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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431445

RESUMO

A 42-year-old woman presented with fever, left ear pain, restricted mouth opening, difficulty in swallowing and inability to open her left eyelid for a period of 10 days. She was treated with antibiotics for the same at a local medical facility; however, a sudden decrease in her left eye vision prompted her to visit our tertiary centre. Her history was insignificant except for having multiple left ear syringing for an insect removal 10 days before onset of her current symptoms. On examination, she had ptosis of the left eye with chemosis, dilated pupil with only perception of light and restricted ocular mobility. Oral examination revealed trismus and bulge in the left peritonsillar region. Left ear examination revealed a large central perforation with mucopurulent discharge. CT of the neck with contrast demonstrated a collection in the left peritonsillar space with left internal carotid artery thrombosis. MRI of the brain with gadolinium revealed left cavernous sinus thrombosis with acute infarcts in the left frontal lobe. An emergency incision and drainage of the left peritonsillar abscess was performed. Culture grew broad aseptate fungal hyphae. Despite starting on antifungal therapy, she succumbed to her illness.


Assuntos
Trombose do Corpo Cavernoso/diagnóstico , Corpos Estranhos no Olho/complicações , Mucormicose/diagnóstico , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Base do Crânio/microbiologia , Adulto , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Animais , Seio Cavernoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose do Corpo Cavernoso/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose do Corpo Cavernoso/etiologia , Besouros/microbiologia , Drenagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Corpos Estranhos no Olho/diagnóstico , Corpos Estranhos no Olho/microbiologia , Corpos Estranhos no Olho/terapia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Hifas/isolamento & purificação , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Meropeném/uso terapêutico , Mucorales/isolamento & purificação , Mucormicose/microbiologia , Mucormicose/terapia , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Osteomielite/terapia , Base do Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Base do Crânio/patologia , Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
2.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(10): 5460-5466, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894215

RESUMO

A bacterial strain, BIT-d1T, was isolated from the gut of plastic-eating larvae of the coleopteran insect Zophobas atratus. Its taxonomic position was analysed using a polyphasic approach. Cells were white-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, long rods without flagella. The 16S rRNA gene sequence (1401 bp) of strain BIT-d1T showed highest similarity (98.0%) to Myroides pelagicus SM1T and 96.6~92.6 % similarity to the other species of the genus Myroides. The results of phylogenetic analyses, based on the 16S rRNA gene, concatenated sequences of six housekeeping genes (gyrB, dnaK, tuf, murG, atpA and glyA) and genome sequences, placed strain BIT-d1T in a separate lineage among the genus Myroides, family Flavobacteriaceae. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-6 (MK-6) and the major fatty acids were C15 : 0 iso, C17 : 0 iso 3-OH and summed feature 9 (comprising iso-C17 : 1 ω9c and/or C16 : 0 10-methyl), which were similar to other members in the genus Myroides. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity calculations plus physiological and biochemical tests exhibited the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain BIT-d1T from the other members of the genus Myroides. Therefore, strain BIT-d1T is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Myroides, for which the name Myroides albus sp. nov is proposed. The type strain is BIT-d1T (=CGMCC 1.17043T=KCTC 72447T).


Assuntos
Besouros/microbiologia , Flavobacteriaceae/classificação , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Filogenia , Plásticos , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Genes Bacterianos , Larva , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
3.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(9): 4951-4959, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744988

RESUMO

A bacterial strain, BIT-B35T, was isolated from the gut of plastic-eating larvae of the Coleoptera insect Zophobas atratus. Its taxonomic position was determined by using a polyphasic approach. Cells were white-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, motile short rods with terminal flagella. The 16S rRNA gene sequence (1411 bp) of strain BIT-B35T showed highest similarity (98.1%) to Escherichia fergusonii ATCC 35469T and Citrobacter koseri LMG 5519T. The results of phylogenetic analyses, based on the 16S rRNA gene, concatenated sequences of seven housekeeping genes (atpD, gyrB, infB, rpoB, pyrG, fusA and leuS) and genome sequences, placed strain BIT-B35T in a separate lineage among the family of Enterobacteriaceae. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C17 : 0 cyclo and C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain BIT-B35T was 57.1 mol%. The chemotaxonomic data plus results of physiological and biochemical tests also distinguished strain BIT-B35T from members of other genera within the family Enterobacteriaceae. Therefore, strain BIT-B35T is considered to represent a novel species of a novel genus within the family Enterobacteriaceae, for which the name Intestinirhabdus alba gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BIT-B35T (=CGMCC 1.17042T=KCTC 72448T).


Assuntos
Besouros/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/classificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Filogenia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Larva/microbiologia , Plásticos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(8): 4798-4807, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783804

RESUMO

Leptographium panxianense and L. puerense are proposed as new taxa based on sequence data and morphological characters. The phylogenetic analyses based on ITS2-partial LSU rDNA region, ß-tubulin and elongation factor 1-α genes showed that L. panxianense and L. puerense formed well-supported clades and were closely related to L. yunnanense, L. wushanense and L. conjunctum, and then nested within the L. lundbergii complex. The two species differ in their conidial size and shape. The conidia of L. panxianense are larger than those of L. puerense while the conidial shape of L. puerense is more ovovoid. The optimal growth temperature of both L. panxianense and L. puerense is at 20 °C, which is different from those of L. yunnanense, L. wushanense and L. conjunctum. Comparison of sequence data and morphological characters confirmed the placement of the two undescribed taxa in the genus of Leptographium.


Assuntos
Besouros/microbiologia , Ophiostomatales/classificação , Filogenia , Pinus , Animais , China , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Ophiostomatales/isolamento & purificação , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Esporos Fúngicos , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética
5.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4217-4223, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589574

RESUMO

Five yeast strains were isolated from the gut of the groundbeetle Pterostichus gebleri and rotting wood, which were collected from two different localities in China. These strains were identified as representing two novel species of the genus Blastobotrys through comparison of sequences in the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene and other taxonomic characteristics. Blastobotrys baotianmanensis sp. nov. produces two to three spherical ascospores per ascus, and is most closely related to the type strains of B. elegans, B. capitulata, B. arbuscula, and an undescribed species represented by strain BG02-7-20-006A-3-1. Blastobotrys baotianmanensis sp. nov. differed from these strains by 3.6-8.4 % divergence (21-46 substitutions and 0-4 gaps) in the D1/D2 sequences. Blastobotrys xishuangbannaensis f.a., sp. nov. is closely related to B. nivea, B. elegans and B. aristata but the formation of ascospores was not observed on various sporulation media, and it differed from its relatives by 6.2-8.5 % divergence (34-43 substitutions and 2-6 gaps) in the D1/D2 sequences. The holotype of Blastobotrys baotianmanensis sp. nov. is NYNU 1581 and the holotype of Blastobotrys xishuangbannaensis f.a., sp. nov. is NYNU 181030.


Assuntos
Besouros/microbiologia , Filogenia , Saccharomycetales/classificação , Madeira/microbiologia , Animais , China , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Saccharomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Esporos Fúngicos
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2964, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528063

RESUMO

Symbiotic microbes can enable their host to access untapped nutritional resources but may also constrain niche space by promoting specialization. Here, we reconstruct functional changes in the evolutionary history of the symbiosis between a group of (semi-)aquatic herbivorous insects and mutualistic bacteria. Sequencing the symbiont genomes across 26 species of reed beetles (Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae) spanning four genera indicates that the genome-eroded mutualists provide life stage-specific benefits to larvae and adults, respectively. In the plant sap-feeding larvae, the symbionts are inferred to synthesize most of the essential amino acids as well as the B vitamin riboflavin. The adult reed beetles' folivory is likely supported by symbiont-encoded pectinases that complement the host-encoded set of cellulases, as revealed by transcriptome sequencing. However, mapping the occurrence of the symbionts' pectinase genes and the hosts' food plant preferences onto the beetles' phylogeny reveals multiple independent losses of pectinase genes in lineages that switched to feeding on pectin-poor plants, presumably constraining their hosts' subsequent adaptive potential.


Assuntos
Besouros/microbiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Simbiose/genética , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 326: 108641, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371295

RESUMO

Thermotolerant Campylobacter is the leading bacterial cause of foodborne illness in humans worldwide. The objectives of this study were to estimate prevalence and to identify and characterize potential sources of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination in broilers on farms and at the slaughterhouse; to evaluate the clonal relationship among thermotolerant Campylobacter isolates from different stages of the broiler meat supply chain, and to analyze the presence of virulence genes in different sources of thermotolerant Campylobacter. A total of 1210 samples were collected from three broiler meat supply chains in Santa Fe, Argentina. At the farms, the sampling collection included broilers one week prior to slaughter, wild-living birds, domestic dogs, wild rodents, farm workers' boots, litter, feed, drinking water, flies, and darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus). At the slaughtering line, the samples taken were from the evisceration zone (broiler cecum, working surfaces, evisceration knives and workers' hands), from the chiller zone (surfaces and direct supply water) and from the packing zone (work surfaces, workers' hands and broiler carcasses). The samples taken along each supply chain were in the same batch. The isolates obtained were identified to the species level (C. jejuni and C. coli) by multiplex PCR and were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to compare different profiles according to the source. Finally, the presence of 11 virulence genes was examined (cadF, cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, ciaB, flaA, flhA, iam, wlaN, virB11, racR). From 254 isolates, 128 (50.4%) were Campylobacter jejuni and 126 (49.6%) Campylobacter coli. C. jejuni was the species most prevalent in farm and C. coli the species most prevalent at the slaughterhouse. We detected thermotolerant Campylobacter in samples of wild birds, darkling beetles, farm workers' boots, flies and litter. At the slaughterhouse, the prevalence varied along the process line. By analyzing PFGE results, C. jejuni showed 21 profiles with three predominant genotypes, while C. coli showed 14 profiles with four predominant genotypes. A high genotype diversity was found; however, relationships between isolates from different stages of the broiler meat chain, between broiler and potential sources of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination and between strains in the farm and in the slaughterhouse were detected. Furthermore, there was evidence of cross-contamination at the slaughterhouse. FlaA, flhA genes were detected in all strains, and the third most prevalent virulence gene was cadF. Only those strains obtained from flies, wild-living birds and broiler carcass samples harbored 10 of 11 pathogenic genes. The prevalence of some pathogenic genes between C. jejuni and C. coli was different. This evidence should contribute the scientific basis to implement risk management measures in public health.


Assuntos
Campylobacter coli/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Argentina , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter coli/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter coli/patogenicidade , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter jejuni/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Besouros/microbiologia , Dípteros/microbiologia , Cães , Água Potável/microbiologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Flagelina/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Prevalência , Roedores/microbiologia , Termotolerância , Virulência/genética
8.
J Insect Sci ; 20(2)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112650

RESUMO

Nine strains of five species of entomopathogenic hypocrealean fungi were tested against adults of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky). These strains have been developed as commercial biopesticide products in the United States, Brazil, South Korea, or the European Union (EU). Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) ESALQ E-9 and Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) F52 (formerly M. anisopliae F52) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) killed 100% of treated beetles with the shortest survival times. Virulence differed among the five strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) tested, ranging from 0 to 77.3% mortality within 28 d. Two Isaria fumosorosea (Wize, 1904) (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) (formerly Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) strains and the Lecanicillium muscarium (Petch) Zare & Gams (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) strain used in Mycotal were not pathogenic to A. glabripennis adults. Within the entomopathogenic fungi tested, the Metarhizium strains may be the most appropriate for further evaluation.


Assuntos
Beauveria/patogenicidade , Besouros/microbiologia , Metarhizium/patogenicidade , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , Hypocreales/patogenicidade , Virulência
9.
mBio ; 11(1)2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098813

RESUMO

Symbiotic mutualisms of bacteria and animals are ubiquitous in nature, running a continuum from facultative to obligate from the perspectives of both partners. The loss of functions required for living independently but not within a host gives rise to reduced genomes in many symbionts. Although the phenomenon of genome reduction can be explained by existing evolutionary models, the initiation of the process is not well understood. Here, we describe the microbiome associated with the eggs of the beetle Lagria villosa, consisting of multiple bacterial symbionts related to Burkholderia gladioli, including a reduced-genome symbiont thought to be the exclusive producer of the defensive compound lagriamide. We show that the putative lagriamide-producing symbiont is the only member of the microbiome undergoing genome reduction and that it has already lost the majority of its primary metabolism and DNA repair pathways. The key step preceding genome reduction in the symbiont was likely the horizontal acquisition of the putative lagriamide lga biosynthetic gene cluster. Unexpectedly, we uncovered evidence of additional horizontal transfers to the symbiont's genome while genome reduction was occurring and despite a current lack of genes needed for homologous recombination. These gene gains may have given the genome-reduced symbiont a selective advantage in the microbiome, especially given the maintenance of the large lga gene cluster despite ongoing genome reduction.IMPORTANCE Associations between microorganisms and an animal, plant, or fungal host can result in increased dependence over time. This process is due partly to the bacterium not needing to produce nutrients that the host provides, leading to loss of genes that it would need to live independently and to a consequent reduction in genome size. It is often thought that genome reduction is aided by genetic isolation-bacteria that live in monocultures in special host organs, or inside host cells, have less access to other bacterial species from which they can obtain genes. Here, we describe exposure of a genome-reduced beetle symbiont to a community of related bacteria with nonreduced genomes. We show that the symbiont has acquired genes from other bacteria despite going through genome reduction, suggesting that isolation has not yet played a major role in this case of genome reduction, with horizontal gene gains still offering a potential route for adaptation.


Assuntos
Besouros/microbiologia , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Microbiota/genética , Simbiose/genética , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Produtos Biológicos , Burkholderia/genética , Evolução Molecular , Tamanho do Genoma , Metagenômica , Família Multigênica , Simbiose/fisiologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2670, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060382

RESUMO

Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) bore into tree xylem to complete their life cycle, feeding on symbiotic fungi. Ambrosia beetles are a threat to avocado where they have been found to vector a symbiotic fungus, Raffaelea lauricola, the causal agent of the laurel wilt disease. We assessed the repellency of methyl salicylate and verbenone to two putative laurel wilt vectors in avocado, Xyleborus volvulus (Fabricius) and Xyleborus bispinatus (Eichhoff), under laboratory conditions. Then, we tested the same two chemicals released from SPLAT flowable matrix with and without low-dose ethanol dispensers for manipulation of ambrosia beetle populations occurring in commercial avocado. The potential active space of repellents was assessed by quantifying beetle catch on traps placed 'close' (~5-10 cm) and 'far' (~1-1.5 m) away from repellent dispensers. Ambrosia beetles collected on traps associated with all in-field treatments were identified to species to assess beetle diversity and community variation. Xyleborus volvulus was not repelled by methyl salicylate (MeSA) or verbenone in laboratory assays, while X. bispinatus was repelled by MeSA but not verbenone. Ambrosia beetle trap catches were reduced in the field more when plots were treated with verbenone dispensers (SPLAT) co-deployed with low-dose ethanol dispensers than when treated with verbenone alone. Beetle diversity was highest on traps deployed with low-dose ethanol lures. The repellent treatments and ethanol lures significantly altered the species composition of beetles captured in experiment plots. Our results indicate that verbenone co-deployed with ethanol lures holds potential for manipulating ambrosia beetle vectors via push-pull management in avocado. This tactic could discourage immigration and/or population establishment of ambrosia beetles in commercial avocado and function as an additional tool for management programs of laurel wilt.


Assuntos
Ophiostomatales/efeitos dos fármacos , Persea/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Simbiose/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/farmacologia , Besouros/microbiologia , Besouros/patogenicidade , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Insetos Vetores/patogenicidade , Ophiostomatales/patogenicidade , Persea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Persea/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Simbiose/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(4): 2226-2232, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053092

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, polar flagellated, short rod-shaped bacterium, designated DFW100M-13T, was isolated from gut of the larva of Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis collected from Wanju-gun, South Korea. The growth range of NaCl concentration was 0-3 % (w/v) (optimally 0 % (w/v)), the temperature range for growth was 10-40 °C (optimally 28-30 °C), and the pH range for growth was pH 6.0-9.0 (optimally pH 7.0-8.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain DFW100M-13T had a high sequence similarity to members of the genus Microbacterium, having the highest similarity with Microbacterium luticocti DSM 19459T (97.7 %), Microbacterium rhizosphaerae CHO1T (97.1 %), and Microbacterium immunditiarum SK 18T (97.0 %), and formed a distinct lineage with Microbacterium luticocti DSM 19459T within the genus Microbacterium. A phylogenetic tree based on house-keeping genes also showed the result similar to the 16S rRNA gene-based tree. The main respiratory quinone (>10 %) was MK-11, MK-12 and MK-10, and the predominant cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The polar lipids were composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, an inidentified glycolipid and an unidnetified lipid. The peptidoglycan type was supposed to be the B2ß with amino acids d-alanine, d-glutamic acid, glycine, l-homoserine and d-ornithine. The genomic DNA G+C content was 68.0 mol%. Based on the polyphasic taxonomic data, strain DFW100M-13T is considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Microbacterium protaetiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DFW100M-13T (=KACC 19323T=NBRC 113120T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Besouros/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Filogenia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Larva/microbiologia , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/química
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(3): 1924-1930, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976851

RESUMO

A bacterium that was Gram-staining-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, rod- or filamentous-shaped, designated as strain 2JSPR-7T, was isolated from a gut of larvae of Allomyrina dichotoma which were raised at the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Wanju-gun, Republic of Korea. 2JSPR-7T had the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Xylanibacterium ulmi XIL08T (98.1 %), Xylanimicrobium pachnodae NBRC 107786T (97.8 %) and Xylanimonas cellulosilytica DSM 15894T (97.5 %). Optimum growth conditions were at 28-30 °C, pH 7-8 and 0 % salt concentration. The cellular fatty acids mainly consisted of anteiso-C15 : 0, C14 : 0 and C16 : 0. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, four unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified glycophospholipids. The major menaquinones were MK-8(H4) and MK-9(H4). The peptidoglycan structure was suggested to be the type A3α (A11.14) l-Lys-l-Ser with the presence of d-Ala, l-Ala, d-Glu, l-Ser and l-Lys. Whole cell sugars were rhamnose, ribose and glucose. The DNA G+C content was 72.7 mol%. We encountered difficulty in selecting a suitable genus to accommodate strain 2JSPR-7T from any of the genera Xylanimonas, Xylanimicrobium and Xylanibacterium based on the polyphasic approach including phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization. Therefore, it is proposed to combine the genera Xylanimicrobium and Xylanibacterium with the genus Xylanimonas considering the priority of publication and to classify strain 2JSPR-7T in the genus as Xylanimonas allomyrinae sp. nov. The type strain of the novel species is 2JSPR-7T (=KACC 19330T=NBRC 113052T). In addition, the description of the genus Xylanimonas is emended, and Xylanibacterium ulmi and Xylanimicrobium pachnodae are reclassified as Xylanimonas ulmi comb. nov. and Xylanimonas pachnodae comb. nov., respectively.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Besouros/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Filogenia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Larva/microbiologia , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Parasitol Res ; 119(3): 915-923, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970472

RESUMO

A new species and a new genus of a microsporidium Alternosema bostrichidis isolated from an adult Prostephanus truncatus in Mexico and from three species of the genus Dinoderus in Nigeria are described. The microsporidium is monomorphic, monoxenic, and develops in direct contact with host cell cytoplasm. The infection first appears with thoracic muscles, followed by a generalized invasion of the host. All developmental stages are diplokaryotic. Sporogony is disporoblastic. Mature spores are ovoid. Unfixed spores measure 3.7-4.2 × 2.0-2.6 µm, fixed and stained spores 3.5-5.0 × 2.4-2.8 µm. The polaroplast consists of dense lamellae and rare lamellae. The polar tube is slightly anisofilar, consisting of 11-17 coils, with 9-14 proximal (130 nm in diameter) and 2-3 distal coils (120 nm in diameter) arranged in one layer. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based upon a short portion of small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (Genbank accession # KP455651) placed the new microsporidium within Liebermannia-Orthosomella lineage, which contains multiple undescribed parasites. In particular, A. bostrichidis showed maximal sequence similarity of 95% to Microsporidium sp. BBRE2 (# FJ755987) from Baikalian Diplacanthus brevispinus (Amphipoda: Acanthogammaridae) and Microsporidium sp. Comp CD Van 2 (# KC111784) from compost and soil in Canada. Frequent, devastating epizootics of laboratory cultures of A. bostrichidis support its potential as a biological control agent of grain borers.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/microbiologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Besouros/microbiologia , Microsporídios não Classificados/classificação , Microsporídios não Classificados/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Canadá , México , Microsporídios não Classificados/genética , Nigéria , Filogenia , Prevalência , Esporos Fúngicos/classificação
14.
ISME J ; 14(5): 1089-1099, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988472

RESUMO

Long-term symbiotic associations often lead to reciprocal adaptation between the involved entities. One of the main challenges for studies of such symbioses is differentiating adaptation from neutral processes and phylogenetic background. Ambrosia fungi, cultivated by ambrosia beetles as their sole food source, provide an excellent model to study evolutionary adaptation in a comparative framework because they evolved many times, and each origin bears features seemingly convergently adapted to the symbiosis. We tested whether the symbiotic lifestyle of unrelated ambrosia fungi has led to convergence in the key feature of the symbiotic phenotype-nutrition provisioning to the vector beetles. We compared conidia and mycelium content in three phylogenetic pairs of ambrosia fungi and their closely related nonambrosia relatives using an untargeted metabolomic assay. Multivariate analysis of 311 polar metabolites and 14063 lipid features revealed no convergence of nutrient content across ambrosia lineages. Instead, most variation of the metabolome composition was explained by phylogenetic relationships among the fungi. Thus the overall metabolome evolution of each ambrosia fungus is mostly driven by its inherited metabolism rather than the transition toward symbiosis. We identified eight candidate lipid compounds with expression levels different between the swollen ambrosia spores and other tissues, but they were not consistently elevated across ambrosia fungi. We conclude that ambrosia provisions consist either of nonspecific nutrients in elevated amounts, or of metabolites that are specific to each of the ambrosia symbioses.


Assuntos
Besouros/microbiologia , Fungos/fisiologia , Ambrosia , Animais , Lipídeos , Filogenia , Simbiose/fisiologia
15.
Naturwissenschaften ; 107(1): 7, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900598

RESUMO

Insects employ different defense strategies against fungal infections and chemicals. We aimed to identify the lipid compositions of the fat body of Zophobas morio larvae before and after fungal infection with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium flavoviride. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze lipid extracts of the fat body isolated of Z. morio 2, 5, and 7 days after fungal infection (treatment group) and compared it with the lipid extracts in a control group injected with physiological isotonic saline. In all the samples, fatty acids were the most abundant compound found in the fat body extracts, with hexadecanoic acid/C16:0 being the most abundant lipid. However, the types and concentrations of lipids changed after fungal infection, likely as an immune response. The most considerable changes occurred in the concentrations of long-chain fatty acids, i.e., hexadecanoic acid/C16:0, octadecenoic acid/C18:1, and octadecanoic acid/C18:0. Contents of methyl ester increased significantly after infection, but that of other esters, especially octanoic acid decyl ester/OADE, decreased on the 5th day after infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed analysis of the changes in the lipid composition of the fat body of Z. morio larvae as a result of fungal infection. Our results suggest that entomopathogenic fungal infection affects the internal lipid composition of insects, potentially as a way of adjusting to such infection. These results can help understand infection processes and defense strategies of insects against fungal infection. Ultimately, they can contribute to the creation of more effective chemicals against pest insects.


Assuntos
Besouros/microbiologia , Lipídeos/química , Metarhizium/fisiologia , Animais , Besouros/química , Corpo Adiposo/química , Corpo Adiposo/microbiologia , Larva/microbiologia
16.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(2): 715-720, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675290

RESUMO

A bacterial strain, designated 2DFW10M-5T, was isolated from gut of the larva of Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis collected in the Republic of Korea. Cells of the strain were Gram-stain-positive, non-motile and rod-shaped. The strain grew at the range of 10-37 °C (optimum, 28-30 °C) and pH 4.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and tolerated up to 1 % NaCl (w/v; optimum, 0 %) on Reasoner's 2A medium. It was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain 2DFW10M-5T showed the highest similarity to Gryllotalpicola daejeonensis RU-04T (98.4 %), Gryllotalpicola soli KIS12-7T (98.2 %), Gryllotalpicola kribbensis PU-02T (97.5 %), Gryllotalpicola koreensis RU-16T (97.4 %) and Gryllotalpicola reticulitermitis TS-56T (97.2 %). The phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain 2DFW10M-5T fell into the radius of the genus Gryllotalpicola. The predominant fatty acid was ω-cyclohexyl-C17:0. The polar lipids of strain 2DFW10M-5T were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified phospholipid and two unidentified lipids. The detected isoprenoid quinones were MK-11 (61.0 %), MK-10 (33.7 %) and MK-12 (5.3 %). The peptidoglycan contained d- and l-alanine, d-glutamic acid, glycine, l-serine and d-lysine with l-lysine as the diamino acid. The DNA G+C content calculated from the genome sequence of strain 2DFW10M-5T was 69.2 mol%. On the basis of its genomic, phylogenetic and phenotypic properties and distinctiveness, strain 2DFW10M-5T represents a novel species of the genus Gryllotalpicola, for which the name Gryllotalpicola protaetiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2DFW10M-5T (=KACC 19316T=NBRC 113049T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Besouros/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Filogenia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/química
17.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(2): 989-994, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702533

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic, endospore-forming and motile bacterium with peritrichous flagella was isolated from a gut sample of the larva of Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis at the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Wanju-gun, Republic of Korea. Growth was observed at 15-50 °C (optimum, 28-37 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (pH 7.0) and only without NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons indicated that strain FW100M-2T had the highest similarity to type strains of Paenibacillus thailandensis S3-4AT (96.8 %) and Paenibacillus agaridevorans DSM 1355T (96.3 %), and had sequence similarity values less than 96.0 % to all other taxa. The phylogenetic tree showed that strain FW100M-2T fell into the genus Paenibacillus, and formed a cluster with P. thailandensis S3-4AT independent from other Paenibacillus species. Antesio-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 were detected as the major fatty acids. The only isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. Polar lipids of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminophospholipid, two unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified lipid were present. The meso-diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The genomic DNA G+C content was 51.5 mol%. Hence, strain FW100M-2T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus protaetiae sp. nov. is proposed, with FW100M-2T (=KACC 19327T=NBRC 113071T) as the type strain.


Assuntos
Besouros/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Paenibacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Larva/microbiologia , Paenibacillus/isolamento & purificação , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
18.
ISME J ; 14(3): 866-870, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796934

RESUMO

While genome erosion is extensively studied in intracellular symbionts, the metabolic implications of reductive evolution in microbes subsisting extracellularly remain poorly understood. Stammera capleta-an extracellular symbiont in leaf beetles-possesses an extremely reduced genome (0.27 Mb), enabling the study of drastic reductive evolution in the absence of intracellularity. Here, we outline the genomic and transcriptomic profiles of Stammera and its host to elucidate host-symbiont metabolic interactions. Given the symbiont's substantial demands for nutrients and membrane components, the host's symbiotic organ shows repurposing of internal resources by upregulating nutrient transporters and cuticle-processing genes targeting epithelial chitin. Facilitated by this supplementation and its localization, Stammera exhibits a highly streamlined gene expression profile and a fermentation pathway for energy conversion, sharply contrasting the respiratory metabolism retained by most intracellular symbionts. Our results provide insights into a tightly regulated and metabolically integrated extracellular symbiosis, expanding our understanding of the minimal metabolism required to sustain life outside of a host cell.


Assuntos
Besouros/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/fisiologia , Animais , Besouros/fisiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Fermentação , Genômica , Simbiose
19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(2): 1259-1265, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851604

RESUMO

An actinobacterial strain, designated FW100M-8T, was isolated from a gut sample of larva of Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis at the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Wanju-gun, South Korea. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, microaerophilic to aerobic, non-spore forming and non-motile. It grew at pH 7.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 8.0), at 15-35 °C (optimum, 28 °C) and 0-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0 %). According to the 16S rRNA gene analysis, strain FW100M-8T shared the highest sequence similarity with Agromyces mediolanus DSM 20152T (98.4 %), Agromyces ulmi XIL01T (98.3 %), Agromyces indicus NIO-1018T (98.3 %), Agromyces soli MJ21T (98.3 %), and Agromyces arachidis AK-1T (97.9 %). Phylogenetic trees showed that strain FW100M-8T fell into the lineage of the genus Agromyces. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified glycolipid and an unidentified lipid. The menaquinones of strain FW100M-8T were MK-12 (46 %), MK-11 (36 %), MK-10 (14 %) and MK-13 (4 %). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The peptidoglycan type was supposed to be the type B1, comprising d-Ala, d-Glu, Gly and l-A2bu. The G+C content of the genomic DNA is 70.5 mol%. On the basis of the genotypic and phenotypic data, we conclude that strain FW100M-8T represents a novel species of the genus Agromyces, for which the name Agromyces protaetiae sp. nov. is proposed with strain FW100M-8T (=KACC 19308T=NBRC 113048T) as the type strain.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Besouros/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Filogenia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Larva/microbiologia , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/química
20.
Insect Sci ; 27(3): 392-403, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207108

RESUMO

Many insects feed on a low-nitrogen diet, and the origin of their nitrogen supply is poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that some insects rely on nitrogen-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs) to supplement their diets. Nitrogen fixation by diazotrophs has been extensively studied and convincingly demonstrated in termites, while evidence for the occurrence and role of nitrogen fixation in the diet of other insects is less conclusive. Here, we summarize the methods to detect nitrogen fixation in insects and review the available evidence for its occurrence (focusing on insects other than termites). We distinguish between three aspects of nitrogen fixation investigations: (i) detecting the presence of potential diazotrophs; (ii) detecting the activity of the nitrogen-fixing enzyme; and (iii) detecting the assimilation of fixed nitrogen into the insect tissues. We show that although evidence from investigations of the first aspect reveals ample opportunities for interactions with potential diazotrophs in a variety of insects, demonstrations of actual biological nitrogen fixation and the assimilation of fixed nitrogen are restricted to very few insect groups, including wood-feeding beetles, fruit flies, leafcutter ants, and a wood wasp. We then discuss potential implications for the insect's fitness and for the ecosystem as a whole. We suggest that combining these multiple approaches is crucial for the study of nitrogen fixation in insects, and argue that further demonstrations are desperately needed in order to determine the relative importance of diazotrophs for insect diet and fitness, as well as to evaluate their overall impact on the ecosystem.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Insetos/microbiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Besouros/microbiologia , Besouros/fisiologia , Dieta , Dípteros/microbiologia , Dípteros/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Isópteros/microbiologia , Isópteros/fisiologia
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