insetos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Animais , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Sintase/genética , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/genética , Interferência de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Phytochemistry ; 169: 112159, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600652

RESUMO

In Portugal, the pine black sawyer Monochamus galloprovincialis is the principal vector of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), a lethal phyopathogen with major ecological and economic consequences to European forestry. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of M. galloprovincialis feeding on the volatiles emitted by pine trees. This study focused on the pine species which are most relevant to Portugal, that is, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine) and Pinus pinea (stone or umbrella pine), assessing to what extent pine chemotypes might influence feeding by the insect vector. Preliminary evaluation of each maritime pine essential oil allowed recognizing the existence of two main chemotypes (C1 and C2) and absence of chemical variability in P. pinea. Emission of volatiles from pine trees was evaluated before and during 24 h of feeding by a mixed-sex pair of newly emerged, unfed M. galloprovincialis. Volatiles were also collected from the oleoresin released from the feeding wounds as well as from the insects after feeding. Pine volatiles were collected by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and insect volatiles extracted with pentane, and all analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and by GC for component identification and quantification, respectively. Of the seventeen emitted volatiles detected in SPME analyses of P. pinaster, ß-pinene, α-pinene, ß-caryophyllene, and germacrene D showed the highest average fold increases as a result of M. galloprovincialis feeding. When grouped by P. pinaster chemotype, C1 and C2 groups of trees showed different patterns of responses. ß-Caryophyllene and germacrene D showed the highest fold increase in C1 trees, whereas ß-pinene and α-pinene clearly dominated in C2 trees. Likewise, the oleoresin volatiles from C1 trees were dominated by δ-3-carene and/or ß-pinene, whereas α-pinene and ß-pinene were the main volatile components from oleoresin of C2 trees. Nine components were detected in P. pinea volatiles, of which limonene showed the highest fold increase as a result of insect feeding. The volatiles collected from the insects after they had fed on P. pinaster included α-pinene, ß-pinene, and abietic acid, and by the straight-chain n-alkanes n-C27, n-C29, and n-C25, together with the methyl-branched hydrocarbons 3-meC29, 2-meC28, and 3-meC27. A better understanding of the responses of different P. pinaster chemotypes to feeding by M. galloprovincialis may be helpful in the development of new lures to improve pine sawyer trapping in integrated pest management for control of PWD.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Pinus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Portugal , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
11.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0220830, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725728

RESUMO

The Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, is a major agricultural pest of solanaceous crops in the United States. Historically, a multitude of insecticides have been used to control problematic populations. Due to increasing resistance to insecticides, novel compounds and methodologies are warranted for the control of beetle populations. Mixed-isomer conjugated linoleic acid has been studied in-depth for its beneficial properties to mammalian systems. At the same time, studies have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acid can manipulate fatty acid composition in non-mammalian systems, resulting in embryo mortality. Consequently, experiments were conducted to assess the effects of foliar-applied conjugated linoleic acid on larval growth, embryogenesis, and feeding preference in Colorado potato beetle. Both maternal and deterrent effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid were assessed. Conjugated linoleic acid demonstrated desirable insecticidal properties, including increased larval mortality, slowed larval development, antifeedant effects, and decreased egg viability after maternal ingestion.


Assuntos
Besouros , Inseticidas , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados , Animais , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Besouros/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Solanum tuberosum
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(35): 36048-36054, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745787

RESUMO

The essential oils (EOs) from aerial parts of Saussurea amara (L.) DC. (SAEO) and Sigesbeckia pubescens Makino (SPEO) were analyzed for their chemical composition by GC-MS, and their repellent activities against adults of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst, as well as the booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, were evaluated for the first time. Results of GC-MS analysis indicated that both SAEO and SPEO were characterized by high content of sesquiterpenoids (relative content > 70%) including oxygenated sesquiterpenoids. The two oil samples and their major component caryophyllene oxide exerted beneficial repellent effects on T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila at 2 and 4 h post-exposure. At 4 h post-exposure, the PR value of caryophyllene oxide could still reach 92% (class V) against T. castaneum at minimum testing concentration of 3.15 nL/cm2, and this compound was observed to result in the greatest repellency (PR = 100%) against L. bostrychophila at 12.63 nL/cm2. This work confirmed the potent repellent efficacy of SAEO and SPEO for controlling pest damage and suggested their potential to be developed into botanical repellents.


Assuntos
Repelentes de Insetos/toxicidade , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Saussurea/fisiologia , Sesquiterpenos/toxicidade , Animais , Asteraceae , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Controle de Pragas , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Tribolium/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113153, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520906

RESUMO

Plant essential oils are regarded as interesting alternative tools to be integrated into the management of pest insects. However, as they generally consist of mixtures of numerous molecules, the physiological basis for their action is unresolved. Here, we evaluated the effects of essential oil of the Neotropical plant Siparuna guianensis Aubl., commonly known as Negramina, against an important pest insect: the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and also in two non-target natural enemies: the ladybeetle predators Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer) and Eriopis connexa (Germar). In addition, we conducted a computational docking analysis for predicting the physical interactions between the two Negramina essential oil major constituents: ß-myrcene and 2-undocanone, and the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as potential binding receptors in the aphid and ladybeetles. As the most important results, Negramina essential oil caused mortality in M. persicae aphids with an LC95 = 1.08 mg/cm2, and also significantly repelled the aphids at concentrations as low as 0.14 mg/cm2. Our computational docking analysis reinforced such selectivity actions as the Negramina essential oil major compounds (i.e., ß-myrcene and 2-undocanone) bound to the TRP channels of M. persicae but not to ladybeetle-related TRP channels. Interestingly, the exposure to the Negramina essential oil did not affect the predatory abilities of C. maculata but increased the abilities of E. connexa to prey upon M. persicae. Collectively, our findings provided a physiological basis for the insecticidal and selectivity potential of Negramina essential oil, reinforcing its potential as a tool to be used in integrated pest control programs.


Assuntos
Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Laurales/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/análise , Animais , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109669, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536847

RESUMO

Cotton hosts a variety of arthropod pests requiring intensive control mostly with insecticides, which in turn may impact beneficial insects and the environment. Therefore, insect control in cotton fields preconizes the use of selective insecticides that offer pest control but conserve natural enemies. In this work, we measured the impact of recommended insecticides on the abundance of predatory insects and predation upon sentinel preys in the field. Further, the survival of four key selected predatory insects of cotton ecosystem, representing chewing and sucking feeding habits and different pest species attacked [Chrysoperla externa Hagen, Eriopis connexa (Germar), Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) and Orius insidiosus (Say)], were assessed when exposed to the dried residues of the tested insecticides. Mortality of sentinel prey caused by natural enemies was higher in areas treated with selective insecticides relative to the non-selective ones, and most of time similar to the untreated areas. Furthermore, areas treated with non-selective insecticides experienced prolonged impact between sprays depending on the insecticide applied. Seasonal abundance of predatory insects was 2× greater in fields under selective and untreated fields compared to those under non-selective recommendation. Survival of predators exposed to the dried residues of the selective insecticides pymetrozine, chlorantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, and cyantraniliprole were greater than when exposed to the non-selective lambda-cyhalothrin, malathion, dimethoate, and thiamethoxam. Among the non-selective insecticides, malathion and dimethoate exhibited shorter residual time compared to the thiamethoxam and lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam. Therefore, the recommendation of selective insecticides provides benefits for cotton pest management by maintaining the action of the natural enemies present in the field.


Assuntos
Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Heterópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ecossistema , Modelos Teóricos
15.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0214702, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539393

RESUMO

The cabbage stem flea beetle (CSFB), Psylliodes chrysocephala (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), has recently become a major pest species in winter oilseed rape in the Czech Republic. The susceptibility of CSFB populations from two localities to six pyrethroids, two neonicotinoids, one organophosphate and one oxadiazine was evaluated in 2015-2018 in glass vial experiments. The susceptibility of CSFB to thiacloprid and thiamethoxam was evaluated in feeding experiment in 2017 and 2018. High susceptibility of CSFB populations to lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, esfenvalerate, tau-fluvalinate, etofenprox, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, indoxacarb and acetamiprid was observed in the glass vial experiments. The LC50 and LC90 data obtained for pyrethroids in these experiments in 2015 represent baseline for CSFB resistance monitoring to pyrethroids in the Czech Republic. High tolerance of CSFB to thiacloprid of CSFB was demonstrated in glass vial and the feeding experiment, too.


Assuntos
Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Tiazinas/toxicidade , Animais , Brassica/parasitologia , Besouros/patogenicidade
16.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 38(11): 2392-2404, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550063

RESUMO

The use of veterinary medical products and herbicides is a common practice in intensified livestock systems. These compounds affect nontarget organisms that perform important ecosystem functions, such as dung beetles. The assessment of body condition allows us to determine how individuals respond to changes in the environment. However, assessments of how contamination associated with cattle farming affects coprophagous insects such as dung beetles have not been conducted in natural systems. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of ivermectin (an antiparasitic drug) and herbicides on the body condition of 3 species of dung beetles collected in the field: Copris incertus, Euoniticellus intermedius, and Digitonthophagus gazella. We recorded 3 condition indicators (body size, lipid mass, and muscle mass) of beetles collected from 19 livestock ranches in northeastern Mexico. In general, the use of ivermectin had adverse effects on C. incertus and E. intermedius whereas the effects were positive for D. gazella. Conversely, the use of herbicides had adverse effects on D. gazella and positive effects on C. incertus. The different effects of ivermectin and herbicides found in males and females show that sex can be important in determining individual responses to environmental contamination. Importantly, we provide the first evidence under natural conditions that native and exotic species of dung beetles are highly sensitive to different types of livestock management, with veterinary medications and herbicides having the ability to alter body condition. Changes in dung beetle condition can reduce the ecosystem services that dung beetles provide in livestock systems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;38:2392-2404. © 2019 SETAC.


Assuntos
Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Poluição Ambiental , Pradaria , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Ivermectina/toxicidade , Lipídeos/análise , Gado , Masculino , México , Modelos Estatísticos
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 29845-29856, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410829

RESUMO

Several pyrrole derivatives exhibit insecticidal activity and can be effective as grain protectants. In the present study, we evaluate the insecticidal efficacy of six novel pyrrole derivatives, namely methyl 3-(methylthio)-4,6-dioxo-5-phenyl-1,3a,4,5,6,6a-hexahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1 carboxylate (compound syn) (2a-syn), methyl 3-(methylthio)-4,6-dioxo-5-phenyl-1,3a,4,5,6,6a-hexahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1-carboxylate (compound anti) (2a-anti), methyl 3-(benzylthio)-4,6-dioxo-5-phenyl-1,3a,4,5,6,6a-hexahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1-carboxylate (compound syn) (2f-syn), methyl 3-(benzylthio)-4,6-dioxo-5-phenyl-1,3a,4,5,6,6a-hexahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1-carboxylate (compound anti) (2f-anti), methyl 3-(butylthio)-4,6-dioxo-5-phenyl-2,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1-carboxylate (3e), and methyl 2-benzyl-3-(methylthio)-4,6-dioxo-5-phenyl-2,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1-carboxylate (0665), against four important species infesting stored products, the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The six pyrrole derivatives were evaluated on wheat at different doses (0.1, 1, and 10 ppm) and exposure intervals (7, 14, and 21 days). For S. oryzae adults, the highest mortality was recorded at 10 ppm of 2a-syn (36.7%) followed by 2f-syn (32.2%) and 2f-anti (27.8%) after 21 days of exposure. Regarding progeny production, the application of the six pyrrole derivatives significantly reduced offspring emergence if compared with the controls. After 21 days, mortality of R. dominica reached 50% testing 10 ppm of 2f-syn, followed by 2a-syn (46.7%), 2f-anti (41.1%), and 2a-anti (33.3%), while for 3e and 0665, mortality remained low, not exceeding 17.8%. Mortality of T. confusum adults was very low, ranging from 0 to 16.7% after 21 days of exposure. Progeny production was low (< 1.7 individuals per vial) for all doses of the tested pyrrole derivatives, including control vials. For 2a-syn, 2a-anti, 2f-anti, and 0665, no progeny production was recorded testing 1 and 10 ppm, while for 2f-syn and 3e, no offspring emergence was noted testing 10 ppm. For T. confusum larvae, after 21 days of exposure, mortality reached 62.2% testing 10 ppm of 3e followed by 0665 (55.6%) and 2a-anti (42.2%). For E. kuehniella larvae, mortality reached 57.8% at 10 ppm of 2a-syn, followed by the pyrrole derivative 2f-anti (43.3%) after 21 days of exposure. Overall, these results show that the efficacy of pyrrole derivatives strongly varied according to the exposure interval, tested dose, treated insect species and developmental instar. The tested pyrrole derivatives, with special reference to 2a-syn, 2a-anti, 2f-syn, 2f-anti and 0665, are slow-acting compounds exerting relevant toxicity on key stored-product pests over time. They can be considered further for assays with selected blends aiming to develop novel control tools against stored-product pests in real-world conditions.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/parasitologia , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Triticum/parasitologia , Animais , Bioensaio , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Inseticidas/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirróis/química , Tribolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Gorgulhos/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 113063, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454585

RESUMO

Propylea japonica is a very important predator in agricultural ecosystems, which could be exposed to Bt protein. In this study, the bacterial community of P. japonica fed with normal food and food containing Cry2Ab protein was characterized for the first time using qPCR and high-throughput sequencing approaches. Results showed no effect of Cry2Ab on P. japonica development and reproduction. The most abundant bacterial phylum was Firmicutes, and the most abundant genus was Staphylococcus. The total bacteria copy number was not significantly different across four larval stages. Bacteria species composition was gathered more closely in feed on sucrose solution (sucrose-fed) than in larvae only fed on pea aphid (aphid-fed), the diversity indices of some operational taxonomic unit (OTU) were significantly different between sucrose-fed and aphid-fed samples. Different instar larval stages of P. japonica fed with sucrose solution containing Cry2Ab Bt protein and found no effect on microbial community composition and total bacteria copy numbers. However, effects on relative abundance of microbes, copy numbers of Corynebacterium 1 and Glutamicibacter arilaitensis were observed significantly lower in Bt-fed first and fourth larval stages. Low and high concentrations of Cry2Ab protein altered the microbial abundance relative to sucrose-fed P. japonica and copy numbers of G. arilaitensis and Staphylococcus xylosus were significantly lower in Bt-fed samples than control sucrose-fed. Our results are the first report showing that feeding on Cry2Ab protein does not alter microbial species composition in P. japonica, but effects gene copy number of some dominant bacteria. Further investigations are needed to assess the effect of copy number change on P. japonica.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Proteínas de Bactérias/toxicidade , Besouros/microbiologia , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Proteínas Hemolisinas/toxicidade , Animais , Afídeos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecossistema , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 292-305, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284815

RESUMO

In the present study, Probit, Cauchy Fractional and three types of Log methods, i.e., Logit, Log-log, and Complementary log-log were employed to model the feeding deterrence of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), when fed latex protein, crude flavonoid fraction, 3-O-rutinosides of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin, isolated from Calotropis procera (Ait.) (Gentianales: Asclepiadaceae). A nutritional study with treated flour discs at sub-lethal concentrations indicated that the tested natural products negatively affected the feeding behavior of the lesser grain borer, causing high feeding deterrent indices. Our results assure that Probit, Logit and Clog-log model the feeding deterrent indices with high goodness of fit. The models aim to support the management of the test insect when fed grains treated with sub-lethal doses of the tested phytochemicals in order to develop a viable, precise and long-term strategy to minimize the excessive reliance on the chemical pesticides currently in use.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Calotropis/química , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/farmacologia , Animais , Besouros/fisiologia , Grão Comestível/parasitologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Triticum/parasitologia
20.
Neotrop Entomol ; 48(6): 909-918, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321624

RESUMO

A successful pest control requires both chemical and biological agents for most commercially grown crops. However, insecticide resistance is increasing worldwide. Cabbage, a widely grown Brassicaceae, hosts the most resistant insect pest to insecticides, the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L. However, insecticide-resistant populations Eriopis connexa (Germar), a lady beetle often found controlling aphids and other soft-bodied pest species sharing brassica fields with DBM. Thus, as a model for integration of insecticide and biological control methods, we evaluated predation by pyrethroid-resistant and pyrethroid-susceptible lady beetles on DBM larvae offered alone and in the presence of a preferred prey, the aphid Lipaphis pseudobrassicae (Davis). During 24-h exposure, resistant and susceptible E. connexa consumed an average of 9.8 and 6.0 second-instar instar DBM larvae, respectively. Resistant beetles showed no significant preferences for prey consumption between untreated and deltamethrin-treated leaf surfaces, at field-recommended rate. As a function of DBM availability, resistant beetles exhibited similar predation on treated and untreated arena and higher predation than susceptible beetles in a treated arena. In greenhouse cages, resistant and susceptible beetles exhibited similar survival after 10 days on cabbage treated with deltamethrin and promoted the reduction of DBM to 5.0% and 5.6%, respectively. Both populations fed on a mixed diet of aphids and DBM larvae even under high availability of the preferred aphid prey. Resistant E. connexa survives deltamethrin exposure and do not alter their predatory behavior in response to this insecticide-treated environment.


Assuntos
Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Besouros/fisiologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Comportamento Predatório , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Animais , Afídeos , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Brassica , Feminino , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva , Mariposas
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