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1.
Aquat Toxicol ; 234: 105796, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713916

RESUMO

This study leveraged the Japanese medaka fish embryo model for the assessment of effects of select contaminants on early development in fish. Fish embryos were exposed to various pharmaceutical contaminants including synthetic hormones and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and their effects on development were observed. Initial screening determined that swim bladder inflation failure was the most common endpoint detected. Swim bladder inflation failure was first explored in a study demonstrating that medaka require access to the air-water interphase to inflate their swim bladders in a time-dependent manner, and swim bladder inflation failure was correlated with mortality. Fish embryos were exposed 24-hours post fertilization until hatch to concentration ranges of various pharmaceutical contaminants including: 17ß-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, and levonorgestrel (1 to 1000 µg/L), or diclofenac (0.32 to 100 mg/L). The main effect observed across all four compounds was a significant increase in failure of swim bladder inflation with increasing exposure concentration (24 to 72-hours post-hatch). Following single compound experiments combinatorial exposures using no-observed-effect concentrations were conducted. The main effect observed was a significant decrease in inflation success 24-hours post-hatch following a binary mixture of levonorgestrel and 17α-ethinylestradiol, as well as a significant decrease in swim bladder inflation success at all times following exposure to a quaternary mixture of all four compounds. This study demonstrated that embryonic exposure to pharmaceutical compounds, both alone and in combination, resulted in failure of swim bladder inflation in larval Japanese medaka.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Oryzias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bexiga Urinária/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/fisiologia , Estradiol/toxicidade , Oryzias/fisiologia , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668086

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effect of unilateral axotomy of urinary bladder trigone (UBT)-projecting nerve fibers from the right anterior pelvic ganglion (APG) on changes in the chemical coding of their neuronal bodies. The study was performed using male pigs with immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The animals were divided into a control (C), a morphological (MG) or a molecular biology group (MBG). APG neurons supplying UBT were revealed using the retrograde tracing technique with Fast Blue (FB). Unilateral axotomy resulted in an over 50% decrease in the number of FB+ neurons in both APG ganglia. Immunohistochemistry revealed significant changes in the chemical coding of FB+ cells only in the right ganglion: decreased expression of dopamine-B-hydroxylase (DBH)/tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and up-regulation of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)/choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), galanin (GAL), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and brain nitric oxide synthase (bNOS). The qPCR results partly corresponded with immunofluorescence findings. In the APGs, genes for VAChT and ChAT, TH and DBH, VIP, and NOS were distinctly down-regulated, while the expression of GAL was up-regulated. Such data may be the basis for further studies concerning the plasticity of these ganglia under experimental or pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Gânglios Simpáticos/fisiologia , Fibras Nervosas/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Pelve/fisiologia , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Animais , Axotomia , Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Colina O-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Dopamina beta-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Masculino , Vias Neurais/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Pelve/inervação , Suínos , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Bexiga Urinária/inervação
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(1)2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443190

RESUMO

The release of urine, or micturition, serves a fundamental physiological function and, in many species, is critical for social communication. In mice, the pattern of urine release is modulated by external and internal factors and transmitted to the spinal cord via the pontine micturition center (PMC). Here, we exploited a behavioral paradigm in which mice, depending on strain, social experience, and sensory context, either vigorously cover an arena with small urine spots or deposit urine in a few isolated large spots. We refer to these micturition modes as, respectively, high and low territory-covering micturition (TCM) and find that the presence of a urine stimulus robustly induces high TCM in socially isolated mice. Comparison of the brain networks activated by social isolation and by urine stimuli to those upstream of the PMC identified the lateral hypothalamic area as a potential modulator of micturition modes. Indeed, chemogenetic manipulations of the lateral hypothalamus can switch micturition behavior between high and low TCM, overriding the influence of social experience and sensory context. Our results suggest that both inhibitory and excitatory signals arising from a network upstream of the PMC are integrated to determine context- and social-experience-dependent micturition patterns.


Assuntos
Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Micção/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comunicação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ponte/fisiologia , Reflexo/fisiologia , Medula Espinal/fisiologia , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Micção/genética
4.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 184: 114363, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309520

RESUMO

Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is a prevalent condition of the lower urinary tract that causes symptoms, such as urinary frequency, urinary urgency, urge incontinence, and nocturia, and disproportionately affects women and the elderly. Current medications for OAB merely provide symptomatic relief with considerable limitations, as they are no more than moderately effective, not to mention that they may cause substantial adverse effects. Identifying novel molecular targets to facilitate the development of new medical therapies with higher efficacy and safety for OAB is in an urgent unmet need. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of OAB largely remain elusive and are likely multifactorial, mounting evidence from preclinical studies over the past decade reveals that the pro-inflammatory pathways engaging cyclooxygenases and their prostanoid products, particularly the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), may play essential roles in the progression of OAB. The goals of this review are to summarize recent progresses in our knowledge on the pathogenic roles of PGE2 in the OAB and to provide new mechanistic insights into the signaling pathways transduced by its four G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), i.e., EP1-EP4, in the overactive detrusor smooth muscle. We also discuss the feasibility of targeting these GPCRs as an emerging strategy to treat OAB with better therapeutic specificity than the current medications.


Assuntos
Receptores de Prostaglandina E/metabolismo , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/tratamento farmacológico , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/metabolismo , Animais , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Humanos , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/metabolismo , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia
5.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(3): F506-F514, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715761

RESUMO

To assess whether quantitative T1 relaxometry can measure permeability, chronic inflammation and mural thickening of mouse bladder wall. Adult female C57BL6 mice unexposed to radiation (controls) or 40 wk postirradiation of 10 Gy were scanned at 9.4 T before and after instillation (0.1 mL) of aqueous, novel contrast mixture (NCM) containing 4 mM gadobutrol and 5 mM ferumoxytol. Rapid acquisition with refocused echo (RARE) sequence was used with variable repetition times (TR). Pixel-wise maps of T1 relaxation times for the segmented bladder wall layers were generated from voxel-wise, nonlinear least square data fitting of TR-dependent signal intensity acquired with TR array of 0.4-10 s followed by the histology of harvested bladder. Significant differences between precontrast and postcontrast T1 (ΔT1) were noted in urothelium and lamina propria of both groups but only in detrusor of irradiated group (P < 0.001; 2-way ANOVA). Nearly twofold higher gadobutrol permeability (550 ± 73 vs. 294 ± 160 µM; P < 0.01) derived as per 1/ΔT1 = r1. [C] in urothelium of irradiated group. Inflammation and bladder wall thickening (0.75 ± 0. vs. 0.44 ± 0.08 mm; P < 0.001) predicted by MRI was subsequently confirmed by histology and altered expression of CD45 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) relative to controls. NCM enhanced MRI relies on the retention of large molecular weight ferumoxytol in lumen for negative contrast, while permeation of the non-ionic, small molecular weight gadobutrol through ZO-1 generates positive contrast in bladder wall for virtual measurement of paracellular permeability and assessment of chronic inflammation in thin and distensible bladder wall, which is also defined by its variable shape and location within pelvis.


Assuntos
Inflamação/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Meios de Contraste/farmacocinética , Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Feminino , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/genética , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacocinética , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Permeabilidade , Bexiga Urinária/efeitos dos fármacos , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/genética , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo
6.
Phys Ther ; 100(8): 1357-1371, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to identify, evaluate, and synthesize the evidence from studies that have investigated the effect of nonsurgical, nonpharmacological, pelvic floor muscle interventions on any type of pelvic floor dysfunction or health-related quality of life in patients after any type of treatment for gynecological cancer. METHODS: Six electronic databases (Cochrane Library 2018, CINAHL 1982-2018, MEDLINE 1950-2018, EMBASE 1980-2018, PsycINFO 1806-2018, and EMCARE 1995-2018) were systematically searched in June 2018. Reference lists of identified articles were hand searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, and case series were included if they investigated the effects of conservative treatments, including pelvic floor muscle training or dilator training, on bladder, bowel, or sexual function in patients who had received treatment for gynecological cancer. Risk of bias was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale for RCTs and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for cohort studies. RESULTS: Five RCTs and 2 retrospective cohort studies were included (n = 886). The results provided moderate-level evidence that pelvic floor muscle training with counseling and yoga or core exercises were beneficial for sexual function (standardized mean difference = -0.96, 95% CI = -1.22 to -0.70, I2 = 0%) and health-related quality of life (standardized mean difference = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.88, I2 = 0%) in survivors of cervical cancer and very low-level evidence that dilator therapy reduced vaginal complications in survivors of cervical and uterine cancer (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.17 to 0.80, I2 = 54%). There were insufficient data for meta-analysis of bladder or bowel function. CONCLUSION: Conservative pelvic floor muscle interventions may be beneficial for improving sexual function and health-related quality of life in survivors of gynecological cancer. Given the levels of evidence reported in this review, further high-quality studies are needed, especially to investigate effects on bladder and bowel function. IMPACT: This review provides moderate-level evidence for the role of pelvic floor rehabilitation to improve health outcomes in the gynecological cancer survivorship journey. Clinicians and health service providers should consider how to provide cancer survivors the opportunity to participate in supervised pelvic floor rehabilitation programs.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/terapia , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aconselhamento , Dilatação/instrumentação , Dilatação/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Força Muscular , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento Sexual , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Ioga
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5824, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242027

RESUMO

Tissue engineering allows to combine biomaterials and seeded cells to experimentally replace urinary bladder wall. The normal bladder wall however, includes branched neuronal network propagating signals which regulate urine storage and voiding. In this study we introduced a novel biocomposite built from amniotic membrane (Am) and graphene which created interface between cells and external stimuli replacing neuronal network. Graphene layers were transferred without modifying Am surface. Applied method allowed to preserve the unique bioactive characteristic of Am. Tissue engineered constructs composed from biocomposite seeded with smooth muscle cells (SMC) derived from porcine detrusor and porcine urothelial cells (UC) were used to evaluate properties of developed biomaterial. The presence of graphene layer significantly increased electrical conductivity of biocomposite. UCs and SMCs showed an organized growth pattern on graphene covered surfaces. Electrical filed stimulation (EFS) applied in vitro led additionally to increased SMCs growth and linear arrangement. 3D printed chamber equipped with 3D printed graphene based electrodes was fabricated to deliver EFS and record pressure changes caused by contracting SMCs seeded biocomposite. Observed contractile response indicated on effective SMCs stimulation mediated by graphene layer which constituted efficient cell to biomaterial interface.


Assuntos
Âmnio/citologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/administração & dosagem , Grafite/administração & dosagem , Reimplante/métodos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Bexiga Urinária/efeitos dos fármacos , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Condutividade Elétrica/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Tecidos Suporte , Urotélio/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 155(2): 74-79, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115481

RESUMO

Recently, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as the third gasotransmitter besides nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, and it has been reported that H2S exhibits various physiological functions such as neuromodulation and vasorelaxation. In the lower urinary tract (bladder and prostate), it is reported that donors of H2S induce contraction of the rat detrusor and relaxation of the pig bladder neck. These reports suggest a possibility that H2S may have site-specific effects on the bladder. However, the detailed functions of H2S in each part of the bladder are still unclear. In addition, there is no report showing physiological roles of H2S in the prostate. In this article, we will review the distribution of enzymes related to H2S biosynthesis and physiological roles of H2S in the lower urinary tract based on reports from our and other groups. We will also introduce a possibility that H2S can be a new therapeutic target against lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) based on our data from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), which develop hypertension-mediated LUTS.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Próstata/fisiologia , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Suínos
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4182, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144403

RESUMO

We evaluated pathophysiological characteristics of the lower urinary tract dysfunction in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model. STZ (60 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into male Wistar rats. In vitro bladder muscle strip experiments, in vivo cystometry, and simultaneous recordings of bladder pressure + urethral perfusion pressure (BP + UPP) with or without intravenous administration of L-arginine (300 mg/kg) or tadalafil (0.03 mg/kg) were performed at several time points. In vitro muscle strip experiments demonstrated that diabetic rats had significantly higher contractile responses to carbachol at 4-16 weeks, and a tendency for higher contractile responses to electrical field stimulation at 4-12 weeks, but this was reversed at 16 weeks. Diabetic rats had significant increases in voided volume, residual volume, bladder capacity, maximal voiding pressure, and amplitude and frequency of non-voiding contractions at 16 weeks. Tadalafil decreased the residual volume in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats had significantly higher UPP nadir and mean UPP during high-frequency oscillation at 16 weeks, which were reversed by tadalafil or L-arginine administration. The present results suggest that urethral relaxation failure, probably related to impairment of the NO/cGMP signalling pathway, rather than bladder contractile dysfunction may be a prominent cause for voiding dysfunction in STZ-induced chronic diabetic rats.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Bexiga Urinária/efeitos dos fármacos , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Animais , Arginina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Volume Residual/efeitos dos fármacos , Tadalafila/uso terapêutico
10.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 61(3): 302-311, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100910

RESUMO

Quantitative analysis of the normal retrograde urethrogram is well reported in radiography, but studies on CT urethrography are lacking. Recently, a method of retrograde CT urethrography using a power injector was described. The purpose of the current, prospective, analytical study was to quantify the urethral size of five, healthy, intact, male Beagle dogs using retrograde CT urethrography and a power injector. With the injection rate of the power injector set at 0.3 mL/s, 1 mL/kg of diluted contrast medium (15 mg I/mL) was injected, and a CT examination was performed. The state of the initial urethrogram taken was defined as "empty bladder." The same procedures were repeated with the injection of an additional 1 mL/kg of diluted contrast medium until the ureteral reflux was seen (distended bladder). There was a significant difference in volumes between the empty and distended bladder, but the membranous urethra showed the least difference (P = .0044) among the three regions (P < .0001 for the prostatic and penile urethra). Urethral diameters at six sites were measured from sagittal images, and the sites of measurements were adopted from the earlier radiographic studies. The most significant difference in the urethral diameters between the empty and distended bladder occurred at the cranial and middle prostatic urethra (P < .0001). The results of this study can be useful for interpreting the results of retrograde CT urethrography. Care must be taken when narrowing is suspected at the prostatic urethra, and if necessary, further distension of the urinary bladder should be tried.


Assuntos
Cistografia/veterinária , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Uretra/diagnóstico por imagem , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Cistografia/métodos , Cães/fisiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Uretra/anatomia & histologia , Uretra/fisiologia , Bexiga Urinária/anatomia & histologia , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia
11.
FASEB J ; 34(1): 263-286, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914645

RESUMO

The newly recognized sensory role of bladder urothelium has generated intense interest in identifying its novel sensory molecules. Sensory receptor TRPV4 may serve such function. However, specific and physiologically relevant tissue actions of TRPV4, stretch-independent responses, and underlying mechanisms are unknown and its role in human conditions has not been examined. Here we showed TRPV4 expression in guinea-pig urothelium, suburothelium, and bladder smooth muscle, with urothelial predominance. Selective TRPV4 activation without stretch evoked significant ATP release-key urothelial sensory process, from live mucosa tissue, full-thickness bladder but not smooth muscle, and sustained muscle contractions. ATP release was mediated by Ca2+-dependent, pannexin/connexin-conductive pathway involving protein tyrosine kinase, but independent from vesicular transport and chloride channels. TRPV4 activation generated greater Ca2+ rise than purinergic activation in urothelial cells. There was intrinsic TRPV4 activity without exogeneous stimulus, causing ATP release. TRPV4 contributed to 50% stretch-induced ATP release. TRPV4 activation also triggered superoxide release. TRPV4 expression was increased with aging. Human bladder mucosa presented similarities to guinea pigs. Overactive bladders exhibited greater TRPV4-induced ATP release with age dependence. These data provide the first evidence in humans for the key functional role of TRPV4 in urothelium with specific mechanisms and identify TRPV4 up-regulation in aging and overactive bladders.


Assuntos
Contração Muscular , Músculo Liso , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Urotélio/fisiologia , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cobaias , Humanos , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética
12.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 39(2): 507-522, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917870

RESUMO

AIM: To conduct an evidence synthesis of normative reference values for bladder function parameters in women. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting bladder function parameters obtained from noninvasive tests in healthy women. Seven databases were searched for relevant studies from inception through December 2018, with manual searching of reference lists. We included English language articles that provided quantitative data on urination frequency, voided and postvoid residual volumes, and uroflowmetry results in women without lower urinary tract symptoms. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were undertaken by at least two independent reviewers. Random-effects meta-analytic models were used to derive study-level pooled mean estimates and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: A total of 24 studies (N = 3090 women, age range, 18-91 years) met eligibility criteria. Pooled mean estimates of bladder function parameters were: 6.6 daytime voids (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 6.2, 7.0), 0.4 nighttime voids (95% CI, 0.0, 0.8), 1577 mL for 24-hour voided volume (95% CI 1428,1725); 12 mL for postvoid residual volume (95% CI, 4, 20); and 28 mL/sec for maximum flow rate (95% CI, 27,30). Between-study heterogeneity was high for all outcomes (I2 = 61.1-99.6%), but insufficient data were available to explore reasons for this high heterogeneity (eg, differences by age). CONCLUSION: Although summary mean estimates of bladder function parameters were calculated, the wide heterogeneity across studies precludes generalization of these estimates to all healthy women. Further research is needed to determine normative reference values within specific groups, such as those defined by age.


Assuntos
Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Micção , Urodinâmica , Adulto Jovem
13.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 39(1): 58-65, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816125

RESUMO

AIMS: Adults with pelvic floor disorders commonly present with overlapping bladder and bowel symptoms; however, the relationship between urinary and defecatory dysfunction is not well understood. Our aim was to compare and determine if overlapping brain regions are activated during bladder filling and rectal distention in healthy adults. METHODS: We conducted separate Pubmed searches for neuroimaging studies investigating the effects of rectal distention and bladder filling on brain activation in healthy subjects. Coordinates of activated regions were extracted with cluster-level threshold P < .05 and compared using the activation likelihood estimate approach. Results from the various studies were pooled and a contrast analysis was performed to identify any common areas of activation between bladder filling and rectal distension. RESULTS: We identified 96 foci of activation from 14 neuroimaging studies on bladder filling and 182 foci from 17 studies on rectal distension in healthy adults. Regions activated during bladder filling included right insula, right and left thalamus, and right periaqueductal grey. Regions activated during rectal distention included right and left insula, right and left thalamus, left postcentral gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule. Contrast analysis revealed common activation of the right insula with both rectal distention and bladder filling. CONCLUSION: Bladder filling and rectal distention activate several separate areas of the brain involved in sensory processing in healthy adults. The common activation of the insula, the region responsible for interoception, in these two conditions may offer an explanation for the coexistence of bladder and defecatory symptoms in pelvic floor disorders.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Defecação/fisiologia , Reto/fisiologia , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Urodinâmica
14.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 39(1): 324-330, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782977

RESUMO

AIMS: The strong desire to void (SDV) induces changes in both cognition and gait. This may be due to the sensation of urinary urge acting as a source of diverted attention. This exploratory study examined the influence of SDV and a standardized distracting task on the performance of two measures of cognition, a simple reaction time (SRT) test and the trail making B test (TMT-B). METHODS: 18 volunteers, 8 male and 10 female, without lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) (mean age: 20.5, range: 20-47), performed a test of SRT and the TMT-B under three conditions; undistracted with an empty bladder, while experiencing SDV, and when performing a simultaneous distracting task, the auditory n back test. RESULTS: A statistically significant increase in SRT was found when experiencing SDV and when distracted compared with the undistracted, bladder empty condition. The time taken to compete the TMT-B significantly increased with distraction but was not affected by SDV. CONCLUSION: SDV induced a similar but smaller change in reaction time when compared with a distracting task, suggesting that SDV may act as a source of diverted attention in continent, healthy volunteers.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Micção/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensação/fisiologia , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 39(2): 565-575, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782979

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate bladder function patterns following cystostomy and determine the best time window for cystometric evaluation of bladder function in conscious rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cystostomy was performed in rats of the first seven groups; thereafter, cystometry was performed in the designed time interval. Noncystostomy rats of group 8 voided freely as control. Basal bladder pressure (Pves.basal ), maximum bladder pressure (Pves.max ), bladder threshold pressure (Pves.thre ), voiding interval (VI), bladder contraction duration (CD), bladder compliance (ΔC), voided volume (VV), postvoiding residual urine (PVR), and bladder capacity (BC) were recorded and compared with cystostomy groups, with VV, PVR, BC compared with the control values. Bladders were collected after the urodynamic study for weighing, hematoxylin-eosin, and Masson staining to investigate pathological changes. RESULTS: Pves.basal , Pves.max , and Pves.thre trended downward, while BC, VI, VV, and ΔC trended upward on days 1 to 5 postcystostomy. BC and VV significantly decreased on days 1 to 3 postcystostomy compared with control values; on days 5 to 15 postcystostomy, Pves.basal , Pves.max , Pves.thre , VI, VV, BC, and PVR were stable, and BC, VV, and PVR showed no significant differences from the control values. However, on day 21 postcystostomy, BC increased significantly compared with the controls. Bladder weight increased in the cystostomy groups compared with the controls. Pathological analysis showed severe acute bladder inflammation on days 1 to 3, mild inflammation on days 5 to 15, and increased collagen deposition in bladder tissue on day 21 postcystostomy. CONCLUSION: Cystometric evaluation of bladder function in conscious rats is best performed on days 5 to 15 postcystostomy.


Assuntos
Cistostomia , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Animais , Complacência (Medida de Distensibilidade) , Cistite/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Pressão , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Micção , Urodinâmica
17.
J Clin Nurs ; 29(11-12): 1913-1919, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162757

RESUMO

AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this was to examine the effect of bladder training on bladder functions. BACKGROUND: Urinary catheterization is frequently performed in order to evaluate the outcomes of the surgical procedures and to monitor the urine output after urology operations. DESIGN AND METHODS: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in the urology clinic in Istanbul, Turkey in which 50 males were nonrandomly assigned to either a bladder training (n = 28) or a control group (n =22). In the bladder training groups, the urinary catheters of the patients were clamped at 4-hr intervals and then were left open for 5 min on the second postoperative day. This study was created in accordance with TREND Statement Checklist. RESULTS: The first urgency time and the first voiding time were longer, and the prevoiding and the voiding volumes were higher following the removal of the catheter in the training group (p = 0.001). In addition, the evaluation of the patient bladder diaries in the first three days after the discharge period revealed that the daily frequencies of micturition and nocturia were lower (p = 0.04), the mean duration of intervals between the micturition was longer (p = 0.006), and the mean voided urinary volume was higher (p = 0.024) in the training group. CONCLUSION: At the end of the study, it is observed that bladder training performed by clamping the catheter on postoperative day 2 after Transurethral Resection of Prostate (TUR-P) operation is a significant positive effect on the storage symptoms of the patients. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Before removing the urinary catheter, bladder training programme affects positively to patients, especially prevoiding and the voiding volumes, the daily frequencies of micturition and nocturia on postoperative periods.


Assuntos
Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata/métodos , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Cateterismo Urinário/métodos , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Período Pós-Operatório , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata/efeitos adversos , Turquia , Cateterismo Urinário/efeitos adversos , Retenção Urinária/enfermagem
18.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(1): 103-114, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759442

RESUMO

Reptile kidneys maintain a constant extracellular environment within the body. They excrete waste products, maintain normal concentrations of salt and water, regulate acid-base balance, and produce hormones and vitamins. The kidneys contain nephrons consisting of glomeruli designed to filter the plasma, Bowman capsules that collect the filtrate, and tubules that resorb most of the filtered water and nutrients while excreting waste metabolites. A Loop of Henle is absent. Therefore, reptile kidneys cannot produce a hypertonic urine. The urinary bladder (if present) and cloaca excrete and absorb additional fluids and electrolytes. A renal portal system is present in all reptiles.


Assuntos
Répteis/fisiologia , Animais , Rim/metabolismo , Répteis/anatomia & histologia , Ureia/análise , Ácido Úrico/análise , Bexiga Urinária/anatomia & histologia , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia
19.
J Invest Surg ; 33(4): 381-386, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380342

RESUMO

Background: Radical hysterectomy could result in dysfunctions of pelvic organs and a decline in quality of life. Method: 298 patients who had underwent laparoscopic radical hysterectomy were retrospectively analyzed in this study, of which 216 patients had underwent laparoscopic nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy (LNSRH) and 82 had underwent classical laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (LRH). The mean duration of the postoperative catheterization, a questionnaire and an urodynamic examination were used to assess the bladder functions. Results: The mean duration of the postoperative catheterization in the LNSRH group was shorter than that in the LRH group (13 days versus 18 days, p < 0.01). The incidences of tension urinary incontinence, postoperative voiding time and dysuria symptoms in the LNSRH group, but not in the LRH group, had recovered to preoperative levels in the following 6 months. The frequency of nocturnal urination had recovered to preoperative level at 12 months post-operation in the LNSRH group. The maximum flow rate (MFR), average flow rate (AFR), first voiding sense (FVS), maximum voiding sense (MVS) and maximum detrusor pressure (MDP) in the LNSRH group were better than those in the LRH group (p < 0.05), and patients in the LRH group suffered much more frequently from tension urinary incontinence, prolonged urination time, dysuria and urinary endless compared with those in the LNSRH group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: LNSRH can effectively retain the bladder function, but we should pay attention to the invasion of peripheral nerves.


Assuntos
Histerectomia/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Nervos Periféricos/fisiologia , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/efeitos adversos , Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Nervos Periféricos/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Bexiga Urinária/inervação , Urodinâmica , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
20.
Cell Tissue Res ; 379(2): 373-387, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446446

RESUMO

Contractile behaviour of the urinary bladder and its sympathetic inhibition during storage phases are not well understood. Here, we explore muscularis mucosae (MM) as a predominant mucosal contractile element and the capability of sympathetic nerves to relax detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) or MM. Distribution of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-immunoreactive cells was compared in pig, human, guinea pig, rat and mouse bladders by immunohistochemistry, while contractility of the bladder mucosa was compared in these species by isometric tension recordings. In pig, human and guinea pig bladders, DSM and MM located in the lamina propria expressed α-SMA immunoreactivity, while both rat and mouse bladders lacked a MM. Consistent with this presence or absence of MM, bladder mucosa of pig, human and guinea pig but not rat and mouse developed spontaneous phasic contractions (SPCs). Distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive sympathetic nerve fibres was compared in pig DSM, MM, trigone and urethra, as were their sympathetic nerve-evoked contractile/relaxing responses examined. In pig DSM or MM, where TH-immunoreactive sympathetic fibres exclusively projected to the vasculature, sympathetic relaxations were difficult to demonstrate. In contrast, sympathetic contractions were invariably evoked in pig trigone and urethra where the smooth muscle cells receive TH-immunoreactive sympathetic innervations. Thus, SPCs of bladder mucosa appear to predominantly arise from the MM displaying species differences. Despite the currently accepted concept of sympathetic nerve-mediated DSM relaxation during the storage phase, it is unlikely that neurally released noradrenaline acts on ß-adrenoceptors to relax either DSM or MM due to the anatomical lack of sympathetic innervation.


Assuntos
Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Bexiga Urinária/inervação , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Actinas/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Feminino , Cobaias , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membrana Mucosa/fisiologia , Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos
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