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1.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124949, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568949

RESUMO

Pharmaceutically active compounds are of great concern due to their detection frequency in the environment and the unexpected risks. In this study, the simultaneous removal of mixed pharmaceuticals by microalgae was explored using a typical freshwater diatom Navicula sp. Results showed that Navicula sp. could efficiently remove atenolol, carbamazepine, ibuprofen and naproxen with the efficiencies of >90% after 21 d of exposure. As compared to the removal efficiencies of each pharmaceutical in the individual pharmaceutical treatments, the degradation of sulfamethoxazole, bezafibrate, and naproxen was improved in the mixed treatment, whereas the removal efficiencies of carbamazepine and atenolol decreased. Additionally, the presence of hydrophobic pharmaceuticals (i.e., ibuprofen and naproxen) accelerated the degradation of carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole and inhibited the removal of atenolol in the mixture with the combination of six pharmaceuticals, while the addition of other pharmaceuticals show no significant effect on the removal of ibuprofen and naproxen. The bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals in Navicula sp. increased as their log KOW values decreased. Four bezafibrate metabolites were identified and the degradation pathways of bezafibrate in diatom were proposed. It is the first report on the metabolism of BEZ in diatom, and further studies on the environmental risk of the metabolites should be investigated.


Assuntos
Bezafibrato/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Atenolol/análise , Carbamazepina/análise , Água Doce/química , Ibuprofeno/análise , Inativação Metabólica , Naproxeno/análise , Sulfametoxazol/análise
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(1): 672-682, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058257

RESUMO

UV/chlorine, as a novel disinfection method, has attracted great interest due to its effective removal for pathogenic microorganism and degradation of trace organic contaminants existed in water environment. This paper investigated the degradation kinetics and pathways of Bezafibrate (BZF), a typical antilipemic drug, during UV/chlorine process. The results showed that 92.3% of BZF was degraded after 20 min in UV/chlorine process. This indicated HO• and reactive chlorine species (RCSs) formed in UV/chlorine played the dominant role in degrading BZF. Observed rate constants of BZF degradation (k obs,BZF) in UV/chlorine process increased linearly in a wide chlorine dosage from 0.1 to 1.0 mM, which implied that ClO• generated from the reactions of chlorine with HO• and Cl• could react with BZF rapidly. The steady-state kinetic modeling result proved this deduction and the rate constant of ClO• with BZF was fitted to be 5.0 × 108 M-1 s-1. k obs,BZF was affected by Cl- and HA. The total contribution of RCSs (including Cl•, Cl2•-, and ClO•) to the degradation of BZF was determined to be ~ 80%, which is much higher than that of HO•. Thirteen degradation products of BZF were identified by LC-MS/MS. Initial degradation products were arisen from hydroxylation, chlorine substitution and cyclization by HO• and RCSs, and then further oxidized to generate acylamino cleavage and demethylation products.


Assuntos
Bezafibrato/análise , Desinfetantes/química , Hipoclorito de Sódio/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Bezafibrato/efeitos da radiação , Desinfecção , Cinética , Modelos Teóricos , Oxirredução , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos da radiação
3.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(3): 545-553, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-828268

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Fibrates are drugs used for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Three drugs in the fibrate class, ciprofibrate, fenofibrate and bezafibrate, were chosen for this study because their raw materials are readily available and because scientific publications on these compounds is limited. To evaluate their intrinsic stability, the drugs were exposed to a test condition (temperature, oxidation, UV light exposure, hydrolysis at different pH values and metal ions in solution) and then were subjected to analysis by HPLC. The samples were run on a C18 column, with a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1 in a mobile phase consisting of methanol: 0.01 % phosphoric acid v/v (80:20), with variable detection wavelengths in the UV spectra. The analysis methodology showed satisfactory performance parameters. The three drugs were very unstable, degrading in each of the conditions evaluated. The test conditions of acid and basic hydrolysis showed the most significant degradation. The results demonstrated that the drugs in this class are unstable. Based on these experimentally determined degradation kinetics, it is easy to understand and emphasize the importance of the lack of liquid dosage forms on the market for fibrates because of their instability.


Assuntos
Bezafibrato/análise , Fenofibrato/análise , Ácidos Fíbricos/análise , Cinética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ácidos Fíbricos/classificação , Hipertrigliceridemia
4.
Chemosphere ; 154: 463-471, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27085060

RESUMO

Intense reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture is practiced all over the world, especially in arid and water-scarce regions. In doing so, pharmaceutical residues in the water are irrigated to the soil and subsequently can percolate into the local aquifers. Since evaporation rates in these areas are typically high, persistent substances might enrich in the groundwater recharge of closed catchments like the Jordan Valley. Against this background, unsaturated column tests were conducted to investigate the potential for evaporative accumulation of the two pharmaceuticals bezafibrate and carbamazepine under simulated arid climate conditions. Parallel tests were conducted with inhibited microbiological activity where both substances showed an increase in the effluent concentrations proportional to the evaporation loss of the inflow solution. The mean accumulation factors of the pharmaceuticals correspond to the evaporated water loss. The experiments indicate the accumulation potential for pharmaceuticals with high persistence against biodegradation. For the first time, the overall potential for evaporative enrichment could be demonstrated for pharmaceuticals. Under the given experimental conditions, the two investigated pharmaceuticals did not enrich faster than chloride, which might result in soil salting prior to reaching harmful pharmaceutical concentrations in soil water. The findings are relevant to future assessments of environmental impacts of persistent trace substances, which need to take into account that concentrations in the aquatic cycle might increase further due to evaporative enrichment.


Assuntos
Bezafibrato/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbamazepina/análise , Clima Desértico , Água Subterrânea/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Bezafibrato/química , Carbamazepina/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 21(7): 5242-8, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24399077

RESUMO

A novel composite with an enhanced photocatalytic activity was prepared and applied to study the removal of bezafibrate (BZF), a hypolypemic pharmaceutical, from an aqueous environment. For the enhancement of titanium dioxide photoactivity a fullerene derivative, 2-(ferrocenyl) fulleropyrrolidine (FcC60), was synthesized and applied. Obtained composite was found to show a higher catalytic activity than pristine TiO2. Therefore, high hopes are set in composites that are based on carbonaceous nanomaterials and TiO2 as a new efficient photocatalysts.


Assuntos
Bezafibrato/química , Hipolipemiantes/química , Fotólise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Bezafibrato/análise , Hipolipemiantes/análise , Nanoestruturas/análise , Nanoestruturas/química , Titânio/análise , Titânio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos
6.
Talanta ; 103: 201-6, 2013 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23200378

RESUMO

The determination of bezafibrate (BZF) using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) and a cathodically pretreated boron-doped diamond electrode is proposed. Cyclic voltammetry results showed one irreversible oxidation peak for BZF at 1.20 V (vs. Ag/AgCl (3.0 mol L(-1) KCl)) in a 0.04 mol L(-1) Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer solution (pH 2.0). Under optimized SWV conditions, a linear analytical curve is obtained for the BZF concentration range 0.10-9.1 µmol L(-1) in the BR buffer solution (pH 2.0), with a detection limit of 0.098 µmol L(-1). The obtained recoveries range from 93.4 to 108%. The proposed novel method was successfully applied in the determination of the BZF content in several pharmaceutical formulations (tablets) and the results are in close agreement (at a 95% confidence level) with those obtained using a comparative spectrophotometric method.


Assuntos
Bezafibrato/análise , Boro/química , Diamante/química , Eletroquímica/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Comprimidos/análise , Química Farmacêutica , Eletroquímica/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Limite de Detecção , Oxirredução , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química
7.
J Mass Spectrom ; 46(4): 383-90, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21438088

RESUMO

The applicability of three different ionization techniques: atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) was tested for the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of five target pharmaceuticals (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, bezafibrate, enalapril and orlistat) in wastewater samples. Performance was compared both by flow injection analysis (FIA) and on-column analysis in deionized water and wastewater samples. A column switching technique for the on-line extraction and analysis of water samples was used. For both FIA and on-column analysis, signal intensity and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of the target analytes in the three sources were studied. Limits of detection and matrix effects during the analysis of wastewater samples were also investigated. ESI generated significantly larger peak areas and higher S/N ratios than APCI and APPI in FIA and in on-column analysis. ESI was proved to be the most suitable ionization method as it enabled the detection of the five target compounds, whereas APCI and APPI ionized only four compounds.


Assuntos
Bezafibrato/análise , Ciclofosfamida/análise , Enalapril/análise , Lactonas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metotrexato/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Bezafibrato/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Ciclofosfamida/química , Enalapril/química , Análise de Injeção de Fluxo , Lactonas/química , Metotrexato/química , Orlistate , Esgotos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
8.
Acta Pol Pharm ; 67(5): 455-61, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20873411

RESUMO

With reference to common application of HPLC to routine analytical tests on medicinal products decreasing the level of cholesterol, including three compounds from this group--fenofibrate, bezafibrate and etofibrate, we developed a new method for determining two other compounds--ciprofibrate and gemfibrozil. The developed HPLC method may be used for identification and qualitative determination of selected compounds--derivatives of aryloxyalkylcarboxylic acids as well as it may be used for simultaneous separation and determination of all compounds from the group of fibrates using one column and the same methodology. The results and statistical data indicate good sensitivity and precision. The RSD value presented is equivalent to the newly developed method of determinination of ciprofibrate and gemfibrozil in the substances and medicinal products--capsules and coated tablets.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Bezafibrato/análise , Ácido Clofíbrico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Clofíbrico/análise , Fenofibrato/análise , Ácidos Fíbricos , Genfibrozila/análise
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 44(17): 6621-7, 2010 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20799730

RESUMO

During wastewater treatment, many organic micropollutants undergo microbially mediated reactions resulting in the formation of transformation products (TPs). Little is known on the reaction pathways that govern these transformations or on the occurrence of microbial TPs in surface waters. Large sets of biotransformation data for organic micropollutants would be useful for assessing the exposure potential of these TPs and for enabling the development of structure-based biotransformation prediction tools. The objective of this work was to develop an efficient procedure to allow for high-throughput elucidation of TP structures for a broad and diverse set of xenobiotics undergoing microbially mediated transformation reactions. Six pharmaceuticals and six pesticides were spiked individually into batch reactors seeded with activated sludge. Samples from the reactors were separated with HPLC and analyzed by linear ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometry. Candidate TPs were preliminarily identified with an innovative post-acquisition data processing method based on target and non-target screenings of the full-scan MS data. Structures were proposed following interpretation of MS spectra and MS/MS fragments. Previously unreported microbial TPs were identified for the pharmaceuticals bezafibrate, diazepam, levetiracetam, oseltamivir, and valsartan. A variety of previously reported and unreported TPs were identified for the pesticides. The results showed that the complementary use of the target and non-target screening methods allowed for a more comprehensive interpretation of the TPs generated than either would have provided individually.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Aminas/análise , Bezafibrato/análise , Biotransformação , Praguicidas/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise
10.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 396(5): 1721-30, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20082234

RESUMO

Nuclear receptors are a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that play key roles in many biological processes, and have become one class of the most important targets in drug discovery. Mammalian one-hybrid system has been used to develop a cell-based functional transactivation high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for detecting nuclear receptors ligands. In the present study, we proved that different promoters used in the reporter vector had significant different impacts on the performance of HTS assays. The assay using the SV40 promoter in the reporter vector showed the characteristics of much higher signal/noise ratios, acceptable Z' factors (>0.6), low coefficient variation (<12.5%) and higher hits rate, which could be more robust, reproducible, and sensitive. In contrast, utilizing a TATA box promoter in the assay resulted in higher variance and low sensitivity. In addition, it was found that the assay using SV40 had longer signal decay time and was easier to be miniaturized in 384-well format. It has been confirmed that the choice of a promoter is a critical factor in developing a reporter gene HTS assay. However, the SV40 promoter used in the present study has been shown to be more adaptable than the minimal promoter TATA box in the Mammalian one-hybrid HTS assays for detecting nuclear receptor agonists.


Assuntos
Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/agonistas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido , Animais , Bezafibrato/análise , Bezafibrato/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/análise , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Células HeLa , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/farmacologia , Ligantes , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Pioglitazona , Pirimidinas/análise , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Rosiglitazona , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/análise , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Tiazolidinedionas/análise , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia
11.
J Environ Monit ; 11(4): 830-8, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19557238

RESUMO

We developed a rapid method for the monitoring of five selected pharmaceuticals in the influent and effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as well as in the effluent-receiving waters. To that end, we optimized and validated an analytical method based on on-line solid-phase extraction (on-line SPE) coupled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography-switching polarity electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI(+/-)-MS/MS). The target analytes have a variable hydrophobic character and belong to various therapeutic classes including the lipid regulator bezafibrate, the chemotherapy drugs methotrexate and cyclophosphamide, the lipase inhibitor orlistat and the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used in the treatment of hypertension, enalapril. The method combines positive and negative voltage switching modes, therefore all analytes can be determined using a single injection and without any reduction in sensitivity. In order to detect traces of these compounds, a preconcentration step before detection is performed by loading 1.00 mL of sample in an on-line SPE cartridge and eluting from the cartridge using a reversed-phase liquid chromatography gradient. Analysis of wastewater and surface water samples was greatly affected by co-eluting matrix compounds, to compensate for matrix effects quantitation was therefore performed using standard additions. Method intra-day precision was less than 6.5% and limits of detection in fortified matrix effluent samples ranged from 9 to 20 ng L(-1). Four of the target pharmaceuticals were detected in the WWTP effluents, enalapril and bezafibrate being the most abundant compounds with concentrations of 35 and 239 ng L(-1), respectively. Concentrations of these same compounds in surface water samples from sites downstream in the St. Lawrence River were 8 and 63 ng L(-1), respectively, which was mainly due to dilution.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água/química , Bezafibrato/análise , Bezafibrato/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Ciclofosfamida/análise , Ciclofosfamida/química , Enalapril/análise , Enalapril/química , Lactonas/análise , Lactonas/química , Metotrexato/análise , Metotrexato/química , Orlistate , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água , Abastecimento de Água
12.
Water Res ; 43(4): 997-1004, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19110290

RESUMO

This study quantifies the uncertainty involved in predicting micropollutant oxidation during drinking water ozonation in a pilot plant reactor. The analysis is conducted for geosmin, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), isopropylmethoxypyrazine (IPMP), bezafibrate, beta-cyclocitral and ciprofloxazin. These compounds are representative for a wide range of substances with second order rate constants between 0.1 and 1.9x10(4)M(-1)s(-1) for the reaction with ozone and between 2x10(9) and 8x10(9)M(-1)s(-1) for the reaction with OH-radicals. Uncertainty ranges are derived for second order rate constants, hydraulic parameters, flow- and ozone concentration data, and water characteristic parameters. The uncertain model factors are propagated via Monte Carlo simulation and the resulting probability distributions of the relative residual micropollutant concentrations are assessed. The importance of factors in determining model output variance is quantified using Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Testing (Extended-FAST). For substances that react slowly with ozone (MTBE, IPMP, geosmin) the water characteristic R(ct)-value (ratio of ozone- to OH-radical concentration) is the most influential factor explaining 80% of the output variance. In the case of bezafibrate the R(ct)-value and the second order rate constant for the reaction with ozone each contribute about 30% to the output variance. For beta-cyclocitral and ciprofloxazin (fast reacting with ozone) the second order rate constant for the reaction with ozone and the hydraulic model structure become the dominating sources of uncertainty.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/análise , Éteres Metílicos/análise , Naftóis/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Bezafibrato/análise , Ciprofloxacino/análise , Ozônio/análise , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Probabilidade , Pirazinas/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 41(2): 408-14, 2006 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16426791

RESUMO

Six antihyperlipidemic agents-bezafibrate, ciprofibrate, clofibrate, clofibric acid, fenofibrate and gemfibrozil were separated by means of capillary electrophoresis, using unmodified fused silica tubing of 75 microm internal diameter and 87 cm length (65 cm to the UV detector at 227 nm). Migration time and selectivity were examined in differing pH of separation buffer, varying separation voltage and differing temperature. Optimal separation was achieved using 1/15 M phosphate buffer pH 10, 240 V/cm at 25 degrees C. The optimal separation conditions were then used to elaborate the method of quantitation of bezafibrate, ciprofibrate and gemfibrozil in Bezamidin, Lipanor and Gemfibral pharmaceuticals. The clofibric acid was used as internal standard. The calibration curve was constructed from 0.2 to 0.8 mg/ml of each compound and 0.5 mg/ml of internal standard. The calibration data were proved to be linear by Mandel and Lack-of-fit tests. Statistical evaluation of results proved proper recovery of elaborated method (102.42, 97.32 and 101.51%, respectively) and good repeatability (9.51, 5.52 and 11.15%, respectively). The linearity of recovery was also tested by analyzing increasing amount of the samples. Three fortified samples of each drug were also analyzed to perform additional accuracy validation.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Hipolipemiantes/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Bezafibrato/análise , Tampões (Química) , Ácido Clofíbrico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Clofíbrico/análise , Ácidos Fíbricos , Genfibrozila/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Water Res ; 39(11): 2219-28, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15935437

RESUMO

The occurrence of five acidic pharmaceuticals, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, diclofenac and bezafibrate, in seven different sewage treatment plants (STP) and three receiving waters were determined. The analytical procedure included solid phase extraction, liquid chromatographic separation and detection by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. The studied pharmaceuticals were found in all the STPs. The pattern of the occurrence of individual compounds was the same in every STP and matched the consumption figures reported in the literature. Ibuprofen is the most used pharmaceutical in Finland and was accordingly found to be the most abundant compound in the raw sewage. In the treatment processes, the highest removal rate was observed for ibuprofen and the lowest for diclofenac, 92%+/-8% and 26%+/-17%, respectively. Due to the incomplete removal in the STPs, the pharmaceuticals were found in rivers at the discharge points of the STP effluents. Downstream from the discharge points, the concentrations decreased significantly mainly due to dilution in the river water. The risk to the aquatic environment was estimated by a ratio of measured environmental concentration (MEC) and predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC). At the concentrations the compounds were found in the surface waters, they should not pose risk for the aquatic environment. However, at dry seasons and/or during malfunctions of STPs, ibuprofen could be associated with a risk in small river systems.


Assuntos
Esgotos/análise , Água/química , Bezafibrato/análise , Diclofenaco/análise , Poluentes Ambientais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ibuprofeno/análise , Cetoprofeno/análise , Estrutura Molecular , Naproxeno/análise
15.
Water Res ; 39(12): 2654-64, 2005 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15979124

RESUMO

Laboratory degradation tests with five acidic pharmaceuticals using activated sludge as inocculum under aerobic conditions were performed and microbial metabolites were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Ketoprofen was partly mineralized as a sole source of carbon and energy and the metabolites determined by LC-MS suggest microbial ketoprofen degradation to proceed along the pathway known for biphenyls and related compounds. Bezafibrate, naproxen and ibuprofen were degraded only cometabolically whereas no transformation was obtained for diclofenac. Some biodegradation intermediates in these batch tests could be tentatively identified by means of LC-MS. The first step in microbial bezafibrate degradation appears to be the hydrolytic cleavage of the amide bond, generating well degradable 4-chlorobenzoic acid as one of the hydrolysis products. As previously found for mammals, ether cleavage and formation of desmethylnaproxen was the initial step in microbial degradation of naproxen. Two isomers of hydroxy-ibuprofen were detected as intermediates in the mineralization of ibuprofen. Laboratory studies suggest that naproxen and ibuprofen can be fully mineralized whereas more stable metabolites occur in microbial ketoprofen and bezafibrate transformation, that may deserve further attention. A LC-MS method for the trace analysis of these metabolites in water was developed and applied to municipal wastewater. Municipal wastewater treatment by a membrane bioreactor may gradually improve the removal of these pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Esgotos/microbiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Aerobiose , Amidas/química , Amidas/metabolismo , Bezafibrato/análise , Bezafibrato/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cidades , Diclofenaco/análise , Diclofenaco/metabolismo , Ibuprofeno/análise , Ibuprofeno/metabolismo , Cetoprofeno/análise , Cetoprofeno/metabolismo , Naproxeno/análise , Naproxeno/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Esgotos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Fatores de Tempo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
16.
Water Sci Technol ; 50(5): 269-76, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15497857

RESUMO

Numerous investigations in different European countries observed various pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in notable concentrations in the aquatic environment. Further determinations found the effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) to be significant sources for the entry of pharmaceutical residuals to rivers, streams and surface waters. Due to those pathways the knowledge about the elimination of these substances and their behaviour in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is elementary for protection of an intact aquatic environment. Since the sludge retention time (SRT) is the most important parameter for the design of STPs, its influence on the reduction rate of these PhACs in the wastewater treatment process was investigated. To study this influence of the SRT on the elimination of PhACs, lab scale plants have been operated with different sludge retention times. The results of the laboratory experiments have been validated analysing various STPs within a wide capacity range and operating at different SRTs. This report describes the determinations observed on the antiepileptic drug Carbamazepine, the two antiphlogistics and analgesics Diclofenac and Ibuprofen and the lipid regulator Bezafibrate.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Esgotos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Bezafibrato/análise , Carbamazepina/análise , Diclofenaco/análise , Europa (Continente) , Ibuprofeno/análise , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Electrophoresis ; 25(20): 3441-9, 2004 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15490451

RESUMO

We describe an analytical method involving solid-phase extraction (SPE) and capillary zone electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (CZE-ESI-MS) for determining some pharmaceutical compounds - naproxen, clofibric acid and bezafibrate - in real water samples. The electrospray parameters were optimized to maximize sensitivity. When a mixed aqueous-organic solvent and CZE-ESI-MS were used to analyze these drugs in water samples, the capillary was coated with hexadimethrin bromide (HDB) to permanently reverse the EOF. The method was developed from off-line SPE-CZE-MS and was validated with surface water. The detection limits were 100 ng.L(-1) for all analytes. The method was applied to analyze water samples from the influent and effluent of a sewage treatment plant. A liquid-liquid extraction step was required before SPE, and the compounds studied were found, some of them between detection and quantification limits.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Esgotos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ácidos/análise , Bezafibrato/análise , Ácido Clofíbrico/análise , Naproxeno/análise
18.
Acta Pol Pharm ; 61(1): 9-13, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15259852

RESUMO

A method for the determination of bezafibrate, ciprofibrate, fenofibrate and gemfibrozil in pharmaceutical formulations by first-, second- and third- derivative spectrophotometry is described, using "peak-peak" and "peak-zero" measurements. The calibration graphs were linear in the range 2-20 microg x mL(-1) for all the compounds investigated. No interference was found from tablet excipients at the selected wavelengths and assay conditions. The developed methods were found to be validated and showed good precision and reproducibility (RSD = 1.57%, 0.78%, 1.45%, and 1.36%, respectively).


Assuntos
Ácido Clofíbrico/análogos & derivados , Hipolipemiantes/análise , Bezafibrato/análise , Calibragem , Cápsulas , Química Farmacêutica , Ácido Clofíbrico/análise , Fenofibrato/análise , Ácidos Fíbricos , Genfibrozila/análise , Indicadores e Reagentes , Solventes , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Comprimidos
19.
J Chromatogr ; 344: 259-65, 1985 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-4086546

RESUMO

A selective and time-saving high-performance liquid chromatographic method to assess bezafibrate plasma and urine levels is described. Bezafibrate is extracted from plasma matrix using diethyl ether, after acidification with hydrochloric acid. The urine samples are directly analysed, after dilution with the mobile phase. The method is used to assess bezafibrate plasma and urine levels in man, after administration of therapeutic doses of bezafibrate. The results obtained are in agreement with previously published data.


Assuntos
Bezafibrato/análise , Bezafibrato/sangue , Bezafibrato/urina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos
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