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1.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 8: 2324709620963635, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019829

RESUMO

As COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) spreads across the world multiple therapeutic interventions have been tried to reduce morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of collapsing focal sclerosing glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and acute oxalate nephropathy in a patient treated with high-dose intravenous vitamin C for severe COVID-19 infection. Collapsing FSGS has been described in patients with COVID-19 infection associated with APOL-1; however, this case had collapsing FSGS developing in low-risk heterozygous APOL-1 variant, and we postulate that the intensity of the COVID-19 cytokine storm overwhelmed the protective state of APOL-1 heterozygosity. This case illustrates the importance of assessing the risk and benefit of planned therapeutic interventions on a case-by-case basis especially when there are still so many unknowns in the management of COVID-19 infection. Strong consideration should be given for performing a renal biopsy in patients who develop multifactorial acute kidney injury.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/induzido quimicamente , Hiperoxalúria/induzido quimicamente , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Oxalatos/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Biópsia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hiperoxalúria/diagnóstico , Hiperoxalúria/metabolismo , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/efeitos adversos
2.
Z Gastroenterol ; 58(10): 971-974, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Verrucous carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare disease leading to dysphagia, chest pain, and weight loss. The diagnosis is difficult because even repeated biopsies are often without tumor evidence. We present a patient with verrucous carcinoma of the esophagus and a literature review. CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old patient with dysphagia and sore throat received esophagogastroduodenoscopy illustrating segmental circumferential verrucous inflammation and Candida esophagitis in the middle part of the esophagus. Repeated mucosal biopsies revealed reactive hyperkeratosis of the squamous epithelium with minimal atypia but without ulcera, eosinophilic esophagitis, or suspicion of cancer. Mucosal infection with adenovirus, herpes simplex virus 1, human papilloma virus types, and cytomegaly virus was ruled out. Veruccous carcinoma was detected finally by endoscopic mucosal resection. The patient was successfully treated by esophageal resection. Tumor stage was G1, pT1b, pN0, L0, V0, Pn0, R0. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that macroscopic suspicion of verrucous esophageal carcinoma should lead to resections of larger tissue specimens by EMR to confirm the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Verrucoso/patologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Faringite/etiologia , Biópsia , Carcinoma Verrucoso/cirurgia , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(8): 1005-1008, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053546

RESUMO

The clinical manifestations of lymphoma are various, and the atypical manifestations lead to difficult diagnosis and misdiagnosis. A 29-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital due to the symptoms of "three months of left ear purulence, 20 days of right eye swelling and fever". He was diagnosed as "multiple soft tissue infection" in the other hospital. The patient was treated with cefmetazole for anti-infection and dexamethasone for anti-inflammation. His condition has not improved. After being transferred to our hospital, he underwent multiple soft tissue biopsies and was diagnosed as T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. He was treated with oxaliplatin combined with gemcitabine. The experience of this case suggests that young people should be highly aware of the possibility of lymphoma when they have unexplained infection. Multiple tissue biopsies are very important for clear diagnosis.


Assuntos
Linfoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Edema , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino
4.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(6): 514-520, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002989

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ocular manifestations of leprosy do occur despite advances in the areas of leprosy research. Understanding the nuances in the domain shall guide the clinician for effective patient-centered care. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the existence of microbiologic cure for leprosy, ocular manifestations of this disease do occur. Advances in genetic and genomic studies have better characterized the interaction that the bacteria has with the host. The ocular features vary with the spectrum of the disease. Its careful correlation can help to predict the bacillary load of the patient. Investigations are particularly relevant in multibacillary cases. The WHO suggests a treatment duration longer than the 2 years in ocular involvement. SUMMARY: The isolation of lepra bacilli from the iris biopsy in negative skin smear patients and multidrug therapy completion highlights the potential role of bactericidal agents in the planned intraocular treatment. Lepra reactions need careful titration of oral steroids and appropriate antibacterial agents. Advances in phacoemulsification with in the bag implantation of intraocular lenses is a game changer in the management of the most common cause of blindness of leprosy. Advances in vaccine research in leprosy are promising.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias , Hanseníase , Animais , Biópsia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Oftalmopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lentes Intraoculares , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Hanseníase/patologia , Facoemulsificação
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 726, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ivermectin is an excellent microfilaricide against Onchocerca volvulus. However, in some regions, long term use of ivermectin has resulted in sub-optimal responses to the treatment. More data to properly document the phenomenon in various contexts of ivermectin mass drug administration (IVM-MDA) is needed. Also, there is a need to accurately monitor a possible repopulation of skin by microfilariae following treatment. Skin snip microscopy is known to have a low sensitivity in individuals with light infections, which can be the case following treatment. This study was designed with two complementary objectives: (i) to assess the susceptibility of O. volvulus microfilariae to ivermectin in two areas undergoing IVM-MDA for different lengths of time, and (ii) to document the repopulation of skin by the O. volvulus microfilariae following treatment, using 3 independent diagnostic techniques. METHOD: Identified microfilaridermic individuals were treated with ivermectin and re-examined after 1, 3, and 6 months using microscopy, actin real-time PCR (actin-qPCR) and O-150 LAMP assays. Susceptibility to ivermectin and trends in detecting reappearance of skin microfilariae were determined using three techniques. Microscopy was used as an imperfect gold standard to determine the performance of actin-qPCR and LAMP. RESULTS: In Bafia with over 20 years of IVM-MDA, 11/51 (21.6%) direct observe treated microfilaridemic participants were still positive for skin microfilariae after 1 month. In Melong, with 10 years of IVM-MDA, 2/29 (6.9%) treated participants were still positive. The microfilarial density reduction per skin biopsy within one month following treatment was significantly lower in participants from Bafia. In both study sites, the molecular techniques detected higher proportions of infected individuals than microscopy at all monitoring time points. LAMP demonstrated the highest levels of sensitivity and real-time PCR was found to have the highest specificity. CONCLUSION: Patterns in skin mirofilariae clearance and repopulation were established. O. volvulus worms from Bafia with higher number of annual MDA displayed a lower clearance and higher repopulation rate after treatment with ivermectin. Molecular assays displayed higher sensitivity in monitoring O. volvulus microfilaridemia within six months following treatment.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Onchocerca volvulus/fisiologia , Oncocercose/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/patologia , Adolescente , Animais , Biópsia , Camarões , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Microscopia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(709): 1860-1864, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026728

RESUMO

Sjögren Syndrome is an autoimmune disorder presenting as Sicca syndrome (dry-eye, dry mouth) and most often multiorgan involvement with various clinical manifestations. The diagnostic criteria defined by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) include biologic, histologic parameters and functional measurements. Part of this workup can be performed by the ENT specialist. It encompasses minor salivary gland biopsy, sialometry, Schirmer lacrymal test and major salivary gland ultrasound. These tests and their performances are described. The growing importance of major salivary gland ultrasound as a follow-up and diagnostic tool is also discussed in this article.


Assuntos
Orelha , Nariz , Faringe , Papel do Médico , Reumatologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico , Biópsia , Humanos , Glândulas Salivares/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândulas Salivares/patologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Sjogren/patologia , Ultrassonografia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22581, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019473

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Angiosarcoma is a highly invasive tumour with a low incidence rate but high rates of local recurrence and distant metastasis and a poor prognosis. Understanding the endoscopic characteristics of angiosarcoma will help with early diagnosis and treatment of this disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was a 77-year-old female who was admitted to the hospital due to recurring melena for 3 months. Outpatient gastroscopy showed that the patient had multiple gastric erosions. Colonoscopy revealed the presence of multiple protruding lesions in the colon and multiple rectal polyps. Pathological biopsy indicated that the patient had a tubular adenoma, which was removed by endoscopic resection. DIAGNOSES: Postsurgical pathologic assessment suggested that the histological subtype was epithelioid angiosarcoma. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) revealed multiple metastases in the lymph nodes and bone. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent acid suppression to protect the stomach, fluid supplementation and red blood cell infusion, and subsequently, surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were recommended. The patient's family refused further treatments for the patient and requested discharge. OUTCOMES: The patient refused further treatment and was not followed-up. LESSONS: Colorectal angiosarcoma is an extremely rare and highly malignant tumour, and understanding its endoscopic morphology will help aid in its diagnosis.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemangiossarcoma/secundário , Melena/etiologia , Adenoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Biópsia , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Colonoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Gastroscopia/métodos , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico por imagem , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Melena/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053144

RESUMO

Lacaziosis is a cutaneous mycosis caused by the fungus Lacazia loboi, described in different countries of Latin America and prevalent in the Amazon region. The ineffective immune response against the agent seems to be related to a Th2 pattern of cytokines. There are few reports exploring elements of the humoral response in these lesions. Our aim was to investigate some elements focusing on B cells, plasma cells and local expression of IgG and IgM antibodies. Forty skin biopsies of lower limbs were selected. The diagnosis of lacaziosis was based on direct mycological examination and histological analysis. The visualization of fungal cells was improved by using Gridley's staining. An immunohistochemical protocol was performed to detect the expression of B cells, plasma cells, IgG and IgM. A double staining was performed to explore the presence of yeasts in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes, using an anti-AE1 AE3 antibody over Gridley's staining. The inflammatory infiltrate consisted of macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, lymphocytes, and fibrosis. Fungal cells were frequent in the stratum corneum and in both, the dermis and, in 50% of the specimens, also in the epidermis. Cells expressing IgG were more abundant when compared to cells expressing IgM. B cells and the presence of IgG might indicate that the humoral response promotes a Th2 immune response resulting in an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Our results lead us to suggest a possible role of B cells and immunoglobulins in the mechanisms of lacaziosis pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses , Lacazia/isolamento & purificação , Lobomicose/diagnóstico , Biópsia , Humanos , Imunoquímica , Pele
10.
Tokai J Exp Clin Med ; 45(3): 121-125, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901899

RESUMO

Clear cell carcinoma is an extremely rare low-grade malignancies occurring in less than 1% of salivary gland tumors. We report a case of clear cell carcinoma of the hard palate in a 15-year-old adolescent patient. She first noticed a palatal tumor at age 9, but the tumor was left untreated for 6 years. We performed incisional biopsy, but no definitive diagnosis was obtained. Excisional biopsy was then performed, and the histopathological diagnosis was clear cell carcinoma of the salivary gland. However, the tumor was exposed at the margin of the surgical specimen; thus, additional excision was performed. Five years after the treatment, no local recurrence or metastasis has been observed.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma/patologia , Palato , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/patologia , Adolescente , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Margens de Excisão , Palato/patologia , Doenças Raras , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 642-645, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880340

RESUMO

We present an unusual case of syphilitic pancreatitis and ascending aortitis in a 41-year-old HIV-negative male patient presenting to a tertiary institution with obstructive jaundice. After a battery of investigations that included computed tomography (CT) and 18F-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (18F-FDG PET/CT) imaging, syphilis serology and histology, a diagnosis of tertiary syphilis was made. The patient responded favourably to antibiotics, with resolution of all lesions on FDG PET/CT 13 weeks after initiation of therapy. Even though tertiary syphilis is a rare entity, it should be earmarked as a mimicker of other pathological conditions, including, in this case, primary pancreatic malignancy.


Assuntos
Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Pancreatite/microbiologia , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Adulto , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Biópsia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Meios de Contraste , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Icterícia Obstrutiva/microbiologia , Masculino , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Sífilis Cardiovascular/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 691-694, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most common clinical indication for renal biopsy in the early post-transplant period is early graft dysfunction (EGD), which may present either as delayed graft function (DGF) or acute graft dysfunction. Even though it is a valuable diagnostic tool, renal allograft biopsy is not without risk of major complications. Recent studies have suggested that, with modern immunosuppressive induction regimens and more accurate ways to determine high immunological risk transplants, early acute rejection (AR) is uncommon and routine biopsy for EGD does not result in a change in management. OBJECTIVES: To describe the histological findings and complications of renal allograft biopsies for EGD in our setting, and to determine whether our current threshold for biopsy is appropriate. METHODS: This study was a retrospective audit that included all patients who underwent renal allograft biopsy within the first 30 days of transplantation at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, from 1 June 2010 to 30 June 2018. The indication for biopsy was any patient who showed significant EGD, characterised by acute graft dysfunction or DGF with dialysis dependence. RESULTS: During the study period, 330 patients underwent renal transplantation, of whom 105 (32%) had an early biopsy and were included in the study. The median age of recipients was 39 (range 17 - 62) years, with 65% males and 35% females. The majority of donors were deceased donations after brain death (70%), with an overall median cold ischaemic time of 9 hours (interquartile range (IQR) 4 - 16). The average number of human leukocyte antigen mismatches was 5 (IQR 4 - 7). A donor-specific antibody was recorded for 18% of recipients and a panel-reactive antibody score of >30% was recorded for 21%. The median duration after transplant for biopsy was 8 (IQR 6 - 10) days. During the first month of EGD, AR was diagnosed in 42% of patients who underwent biopsies. In 21% of these patients, there was acute cellular rejection, in 16% antibody-mediated rejection, and in 5% both of these. Acute tubular necrosis was the primary finding in 32%, with acute interstitial nephritis in 8%, and acute calcineurin toxicity in 4% of cases. A significant biopsy-related complication was recorded in 3 patients: 1 small-bowel perforation repaired via laparotomy, and 2 vascular injuries successfully embolised by interventional radiology. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the relative safety and high rate of detection of AR, a liberal approach to renal biopsy for EGD remains justifiable in our setting.


Assuntos
Aloenxertos , Biópsia , Transplante de Rim , Rim/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Calcineurina/efeitos adversos , Auditoria Clínica , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Humanos , Necrose Tubular Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrite Intersticial/patologia , Disfunção Primária do Enxerto/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22062, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957327

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) involving the choroid plexus is exceedingly rare. The differential diagnosis for choroid plexus enhancing lesions in addition to lymphoma includes infections, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, papilloma, meningioma, subependymoma, and metastatic lesions. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 71-year-old man presented with 3 days of episodic memory loss and gait disturbance. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed homogenously enhancing lesions with mildly restricted diffusion and T2 hypointensity in the lateral ventricles, as well as T2 hyperintensity and enhancement in the right hippocampus. His episodic memory loss was thought to be secondary to subclinical focal seizures, supported by EEG revealing right temporal lobe epileptiform discharges. DIAGNOSES: Large B-cell lymphoma, nongerminal center type was revealed on pathological examination. INTERVENTIONS: Stereotactic biopsy of his right thalamic lesion was performed. OUTCOMES: The patient underwent induction therapy with high-dose methotrexate, temozolomide, and rituximab, which resulted in complete resolution of the enhancing lesions. He then underwent conditioning chemotherapy with carmustine and thiotepa, followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. His PCNSL remains in remission 42 weeks after the onset of symptoms. LESSONS: We report a patient with multifocal PCNSL involving the choroid plexus, who presented with abnormal gait and episodic confusion and memory loss. PCNSL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute encephalopathy among immunocompetent older individuals who have choroid plexus enhancing lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletroencefalografia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/terapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22156, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957339

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to correlate cribriform pattern (CP) with other parameters in a large prospective series of Gleason score ≥7/ISUP grade ≥2 prostate cancer (PC) cases undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS: This is a prospective single-center study on 210 consecutive patients. Gleason pattern 4 and individual tumor growth patterns determination were performed either in biopsy or in surgical specimens for all patients. RESULTS: At multiparametric magnetic resonance, a higher percentage of PI-RADS 5 was associated to CP (53.3% vs 17.7%, P = .038). CP was significantly and inversely (r = -0.261; P = .001) correlated with perineural invasion (PNI) but not with other pathological parameters. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that mean biochemical (Bp) and radiological (Rp) progression-free survival were similar (Bp = χ 0.906; P = .341; Rp = χ 1.880; P = .170) independently to CP. In PNI positive cases, Bp-free survival was higher (χ = 3.617; P = .057) in cases without CP. CONCLUSIONS: In a homogeneous population excluding ISUP 1 cases, CP showed limited prognostic value. We first described an association with PNI and a prognostic value influenced by PNI status.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Idoso , Biópsia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 49(10): 1031-1035, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992418

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical manifestations, imaging features, histopathologic, immunohistochemical (IHC) and ultrastructure features of neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID). Methods: HE, IHC staining and EM were performed in cases of NIID diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Jinling Hospital from 2018 to 2019. Results: Two cases were identified, including one male and one female; both patients were 76 years old. They were hospitalized because of nervous system dysfunction. MRI showed abnormal high signal intensity in corticomedullary junction of bilateral frontal lobes (male patient) and bilateral cerebral hemispheres (female patient). Light eosinophilic transparent inclusion bodies were seen in the nuclei of neurons in both rectal mucosa and cutaneous sweat glands, and these were positive for p62 by IHC. By scanning EM, the inclusion bodies in the sweat gland cells nuclei were round membranous structures consisting of 8-18 nm microfilaments. Conclusions: NIID is a rare, multi-system and slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease. Its clinical manifestations are highly diverse and easily misdiagnosed or missed. Neuroimaging can make a preliminary diagnosis. In the past, NIID can only be diagnosed through autopsy, and this study demonstrates that NIID can be confirmed through skin or rectal mucosal biopsy.


Assuntos
Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Corpos de Inclusão Intranuclear , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21920, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871927

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Collagen colitis (CC) is a microscopic colitis diagnosed by mucosal biopsy and is extremely rare in children. PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported a child with severe persistent diarrhea that could not be relieved with traditional diarrheal treatment. No abnormalities were found after multiple colonoscopies. DIAGNOSES: A significant increase in total IgE levels was found in the patient's blood. He had a history of mild chronic allergic rhinitis and slightly intermittent wheezing. However, we found that the child had a hyperallergic reaction to multiple respiratory antigens and had mild pulmonary dysfunction. Finally, colonoscopy with biopsy identified the diagnosis of CC. INTERVENTION: Considering that a respiratory allergic reaction was one of the causes of diarrhea, anti-allergic treatment was given to the child, and his severe diarrhea was soon relieved. Corticosteroid treatment was suggested to the patient, but his parents firmly refused steroid therapy. According to the patient's specific allergic reaction to mites, desensitization treatment was finally chosen for him. OUTCOMES: After 1 year of desensitization for dust mites, the patient's respiratory symptoms improved, total IgE levels decreased, autoantibodies declined, and diarrhea did not reoccur. Colonoscopy with biopsy showed a significant improvement in pathology. CONCLUSION: CC in children is rare, and childhood CC induced by a respiratory allergic reaction has not been previously reported. Therefore, this is a special case of CC in a patient who was cured with anti-allergy treatments and desensitization instead of steroid therapy.


Assuntos
Colite Colagenosa/diagnóstico , Colite Colagenosa/etiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/complicações , Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Criança , Doença Crônica , Colite Colagenosa/terapia , Colonoscopia , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Diarreia/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/terapia
18.
Croat Med J ; 61(4): 319-325, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881429

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) development and to assess the rate of dysplasia or gastric cancer development in patients with AG and/or IM. METHODS: This retrospective endoscopic follow-up study enrolled 2214 patients. The patients were followed for at least five years between 2007 and 2017 at the Department of Endoscopy at Antalya Ataturk Government Hospital. The results of third-year and five-year surveillance biopsy were assessed. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 7.77 ± 2.78 years. H. pylori was histologically assessed in 1417 (64.6%) patients. Of 198 patients with severe H. pylori infection, 32 (16%) and 139 (70.3%) developed extensive AG and extensive IM, respectively. There was a significant relationship between H. pylori density and AG and IM degrees. High grade dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer were diagnosed in 73 patients with median age 58.2 (28-80) years, and the incidence rate was 3.29% (73/2214). The annual incidence of gastric neoplastic lesions was 0.46% in total, 0.08% for early GC, and 0.02% for advanced gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori infection has an important role in the development of AG and IM. H. pylori density is directly related to atrophy and metaplasia degree.


Assuntos
Gastrite Atrófica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Gastrite Atrófica/microbiologia , Gastrite Atrófica/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Metaplasia/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/microbiologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/microbiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD005291, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In in vitro fertilisation (IVF) with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), selection of the most competent embryo(s) for transfer is based on morphological criteria. However, many women do not achieve a pregnancy even after 'good quality' embryo transfer. One of the presumed causes is that such morphologically normal embryos have an abnormal number of chromosomes (aneuploidies). Preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A), formerly known as preimplantation genetic screening (PGS), was therefore developed as an alternative method to select embryos for transfer in IVF. In PGT-A, the polar body or one or a few cells of the embryo are obtained by biopsy and tested. Only polar bodies and embryos that show a normal number of chromosomes are transferred. The first generation of PGT-A, using cleavage-stage biopsy and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) for the genetic analysis, was demonstrated to be ineffective in improving live birth rates. Since then, new PGT-A methodologies have been developed that perform the biopsy procedure at other stages of development and use different methods for genetic analysis. Whether or not PGT-A improves IVF outcomes and is beneficial to patients has remained controversial. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of PGT-A in women undergoing an IVF treatment. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility (CGF) Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and two trials registers in September 2019 and checked the references of appropriate papers. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reporting data on clinical outcomes in participants undergoing IVF with PGT-A versus IVF without PGT-A were eligible for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias, and extracted study data. The primary outcome was the cumulative live birth rate (cLBR). Secondary outcomes were live birth rate (LBR) after the first embryo transfer, miscarriage rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, proportion of women reaching an embryo transfer, and mean number of embryos per transfer. MAIN RESULTS: We included 13 trials involving 2794 women. The quality of the evidence ranged from low to moderate. The main limitations were imprecision, inconsistency, and risk of publication bias. IVF with PGT-A versus IVF without PGT-A with the use of genome-wide analyses Polar body biopsy One trial used polar body biopsy with array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH). It is uncertain whether the addition of PGT-A by polar body biopsy increases the cLBR compared to IVF without PGT-A (odds ratio (OR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66 to 1.66, 1 RCT, N = 396, low-quality evidence). The evidence suggests that for the observed cLBR of 24% in the control group, the chance of live birth following the results of one IVF cycle with PGT-A is between 17% and 34%. It is uncertain whether the LBR after the first embryo transfer improves with PGT-A by polar body biopsy (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.79, 1 RCT, N = 396, low-quality evidence). PGT-A with polar body biopsy may reduce miscarriage rate (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.88, 1 RCT, N = 396, low-quality evidence). No data on ongoing pregnancy rate were available. The effect of PGT-A by polar body biopsy on improving clinical pregnancy rate is uncertain (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.16, 1 RCT, N = 396, low-quality evidence). Blastocyst stage biopsy One trial used blastocyst stage biopsy with next-generation sequencing. It is uncertain whether IVF with the addition of PGT-A by blastocyst stage biopsy increases cLBR compared to IVF without PGT-A, since no data were available. It is uncertain if LBR after the first embryo transfer improves with PGT-A with blastocyst stage biopsy (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.27, 1 RCT, N = 661, low-quality evidence). It is uncertain whether PGT-A with blastocyst stage biopsy reduces miscarriage rate (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.54, 1 RCT, N = 661, low-quality evidence). No data on ongoing pregnancy rate or clinical pregnancy rate were available. IVF with PGT-A versus IVF without PGT-A with the use of FISH for the genetic analysis Eleven trials were included in this comparison. It is uncertain whether IVF with addition of PGT-A increases cLBR (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.01, 1 RCT, N = 408, low-quality evidence). The evidence suggests that for the observed average cLBR of 29% in the control group, the chance of live birth following the results of one IVF cycle with PGT-A is between 12% and 29%. PGT-A performed with FISH probably reduces live births after the first transfer compared to the control group (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.91, 10 RCTs, N = 1680, I² = 54%, moderate-quality evidence). The evidence suggests that for the observed average LBR per first transfer of 31% in the control group, the chance of live birth after the first embryo transfer with PGT-A is between 16% and 29%. There is probably little or no difference in miscarriage rate between PGT-A and the control group (OR 1.03, 95%, CI 0.75 to 1.41; 10 RCTs, N = 1680, I² = 16%; moderate-quality evidence). The addition of PGT-A may reduce ongoing pregnancy rate (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.90, 5 RCTs, N = 1121, I² = 60%, low-quality evidence) and probably reduces clinical pregnancies (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.81, 5 RCTs, N = 1131; I² = 0%, moderate-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient good-quality evidence of a difference in cumulative live birth rate, live birth rate after the first embryo transfer, or miscarriage rate between IVF with and IVF without PGT-A as currently performed. No data were available on ongoing pregnancy rates. The effect of PGT-A on clinical pregnancy rate is uncertain. Women need to be aware that it is uncertain whether PGT-A with the use of genome-wide analyses is an effective addition to IVF, especially in view of the invasiveness and costs involved in PGT-A. PGT-A using FISH for the genetic analysis is probably harmful. The currently available evidence is insufficient to support PGT-A in routine clinical practice.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Fertilização In Vitro , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/métodos , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Viés , Biópsia , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Blastocisto/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo , Idade Materna , Corpos Polares/patologia , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(7)2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898403

RESUMO

Poorly controlled and long-standing hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) increases the risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We report a 54-year-old woman with an over 20-year history of HS, who had previously undergone wide perineal excision with secondary intention healing and presented with a painful verrucous vulvar plaque and proximal non-healing perineal wound. The patient had four perineal scouting biopsies performed and excisional biopsy with no evidence of high-grade dysplasia or carcinoma on histology. Chromogenic in situ hybridization was negative for HPV 16 and 18 mRNA; the patient's HIV and HSV PCR were also negative. Our patient was treated with interferon alfa-2b with notable clinical improvement. There is currently no standardized stepwise approach to monitoring verrucous lesions in HS patients with significant risk factors for SCC. Our report highlights a vigilant approach to monitoring. If scouting biopsies are negative, complete testing for high risk HPV strains (HPV 16 and 18) is warranted. If negative, we recommend follow up every 6 months with no further biopsies except if overt clinical changes are observed. We also recommend treatment of verrucous changes to decrease risk of possible malignant conversion. Interferon alfa-2b was effective in decreasing the verrucous lesion burden in our patient and may be considered.


Assuntos
Hidradenite Supurativa/complicações , Interferon alfa-2/uso terapêutico , Verrugas/tratamento farmacológico , Biópsia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Condiloma Acuminado/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Hidradenite Supurativa/cirurgia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Papillomavirus Humano 18/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 18/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Períneo/patologia , RNA Viral/análise , Falha de Tratamento , Vulva/patologia , Verrugas/etiologia , Cicatrização
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