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3.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(5): 1943-1951, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118215

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has put the global public health at its highest threat around the world. Previous epidemic caused by the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 is also considered since both the coronaviruses resulted in the similar clinical complications. The outbreak caused by the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 had a low rate of disease transmission and death cases. Modes of entry by MERS and SARS coronaviruses are similar to that of SARS-CoV-2, except MERS-CoV utilize different receptor. They all belong to the lineage C of ß-coronavirus. Based on the information from the previous reports, the present review is mainly focused on the mechanisms of disease progression by each of these viruses in association to their strategies to escape the host immunity. The viral entry is the first step of pathogenesis associated with attachment of viral spike protein with host receptor help releasing the viral RNA into the host cell. Models of molecular pathogenesis are outlined with virus strategies escaping the host immunity along with the role of various inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the process. The molecular aspects of pathogenesis have also been discussed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Especificidade da Espécie , Internalização do Vírus
4.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(5): 1943-1951, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682075

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has put the global public health at its highest threat around the world. Previous epidemic caused by the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 is also considered since both the coronaviruses resulted in the similar clinical complications. The outbreak caused by the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 had a low rate of disease transmission and death cases. Modes of entry by MERS and SARS coronaviruses are similar to that of SARS-CoV-2, except MERS-CoV utilize different receptor. They all belong to the lineage C of ß-coronavirus. Based on the information from the previous reports, the present review is mainly focused on the mechanisms of disease progression by each of these viruses in association to their strategies to escape the host immunity. The viral entry is the first step of pathogenesis associated with attachment of viral spike protein with host receptor help releasing the viral RNA into the host cell. Models of molecular pathogenesis are outlined with virus strategies escaping the host immunity along with the role of various inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the process. The molecular aspects of pathogenesis have also been discussed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Especificidade da Espécie , Internalização do Vírus
5.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060037

RESUMO

Many viruses disrupt host gene expression by degrading host mRNAs and/or manipulating translation activities to create a cellular environment favorable for viral replication. Often, virus-induced suppression of host gene expression, including those involved in antiviral responses, contributes to viral pathogenicity. Accordingly, clarifying the mechanisms of virus-induced disruption of host gene expression is important for understanding virus-host cell interactions and virus pathogenesis. Three highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, have emerged in the past two decades. All of them encode nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) in their genomes. Nsp1 of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV exhibit common biological functions for inducing endonucleolytic cleavage of host mRNAs and inhibition of host translation, while viral mRNAs evade the nsp1-induced mRNA cleavage. SARS-CoV nsp1 is a major pathogenic determinant for this virus, supporting the notion that a viral protein that suppresses host gene expression can be a virulence factor, and further suggesting the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 nsp1, which has high amino acid identity with SARS-CoV nsp1, may serve as a major virulence factor. This review summarizes the gene expression suppression functions of nsp1 of CoVs, with a primary focus on SARS-CoV nsp1 and MERS-CoV nsp1.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/fisiologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/fisiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Replicação Viral
6.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; feb. 18, 2021. 10 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151148

RESUMO

El Centro Panamericano de Fiebre Aftosa y Salud Pública Veterinaria de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud / Organización Mundial de la Salud (PANAFTOSA-OPS/OMS) y la Protección Animal Mundial (PAM) comunican al público en general los aspectos referentes al COVID-19 y la relación con las mascotas (perros y gatos).


Assuntos
Animais , Gatos , Cães , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade
7.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540583

RESUMO

Many viruses disrupt host gene expression by degrading host mRNAs and/or manipulating translation activities to create a cellular environment favorable for viral replication. Often, virus-induced suppression of host gene expression, including those involved in antiviral responses, contributes to viral pathogenicity. Accordingly, clarifying the mechanisms of virus-induced disruption of host gene expression is important for understanding virus-host cell interactions and virus pathogenesis. Three highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, have emerged in the past two decades. All of them encode nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) in their genomes. Nsp1 of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV exhibit common biological functions for inducing endonucleolytic cleavage of host mRNAs and inhibition of host translation, while viral mRNAs evade the nsp1-induced mRNA cleavage. SARS-CoV nsp1 is a major pathogenic determinant for this virus, supporting the notion that a viral protein that suppresses host gene expression can be a virulence factor, and further suggesting the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 nsp1, which has high amino acid identity with SARS-CoV nsp1, may serve as a major virulence factor. This review summarizes the gene expression suppression functions of nsp1 of CoVs, with a primary focus on SARS-CoV nsp1 and MERS-CoV nsp1.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/fisiologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/fisiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Replicação Viral
8.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(2): 159-163, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265180

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus with an outbreak of unusual viral pneumonia in Wuhan, China, and then pandemic. Based on its phylogenetic relationships and genomic structures the COVID-19 belongs to genera Betacoronavirus. Human Betacoronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV) have many similarities, but also have differences in their genomic and phenotypic structure that can influence their pathogenesis. COVID-19 is containing single-stranded (positive-sense) RNA associated with a nucleoprotein within a capsid comprised of matrix protein. A typical CoV contains at least six ORFs in its genome. All the structural and accessory proteins are translated from the sgRNAs of CoVs. Four main structural proteins are encoded by ORFs 10, 11 on the one-third of the genome near the 3'-terminus. The genetic and phenotypic structure of COVID-19 in pathogenesis is important. This article highlights the most important of these features compared to other Betacoronaviruses.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19/etiologia , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Humanos , Pandemias , Fenótipo , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Virulência/genética , Replicação Viral
9.
Brasília; CONASS; 2021. 326 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS | ID: biblio-1150771

RESUMO

A partir dos desafios para a efetivação do direito à saúde, o Volume 6 ­ Reflexões e Futuro ­ apresenta debates relacionados às questões ambientais, urbanas, das relações humano-natureza, das arboviroses ­ que juntos contribuem para a análise da conformação do futuro pós-pandemia. Nessa esteira seguem análises relacionadas à saúde pública, à sociedade brasileira, à infoestrutura como apoio às decisões estratégicas e a avaliação, como dispositivo potente para a gestão. Ainda em sede de desafios, o livro aborda a Vigilância Sanitária como elemento primordial para o enfrentamento das emergências em saúde pública e nesse escopo se insere o Programa Nacional de Imunizações (PNI), do Brasil. À títulos comparativos, há narrativas acerca do enfrentamento da pandemia nos países de língua portuguesa, especialmente Portugal, bem como no Canadá e no Quebec possibilitando aprendizados com as experiências de outros sistemas universais. A abordagem acerca das políticas governamentais de compras públicas, da imagem do SUS nos contextos, nas narrativas e para as pessoas são encerradas com reflexões sobre a cobertura sanitária enquanto valor e a reforma sanitária brasileira como necessidade atual. Ainda que esse levante editorial se encerre, por ora, no volume 6 da Coleção COVID-19, a pandemia continua e outros tantos elementos poderão ser percebidos, contextualizados e merecerão registro. O Conass envida agradecimentos aos que estiveram empenhados em registrar seus diferentes campos de observação: gestores, auditores, ministros, médicos, pesquisadores, farmacêuticos, cientistas sociais, juízes, antropólogos, promotores, advogados, cientistas de dados, administradores, professores, comunicadores e todos que contribuíram com a análise e possíveis aperfeiçoamentos da gestão estadual do SUS no enfrentamento das emergências sanitárias.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Arbovirus , Sistema Único de Saúde/organização & administração , Brasil/epidemiologia , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Política de Saúde
10.
Brasília; CONASS; 2021. 314 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS | ID: biblio-1150765

RESUMO

No Brasil, as competências e regras a que se submetem os entes federados e as diferentes instituições afetas ao direito à saúde, conformaram-se no conteúdo desse livro. As Comissões Intergestores do SUS, o Congresso Nacional e o Tribunal de Contas da União (TCU), os conselhos nacionais de Justiça (CNJ) e do Ministério Público (CNMP), agências reguladoras (Anvisa) e o Conselho Nacional de Saúde (CNS) exararam manifestações por estratégias e instrumentação diversa, descritas e analisadas. As estratégias de saúde digital e da comunicação em saúde estiveram sob avaliação, assim como o desempenho do Conass e das Secretarias Estaduais de Saúde (SES), em especial no quesito transparência das informações. Ainda nessa seara, os textos aqui compilados trouxeram ao debate questões relacionadas às transferências de recursos federais aos cofres estaduais, às requisições administrativas e aos dilemas que circundam o âmbito fiscal do SUS. Numa tentativa de agrupar os principais comandos, estão apresentados o rol de leis e atos administrativos, a normativa regulatória sanitária e a interpretação do poder judiciário acerca da legislação, especialmente sob o crivo da responsabilização dos gestores públicos. Quando iniciada a organização da Coleção COVID-19, a principal expectativa era que a disponibilização de seu conteúdo ocorresse num cenário em que as medidas de prevenção, controle e até mesmo mitigação tivessem apresentado as melhores respostas, no Brasil e no mundo. Mas, o recrudescimento do número de infectados e dos óbitos já é um fato. Novas medidas, não farmacológicas, dessa vez acompanhadas das campanhas de vacinação em vários países, já são realidade no âmbito dos territórios. Portanto, o tempo permitirá perceber outros tantos comandos normativos afetos à saúde pública no Brasil e no mundo, o que requererá atenção do leitor quanto à necessidade de pesquisa e atualização. Conforme já asseverado, os textos revelam as opiniões de seus autores, ainda que porventura divirjam das posições do Conass. Que os diferentes posicionamentos compilados no Volume 3 ­ Competências e Regras ­ sejam capazes de denotar limites e potencialidades para a gestão, bem como possam contribuir com aprendizados para o futuro!


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Sistema Único de Saúde/organização & administração , Grupos de Risco , Brasil/epidemiologia , Colaboração Intersetorial , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Gestão em Saúde
11.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 519-522, dic. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134530

RESUMO

RESUMEN: La pandemia por COVID-19 ha hecho que la atención odontológica de rutina se suspenda. La causa principal es el pobre control del aerosol en la consulta dental. Los aerosoles liberados por el instrumental odontológico son esenciales para la remoción de los tejidos bucales enfermos. Sin embargo, al mezclarse con saliva o sangre contaminada, los aerosoles pueden diseminar microorganismos infectivos fuera de la boca del paciente. Existe evidencia de que el SARS-CoV-2 se encuentra en la saliva del 91,7 % de los sujetos enfermos. Este artículo presenta evidencias y reflexiones para el control del aerosol odontológico, las que podrían permitir aumentar la seguridad del ejercicio de la odontología durante la pandemia y pospandemia.


ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused routine dental check-ups to be cancelled. The main cause is poor aerosol control in the dental office. Aerosols released by dental instruments are essential for the removal of diseased oral tissues. However, when mixed with saliva or contaminated blood, aerosols can spread infectious microorganisms out of the patient's mouth. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in the self-collected saliva of 91.7 % of patients. This article presents evidence and reflections for the control of dental aerosol, which could allow increasing the safety of dental practice during the pandemic and post-pandemic.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Odontologia/normas , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Aerossóis
12.
Angiol. (Barcelona) ; 72(6): 286-297, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195584

RESUMO

El SARS-CoV-2, responsable de la pandemia, ha demostrado un alto potencial trombogénico y, a pesar de ser un virus de reciente aparición, evidencia una relación estrecha con mecanismos fisiopatológicos previamente descritos. La enfermedad tromboembólica venosa es una de sus complicaciones más frecuentes, cuya presencia es directamente proporcional al incremento en la mortalidad de estos pacientes. En el contexto del SARS-CoV-2, si bien las heparinas han mostrado superioridad frente a otros fármacos por su efecto antiinflamatorio añadido, no se logra un consenso sobre su dosificación en los diferentes escenarios y, en condiciones de alta hospitalaria, la elección de la droga más idónea y la duración de la profilaxis farmacológica también han generado controversias y discrepancias. Tras una revisión exhaustiva y basada en la literatura publicada tanto en la era COVID-19 como en años pasados, presentamos para su discusión la escala de coagulopatía inducida por sepsis (SIC) y el valor del dímero D como parámetros objetivos frente a las incertidumbres planteadas. Además, se sugiere el uso de escalas previamente validadas y manejadas para evaluar el riesgo tromboembólico venoso, el sangrado y las probabilidades de sospecha diagnóstica de trombosis venosa profunda y embolia pulmonar, las mismas que podrían ayudar a reducir sesgos subjetivos


SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the pandemic; has shown a high thrombogenic potential, but; despite being a newly emerging virus, it shows a close relationship with previously described pathophysiological mechanisms. Venous thromboembolic disease is the most frequent complication and it is directly proportional to the increase in mortality in these patients. In SARS-CoV-2 context, heparins have shown superiority over other drugs for their anti-inflammatory effect but there is not an established consensus about their dosage in different stages of the disease; moreover, at hospital discharge, the most suitable drug choice and pharmacological prophylaxis duration is controversial. After an exhaustive review and based in both, current COVID-19 era literature and the past years related scientific information, we propose sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) score and D-dimer quantification as objective parameters; in addition, we suggest the use of previously validated scores to assess venous thromboembolic risk, bleeding and diagnostic suspicion of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism; these could help to reduce subjective bias and try to clear uncertainties about this topic


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Tromboembolia Venosa/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Medição de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle
13.
Rev. patol. respir ; 23(supl.3): 246-250, dic. 2020. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197099

RESUMO

Desde 2002, tras la epidemia de síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS), expertos virólogos y epidemiólogos han alertado durante años de la posibilidad de una pandemia. En diciembre de 2019 se produjo un brote epidémico por un nuevo coronavirus, el SARS-CoV-2, que, a fecha de 2 de noviembre de 2020, ha causado 46.597.299 casos de infección en el mundo y 1.201.162 muertes. España es el segundo país con mayor incidencia de la Unión Europea, con 530,7 casos por 100.000 habitantes, con una tasa de letalidad del 4,5%. El SARS-CoV-2 es un virus de cadena simple de ácido ribonucleico de sentido positivo compactada en forma helicoidal por la proteína N, con una envoltura proteica donde destaca la proteína S, responsable de la entrada del virus en el citoplasma celular a través de la enzima conversora de la angiotensina 2. La actual revisión pretende realizar un resumen de los datos claves de la enfermedad que conocemos hasta este momento


Since 2002, after the Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, virologists and epidemiologists have warned for years of the possibility of a pandemic. In December 2019, there was an epidemic outbreak caused by a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which has caused 46,597,299 cases worldwide and 1,202,162 deaths. Spain is the second country with the highest incidence in the European Union with 530,7 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, with a fatality rate of 4,5%. SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense ribonucleic acid single chain virus helically compacted by protein N. Protein S is part of the envelope and responsible for the entry of the virus into the cell cytoplasm through the angiotensin converting enzyme 2. The current review is intended to summarize the key data of the disease that we know so far


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade
14.
mSphere ; 5(6)2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239366

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected over 40 million people worldwide, with over 1 million deaths as of October 2020 and with multiple efforts in the development and testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines under way. In order to gain insights into SARS-CoV-2 evolution and drug targets, we investigated how and to what extent the SARS-CoV-2 genome sequence differs from those of other well-characterized human and animal coronavirus genomes, as well as how polymorphic SARS-CoV-2 genomes are generally. We ultimately sought to identify features in the SARS-CoV-2 genome that may contribute to its viral replication, host pathogenicity, and vulnerabilities. Our analyses suggest the presence of unique sequence signatures in the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of betacoronavirus lineage B, which phylogenetically encompasses SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV as well as multiple groups of bat and animal coronaviruses. In addition, we identified genome-wide patterns of variation across different SARS-CoV-2 strains that likely reflect the effects of selection. Finally, we provide evidence for a possible host-microRNA-mediated interaction between the 3'-UTR and human microRNA hsa-miR-1307-3p based on the results of multiple computational target prediction analyses and an assessment of similar interactions involving the influenza A H1N1 virus. This interaction also suggests a possible survival mechanism, whereby a mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 3'-UTR leads to a weakened host immune response. The potential roles of host microRNAs in SARS-CoV-2 replication and infection and the exploitation of conserved features in the 3'-UTR as therapeutic targets warrant further investigation.IMPORTANCE The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is having a dramatic global effect on public health and the economy. As of October 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in over 189 countries, has infected over 40 million people, and is responsible for more than 1 million deaths. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 is small but complex, and its functions and interactions with human host factors are being studied extensively. The significance of our study is that, using extensive SARS-CoV-2 genome analysis techniques, we identified potential interacting human host microRNA targets that share similarity with those of influenza A virus H1N1. Our study results will allow the development of virus-host interaction models that will enhance our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and motivate the exploitation of both the interacting viral and host factors as therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Filogenia
15.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(17): 2644-2652, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162792

RESUMO

Rationale: The clinical data and corresponding dynamic CT findings were investigated in detail to describe the clinical and imaging profiles of COVID-19 pneumonia disease progression. Methods: Forty HCWs with COVID-19 were included in this study and 30 enrolled for imaging assessment. Disease was divided into four stages based on time from onset: stage 1 (1-6 days), stage 2 (7-13 days), stage 3 (14-22 days), and stage 4 (> 22 days). Clinical wand imaging data were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The cohort included 33 female and 7 male cases, with a median age of 40 years. Six had underlying comorbidities. More than half of the cases were nurses (22, 55%). Each stage included 39, 37, 34 and 32 CTs, respectively. Bilateral lesions, multifocal lesions and lesions with GGO pattern occurred in both lower lobes at all stages. The crazy-paving pattern (20, 54%), air bronchogram (13, 35%), and pleural effusion (2, 5%) were the most common CT features in stage 2. Consolidation score peaked in stage 2 whereas total lesions score peaked in stage 3. Conclusions: COVID-19 pneumonia in HCWs has a potential predilection for younger female workers. Stage 2 of COVID-19 pneumonia may be the key period for controlling progression of the disease, and consolidation scores may be an objective reflection of the severity of lung involvement.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tórax/fisiopatologia , Tórax/virologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(17): 2653-2662, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162793

RESUMO

Background and aim: To perform a longitudinal analysis of serial CT findings over time in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: From February 5 to March 8, 2020, 73 patients (male to female, ratio of 43:30; mean age, 51 years) with COVID-19 pneumonia were retrospectively enrolled and followed up until discharge from three institutions in China. The patients were divided into the severe and non-severe groups according to treatment option. The patterns and distribution of lung abnormalities, total CT scores, single ground-glass opacity (GGO) CT scores, single consolidation CT scores, single reticular CT scores and the amounts of zones involved were reviewed by 2 radiologists. These features were analyzed for temporal changes. Results: In non-severe group, total CT scores (median, 9.5) and the amounts of zones involved were slowly increased and peaked in disease week 2. In the severe group, the increase was faster, with scores also peaking at 2 weeks (median, 20). In both groups, the later parameters began to decrease in week 4 (median values of 9 and 19 in the non-severe and severe groups, respectively). In the severe group, the dominant residual lung lesions were reticular (median single reticular CT score, 10) and consolidation (median single consolidation CT score, 7). In the non-severe group, the dominant residual lung lesions were GGO (median single GGO CT score, 7) and reticular (median single reticular CT score, 4). In both non-severe and severe groups, the GGO pattern was dominant in week 1, with a higher proportion in the severe group compared with the non-severe group (72% vs. 65%). The consolidation pattern peaked in week 2, with 9 (32%) and 19 (73%) in the non-severe and severe groups, respectively; the reticular pattern became dominant from week 4 (both group >40%). Conclusion: The extent of CT abnormalities in the severe and non-severe groups peaked in disease week 2. The temporal changes of CT manifestations followed a specific pattern, which might indicate disease progression and recovery.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241662, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented public health threat, both in scope and response. With no vaccine available, the public is advised to practice non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) including social distancing, mask-wearing, and washing hands. However, little is known about public perceptions of the effectiveness of these measures, and high perceived effectiveness is likely to be critical in order to achieve widespread adoption of NPI. METHODS: In May 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among U.S. adults (N = 3,474). The primary outcome was a six-item measure assessing perceived effectiveness of recommended behaviors to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection from 1 (not at all effective) to 5 (extremely effective). The sample was divided into "higher" and "lower" perceived effectiveness groups. Covariates included demographics, healthcare characteristics, and health beliefs. Variables that were significant at p<0.01 in bivariate analyses were entered into a multivariable logistic regression and a best-fit model was created using a cutoff of p<0.01 to stay in the model. RESULTS: Mean age was 45.5 years and most participants were non-Hispanic White (63%) and female (52.4%). The high perceived effectiveness group was slightly larger than the low perceived effectiveness group (52.7% vs. 47.3%). Almost all health belief variables were significant in the best-fit regression model. COVID-19-related worry (aOR = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.64-2.02), and perceived threat to physical health (aOR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.20-1.45) were positively associated with perceived effectiveness while perceived severity of COVID-19 (0.84; 95% CI = 0.73-0.96) and perceived likelihood of infection (0.85; 95% CI = 0.77-0.94) switched directions in the adjusted model and were negatively associated with perceived effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: This research indicates people generally believe NPI are effective, but there was variability based on health beliefs and there are mixed rates of engagement in these behaviors. Public health efforts should focus on increasing perceived severity and threat of SARS-CoV-2-related disease, while promoting NPI as effective in reducing threat.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distância Psicológica , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 173-179, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152201

RESUMO

Coronaviruses cause respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders in animals and humans. The current SARS-CoV-2, the COVID-19 infectious agent, belongs to a subgroup called betacoronavirus including the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV responsible for epidemics in 2002 and 2012, respectively. These viruses can also infect the nervous system due to their affinity for the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expressed in neurons and glial cells. Infections with SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and now SARS-CoV-2 also produce neurological signs such as acute cerebrovascular disease, impaired consciousness, and muscle injury, as well as dizziness, hypogeusia, hyposmia, hypoxia, neuralgia, and hypoxic encephalopathy. For this reason, close attention should be paid to the neurological manifestations of COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , COVID-19 , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/virologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Transtornos da Consciência/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Previsões , Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos das Sensações/etiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Latência Viral
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(20): 10902-10912, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155254

RESUMO

The world will never be the same after the current COVID-19 pandemic. We may have to live with the coronavirus for a long time. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted in a major burden on the global health system and economy. This report describes the current COVID-19 landscape and its socioeconomic implications. Despite the concerns for second waves of infection, gradual lifting of lockdown restrictions has occurred worldwide to relieve economic pressures and likely contributes towards possibly surging of outbreak although region wise variation exists due to several other biological factors, such as testing capacity and basic healthcare facilities among susceptible population within that region. Different prediction models have been put forth to forecast the spread of the current outbreak. However, it is challenging to perceive the precise changes happening in the real world as every time dynamics differ same as other epidemics cannot possibly be exactly superimposed to COVID-19. Currently, to decrypt the conundrum for effective antiviral drug against SARS-CoV-2 is in full swing. Due to high rate of mortality and it expeditiously spread is it decisive to understand the biological properties, clinical characteristics, epidemiology, evolution, pathogenesis for vaccine development and pathogenicity studies against the viral curb. Instant diagnostic and adequate therapeutics serve as a major intervention for the management of pandemic containment. Our study aims to analyze the impact of current measures and to suggest appropriate administrative strategic planning rather than to make somewhat authentic prediction in relation to the current scenario. Our predictive analysis study should be helpful against prevention, cure and control of the current outbreak of COVID-19 till the availability of cure or vaccine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/economia , SARS-CoV-2
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