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1.
Washington; OPS; 01/02/2020. 5 p.
Não convencional em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049524

RESUMO

En las directrices de laboratorio para la detección y diagnóstico de la infección con el nuevo coronovirus 2019 la Organización Panamericana de la Salud/Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS/OMS) recomienda a los Estados Miembros garantizar su identificación oportuna, el envío de las muestras a laboratorios nacionales y de referencia y la implementación del protocolo de detección molecular para 2019-nCoV, según la capacidad del laboratorio.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
2.
Epidemiol Health ; 42: e2020006, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) from Wuhan, China is currently recognized as a public health emergency of global concern. METHODS: We reviewed the currently available literature to provide up-to-date guidance on control measures to be implemented by public health authorities. RESULTS: Some of the epidemiological characteristics of 2019-nCoV have been identified. However, there remain considerable uncertainties, which should be considered when providing guidance to public health authorities on control measures. CONCLUSIONS: Additional studies incorporating more detailed information from confirmed cases would be valuable.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Emergências , Saúde Global , Humanos , Saúde Pública
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(5): 140-146, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027631

RESUMO

On December 31, 2019, Chinese health officials reported a cluster of cases of acute respiratory illness in persons associated with the Hunan seafood and animal market in the city of Wuhan, Hubei Province, in central China. On January 7, 2020, Chinese health officials confirmed that a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was associated with this initial cluster (1). As of February 4, 2020, a total of 20,471 confirmed cases, including 2,788 (13.6%) with severe illness,* and 425 deaths (2.1%) had been reported by the National Health Commission of China (2). Cases have also been reported in 26 locations outside of mainland China, including documentation of some person-to-person transmission and one death (2). As of February 4, 11 cases had been reported in the United States. On January 30, the World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General declared that the 2019-nCoV outbreak constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.† On January 31, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary declared a U.S. public health emergency to respond to 2019-nCoV.§ Also on January 31, the president of the United States signed a "Proclamation on Suspension of Entry as Immigrants and Nonimmigrants of Persons who Pose a Risk of Transmitting 2019 Novel Coronavirus," which limits entry into the United States of persons who traveled to mainland China to U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents and their families (3). CDC, multiple other federal agencies, state and local health departments, and other partners are implementing aggressive measures to slow transmission of 2019-nCoV in the United States (4,5). These measures require the identification of cases and their contacts in the United States and the appropriate assessment and care of travelers arriving from mainland China to the United States. These measures are being implemented in anticipation of additional 2019-nCoV cases in the United States. Although these measures might not prevent the eventual establishment of ongoing, widespread transmission of the virus in the United States, they are being implemented to 1) slow the spread of illness; 2) provide time to better prepare health care systems and the general public to be ready if widespread transmission with substantial associated illness occurs; and 3) better characterize 2019-nCoV infection to guide public health recommendations and the development of medical countermeasures including diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. Public health authorities are monitoring the situation closely. As more is learned about this novel virus and this outbreak, CDC will rapidly incorporate new knowledge into guidance for action by CDC and state and local health departments.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Laboratórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prática de Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Virus Genes ; 55(4): 545-549, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076983

RESUMO

Bats have been widely known as natural reservoir hosts of zoonotic diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by coronaviruses (CoVs). In the present study, we investigated the whole genomic sequence of a SARS-like bat CoV (16BO133) and found it to be 29,075 nt in length with a 40.9% G+C content. Phylogenetic analysis using amino acid sequences of the ORF 1ab and the spike gene showed that the bat coronavirus strain 16BO133 was grouped with the Beta-CoV lineage B and was closely related to the JTMC15 strain isolated from Rhinolophus ferrumequinum in China. However, 16BO133 was distinctly located in the phylogenetic topology of the human SARS CoV strain (Tor2). Interestingly, 16BO133 showed complete elimination of ORF8 regions induced by a frame shift of the stop codon in ORF7b. The lowest amino acid identity of 16BO133 was identified at the spike region among various ORFs. The spike region of 16BO133 showed 84.7% and 75.2% amino acid identity with Rf1 (SARS-like bat CoV) and Tor2 (human SARS CoV), respectively. In addition, the S gene of 16BO133 was found to contain the amino acid substitution of two critical residues (N479S and T487 V) associated with human infection. In conclusion, we firstly carried out whole genome characterization of the SARS-like bat coronavirus discovered in the Republic of Korea; however, it presumably has no human infectivity. However, continuous surveillance and genomic characterization of coronaviruses from bats are necessary due to potential risks of human infection induced by genetic mutation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Genoma Viral , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular , Filogenia , República da Coreia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Especificidade da Espécie , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
5.
Virol Sin ; 33(1): 87-95, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500692

RESUMO

Previous studies indicated that fruit bats carry two betacoronaviruses, BatCoV HKU9 and BatCoV GCCDC1. To investigate the epidemiology and genetic diversity of these coronaviruses, we conducted a longitudinal surveillance in fruit bats in Yunnan province, China during 2009-2016. A total of 59 (10.63%) bat samples were positive for the two betacorona-viruses, 46 (8.29%) for HKU9 and 13 (2.34%) for GCCDC1, or closely related viruses. We identified a novel HKU9 strain, tentatively designated as BatCoV HKU9-2202, by sequencing the full-length genome. The BatCoV HKU9-2202 shared 83% nucleotide identity with other BatCoV HKU9 stains based on whole genome sequences. The most divergent region is in the spike protein, which only shares 68% amino acid identity with BatCoV HKU9. Quantitative PCR revealed that the intestine was the primary infection organ of BatCoV HKU9 and GCCDC1, but some HKU9 was also detected in the heart, kidney, and lung tissues of bats. This study highlights the importance of virus surveillance in natural reservoirs and emphasizes the need for preparedness against the potential spill-over of these viruses to local residents living near bat caves.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Variação Genética , Estruturas Animais/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
Virology ; 517: 88-97, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482919

RESUMO

The emergence of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, triggered the discovery of a high diversity of coronaviruses in bats. Studies from Europe have shown that coronaviruses circulate in bats in France but this reflects only a fraction of the whole diversity. In the current study the diversity of coronaviruses circulating in western Europe was extensively explored. Ten alphacoronaviruses in eleven bat species belonging to the Miniopteridae, Vespertilionidae and Rhinolophidae families and, a SARS-CoV-related Betacoronavirus in Rhinolophus ferrumequinum were identified. The diversity and prevalence of bat coronaviruses presently reported from western Europe is much higher than previously described and includes a SARS-CoV sister group. This diversity demonstrates the dynamic evolution and circulation of coronaviruses in this species. That said, the identified coronaviruses were consistently associated with a particular bat species or genus, and these relationships were maintained no matter the geographic location. The observed phylogenetic grouping of coronaviruses from the same species in Europe and Asia, emphasizes the role of host/pathogen coevolution in this group.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/genética , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da SARS/genética , Alphacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Variação Genética , Filogenia
7.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 12(2): 299-303, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29350887

RESUMO

Human coronavirus (HCoV) is a known cause of influenza-like illness (ILI). In a multisite, observational, longitudinal study of ILI among otherwise healthy adolescents and adults, 12% of subjects were PCR-positive for HCoV. The distribution of species was as follows: HCoV-OC43 (34%), HCoV-229E (28%), HCoV-NL63 (22%), and HCoV-HKU1 (16%). We did not observe species-specific differences in the clinical characteristics of HCoV infection, with the exception of HCoV-HKU1, for which the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms trended higher on the fourth day of illness.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alphacoronavirus/classificação , Alphacoronavirus/genética , Alphacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Infect Dis ; 218(2): 197-207, 2018 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29346682

RESUMO

Although bats are known to harbor Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-related viruses, the role of bats in the evolutionary origin and pathway remains obscure. We identified a novel MERS-CoV-related betacoronavirus, Hp-BatCoV HKU25, from Chinese pipistrelle bats. Although it is closely related to MERS-CoV in most genome regions, its spike protein occupies a phylogenetic position between that of Ty-BatCoV HKU4 and Pi-BatCoV HKU5. Because Ty-BatCoV HKU4 but not Pi-BatCoV HKU5 can use the MERS-CoV receptor human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (hDPP4) for cell entry, we tested the ability of Hp-BatCoV HKU25 to bind and use hDPP4. The HKU25-receptor binding domain (RBD) can bind to hDPP4 protein and hDPP4-expressing cells, but it does so with lower efficiency than that of MERS-RBD. Pseudovirus assays showed that HKU25-spike can use hDPP4 for entry to hDPP4-expressing cells, although with lower efficiency than that of MERS-spike and HKU4-spike. Our findings support a bat origin of MERS-CoV and suggest that bat CoV spike proteins may have evolved in a stepwise manner for binding to hDPP4.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Quirópteros , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Filogenia , Ligação Proteica , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
9.
Viruses ; 9(12)2017 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186061

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are closely monitored in the context of emerging diseases and, as illustrated with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are known to cross the species barrier and eventually to move from wildlife to humans. Knowledge of the diversity of coronaviruses in wildlife is therefore essential to better understand and prevent emergence events. This study explored the presence of coronaviruses in four wild mammal orders in France: Bats, rodents, lagomorphs, and hedgehogs. Betacoronavirus and Alphacoronavirus genera were identified. The results obtained suggest the circulation of potentially evolving virus strains, with the potential to cross the species barrier.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/classificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Variação Genética , Alphacoronavirus/classificação , Alphacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , França , Geografia , Ouriços-Cacheiros , Filogenia , Coelhos , Roedores
10.
Virol J ; 14(1): 98, 2017 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28549438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rodents represent the most diverse mammals on the planet and are important reservoirs of human pathogens. Coronaviruses infect various animals, but to date, relatively few coronaviruses have been identified in rodents worldwide. The evolution and ecology of coronaviruses in rodent have not been fully investigated. RESULTS: In this study, we collected 177 intestinal samples from thress species of rodents in Jianchuan County, Yunnan Province, China. Alphacoronavirus and betacoronavirus were detected in 23 rodent samples from three species, namely Apodemus chevrieri (21/98), Eothenomys fidelis (1/62), and Apodemus ilex (1/17). We further characterized the full-length genome of an alphacoronavirus from the A. chevrieri rat and named it as AcCoV-JC34. The AcCoV-JC34 genome was 27,649 nucleotides long and showed a structure similar to the HKU2 bat coronavirus. Comparing the normal transcription regulatory sequence (TRS), 3 variant TRS sequences upstream the spike (S), ORF3, and ORF8 genes were found in the genome of AcCoV-JC34. In the conserved replicase domains, AcCoV-JC34 was most closely related to Rattus norvegicus coronavirus LNRV but diverged from other alphacoronaviruses, indicating that AcCoV-JC34 and LNRV may represent a novel alphacoronavirus species. However, the S and nucleocapsid proteins showed low similarity to those of LRNV, with 66.5 and 77.4% identities, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the S genes of AcCoV-JC34, LRNV, and HKU2 formed a distinct lineage with all known coronaviruses. CONCLUSIONS: Both alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses were detected in Apodemus chevrieri in the Yunnan Province of China, indicating that Apodemus chevrieri is an important host for coronavirus. Several new features were identified in the genome of an Apodemus chevrieri coronavirus. The phylogenetic distance to other coronaviruses suggests a variable origin and evolutionary route of the S genes of AcCoV-JC34, LRNV, and HKU2. These results indicate that the diversity of rodent coronaviruses is much higher than previously expected. Further surveillance and functional studies of these coronaviruses will help to better understand the importance of rodent as host for coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Arvicolinae/virologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Murinae/virologia , Alphacoronavirus/classificação , Alphacoronavirus/genética , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genes Virais , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 64(6): 2093-2103, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28296228

RESUMO

Equine coronaviruses (ECoV) are the only coronavirus known to infect horses. So far, data on ECoV infection in horses remain limited to the USA, France and Japan and its geographic distribution is not well understood. We carried out RT-PCR on 306 nasal and 315 rectal swabs and tested 243 sera for antibodies to detect coronavirus infections in apparently healthy horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman. We document evidence of infection with ECoV and HKU23 coronavirus by RT-PCR. There was no conclusive evidence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in horses. Serological data suggest that lineage A betacoronavirus infections are commonly infecting horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman but antibody cross-reactivities between these viruses do not permit us to use serological data alone to identify which coronaviruses are causing these infections.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reações Cruzadas , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Omã/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Células Vero
13.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 64(6): 1790-1800, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27637887

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are a diverse group of viruses that infect mammals and birds. Bats are reservoirs for several different coronaviruses in the Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus genera. They also appear to be the natural reservoir for the ancestral viruses that generated the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreaks. Here, we detected coronavirus sequences in next-generation sequence data created from Eonycteris spelaea faeces and urine. We also screened by PCR urine samples, faecal samples and rectal swabs collected from six species of bats in Singapore between 2011 and 2014, all of which were negative. The phylogenetic analysis indicates this novel strain is most closely related to lineage D Betacoronaviruses detected in a diverse range of bat species. This is the second time that coronaviruses have been detected in cave nectar bats, but the first coronavirus sequence data generated from this species. Bat species from which this group of coronaviruses has been detected are widely distributed across SE Asia, South Asia and Southern China. They overlap geographically, often share roosting sites and have been witnessed to forage on the same plant. The addition of sequence data from this group of viruses will allow us to better understand coronavirus evolution and host specificity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Evolução Biológica , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Ecologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Masculino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Singapura/epidemiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Urina/virologia
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