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1.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929913, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Two diagnostic models of prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant prostate cancer (CS-PCa) were established using clinical data of among patients whose prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels are in the gray area (4.0-10.0 ng/ml). MATERIAL AND METHODS Data from 181 patients whose PSA levels were in the gray area were retrospectively analyzed, and the following data were collected: age, digital rectal examination, total PSA, PSA density (PSAD), free/total PSA (f/t PSA), transrectal ultrasound, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), and pathological reports. Patients were diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and PCa by pathology reports, and PCa patients were separated into non-clinically significant PCa (NCS-PCa) and CS-PCa by Gleason score. Afterward, predictor models constructed by above parameters were researched to diagnose PCa and CS-PCa, respectively. RESULTS According to the analysis of included clinical data, there were 109 patients with BPH, 44 patients with NCS-PCa, and 28 patients with CS-PCa. Regression analysis showed PCa was correlated with f/t PSA, PSAD, and mpMRI (P<0.01), and CS-PCa was correlated with PSAD and mpMRI (P<0.01). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 2 models for PCa (sensitivity=73.64%, specificity=64.23%) and for CS-PCa (sensitivity=71.41%, specificity=81.82%) were 0.79 and 0.87, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The prediction models had satisfactory diagnostic value for PCa and CS-PCa among patients with PSA in the gray area, and use of these models may help reduce overdiagnosis.


Assuntos
Calicreínas/sangue , Modelos Estatísticos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Exame Retal Digital/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Sobremedicalização/prevenção & controle , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Gradação de Tumores , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ultrassonografia/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
J Urol ; 205(1): 122-128, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718204

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that visceral fat quantity may be associated with post-prostatectomy outcomes and risk of prostate cancer related death. We evaluated whether increased fat volume, normalized to prostate size, is associated with decreased risk of disease progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients enrolled on a prospective active surveillance trial for at least 6 months who had magnetic resonance imaging within 2 years of enrollment were eligible. The surveillance protocol included a standardized followup regimen consisting of biennial prostate specific antigen and examination and yearly biopsy. Clinicopathological characteristics were collected at baseline. Three fat measurements were taken using prostate magnetic resonance imaging, including subcutaneous, linear periprostatic (pubic symphysis to prostate) and volumetrically defined periprostatic. Progression was defined as increase in Gleason grade group. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate fat volumes normalized by prostate size (stratified into tertiles). RESULTS: A total of 175 patients were included in the study. Average age was 62.5 years (SD 7.4) and average prostate specific antigen was 5.4 ng/dl (SD 3.9). Median followup was 42 months (IQR 18-60) and 50 patients (28.6%) had progression. Compared to the lowest tertile, the highest tertile of volumetric periprostatic fat measurement (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.23-5.60, p=0.01) and linear periprostatic fat measurement (HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.01-5.22, p=0.05) were associated with worsened progression-free survival, while subcutaneous fat measurement (p=0.97) was not. Importantly, the model did not substantively change when accounting for patient body mass index and other factors. CONCLUSIONS: Increased periprostatic fat volume, normalized to prostate size, may be associated with shortened progression-free survival in men with prostate cancer on active surveillance.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Seguimentos , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Calicreínas/sangue , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Tamanho do Órgão , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Gordura Subcutânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Subcutânea/fisiopatologia
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2029917, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315114

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with autoimmune disease and lung cancer pose a multidisciplinary treatment challenge, particularly with the advent of immunotherapy. However, the association between autoimmune disease and lung cancer survival is largely unknown. Objective: To determine the association between autoimmune disease and lung cancer survival. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study between 2003 and 2019 at a single academic medical center (Northwestern University). A query of the Northwestern Medicine Enterprise Data Warehouse identified 349 patients with lung cancer and several autoimmune diseases. Types of lung cancers included small cell, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, non-small cell not otherwise specified, and large cell carcinoma. Autoimmune diseases included rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, mixed connective tissue disease, myositis, and Sjögren syndrome. Inclusion criteria were biopsy-confirmed lung cancer, autoimmune diagnosis confirmed by a rheumatologist, and death or an encounter listed in the electronic medical record within 2 years of study end. A control group of patients with biopsy-proven lung cancer but without autoimmune disease was identified. Data analysis was conducted from March to July 2020. Exposure: Presence of autoimmune disease. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with autoimmune disease. The hypothesis was that patients with autoimmune disease would have worse progression-free survival and overall survival compared with patients in the control group. Results: Of the original 349 patients, 177 met inclusion criteria. Mean (SD) age at lung cancer diagnosis was 67.0 (10.0) years and 136 (76.8%) were women. Most common autoimmune diseases were rheumatoid arthritis (97 [54.8%]), systemic sclerosis (43 [24.3%]), and systemic lupus erythematous (15 [8.5%]). Most common lung cancers were adenocarcinoma (99 [55.9%]), squamous cell carcinoma (29 [16.4%]), and small cell lung cancer (17 [9.6%]). A total of 219 patients (mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 65.9 [4.1] years; 173 [79.0%]) were identified as having lung cancer without autoimmune disease and included in the control cohort. Compared with patients in the control group, patients with autoimmune disease experienced no difference in overall survival (log-rank P = .69). A total of 126 patients (69.5%) with autoimmune disease received standard of care vs 213 patients (97.3%) in the control group (P < .001). No individual autoimmune disease was associated with worse prognosis, even among patients with underlying interstitial lung disease. Conclusions and Relevance: Compared with institutional controls, patients with autoimmune disease experienced no difference in survival despite the fact that fewer patients in this group received standard-of-care treatment. No individual autoimmune disease was associated with worse prognosis. Future multicenter prospective trials are needed to further evaluate autoimmune disease and lung cancer survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Pulmão/patologia , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Artrite Reumatoide/terapia , Autoimunidade , Biópsia/métodos , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Comorbidade , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/terapia , Padrão de Cuidado/organização & administração , Padrão de Cuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2030107, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326027

RESUMO

Importance: The incidence of skin cancer is increasing and evaluation of the utility of total body skin examination (TBSE) in detecting incidental skin cancers is warranted. Objectives: To evaluate the proportion and rate of incidental skin cancer detection in urgent skin cancer clinics and investigate the rate of incidental skin cancer detection in 2 groups based on the degree of clinical suspicion of the index lesion for malignancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter retrospective cohort study with a case note review of consecutive secondary care consultations was conducted using data from 2 urgent suspected skin cancer screening clinics in UK National Health Service trusts. The study was performed from January 1, 2015, to March 31, 2016, and data analysis was performed from October 14, 2018, to February 1, 2019. Patients included those presenting with a skin lesion suspicious of malignancy who were referred to the urgent suspected skin cancer clinic (N = 5944) over 15 months. Patients who accepted and received a TBSE were subsequently included in the analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: The proportion and rate of incidental skin cancer detection through TBSE and whether a clinically suspicious (malignant) index lesion was associated with a higher chance of having a malignant incidental lesion. Results: Of the 5944 patients referred to the clinic, 4726 individuals (79.5%) were evaluated. In the cohort included in the analyses, the median age was 57 years (interquartile range, 39-73 years); 2567 patients (54.3%) were women. A total of 1117 skin cancers were identified; of these, 242 lesions (21.7%) were detected incidentally through TBSE, including 197 of 570 (34.6%) basal cell carcinomas, 16 of 250 (6.4%) squamous cell carcinomas, and 25 of 215 (11.6%) melanomas. The detection rate of incidental malignant lesions was 5.1 lesions per 100 patients examined (5.1%; 95% CI, 4.5%-5.8%). There was a higher detection rate of histologically confirmed incidental malignant lesions in individuals with clinically suspicious index lesions requiring biopsy (10.9%; 95% CI, 9.5%-12.5%) compared with those presenting with clinically benign index lesions (2.0%; 95% CI, 1.6%-2.5%) (P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study support the use of TBSE for urgent skin cancer referrals, highlighting the potential harms of solitary lesion assessment in a subgroup. Individuals presenting with a clinically suspicious index lesion requiring biopsy are most likely to benefit from TBSE and should be counseled regarding the benefit.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Melanoma/patologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Biópsia/métodos , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Dermatologia/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Físico/métodos , Exame Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pele/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Reino Unido
5.
Future Oncol ; 16(35): 2917-2922, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350878

RESUMO

Aim: To describe the activity in the 'breast unit' at the department of radiology during the COVID-19 lockdown in a university hospital treating COVID-19 patients in a Middle-Eastern developing country. Materials: This was a retrospective study conducted from March 9 until 11 May 2020, in the breast unit at the department of radiology of a central university hospital in a Middle-Eastern developing country. Data were collected from 205 patients visiting the breast unit during the lockdown period and compared with the activity in the same period in the previous year. Results: Reduction of the breast unit activity was estimated at 73%. In addition, 153 mammograms, 205 ultrasounds, and 16 breast MRIs were done. Indications for mammogram were screening (41.5%), follow-up (22%), clinical symptoms (20%) and breast cancer surveillance (16.5%). MRI was performed mostly for preoperative surgical management. The rate of positive biopsies was 41%. All staff members and patients have accommodated to new adjustments. Conclusion: Activity in the breast unit dropped during the lockdown period. Staff should continue to seek their own and their patient's safety without diminishing the quality of healthcare.


Assuntos
Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Radiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): 782-791, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the addition of embryo biopsy performed during preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic diseases is associated with a higher risk of obstetric and neonatal complications compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF) without preimplantation genetic testing or spontaneously conceived pregnancies. METHODS: This is a cohort study of all pregnancies conceived after preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic diseases (PGT-M group) from 2006 to 2018 at Sheba Medical Center, Israel. The control groups included patients who had conceived spontaneously (spontaneous conception group) or by IVF without preimplantation genetic testing (IVF group) and delivered at Sheba Medical Center. The obstetrics outcomes were compared among the groups. Multivariable regression modeling was performed, focusing on the relationship between preimplantation genetic testing and adverse outcomes. RESULTS: Final analysis included 345 singleton and 76 twin deliveries in the PGT-M group. The spontaneous conception group included 5,290 singleton and 92 twin deliveries. The IVF group included 422 singleton and 101 twin deliveries. Among singleton pregnancies, patients in the PGT-M group had a higher rate of hypertensive disorders (6.9%) compared with those in the spontaneous conception group (2.3%; odds ratio [OR] 3.3; 95% CI 1.9-4.8; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 14.8; 95% CI 7.4-29.8) and the IVF group (4.7%; OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.8-2.7; aOR 5.9; 95% CI 1.9-18.2). Likewise, patients in the PGT-M group had a higher rate of small-for-gestational age neonates (12.4%) compared with those in the spontaneous conception group (3.9%; OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.4-4.9; aOR 2.3; 95% CI 1.5-3.4) and the IVF group (4.5%; OR 3; 95% CI 1.7-5.2; aOR 2.5; 95% CI 1.7-5.2). Among twin pregnancies, patients in the PGT-M group also had an increased rate of hypertensive disorders compared with those in the spontaneous conception group (4.3%; OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.2-13.3; aOR 10.9; 95% CI 2.3-50) and the IVF group (4%; OR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4-14.7; aOR 3.7; 95% CI 1.1-12.8). CONCLUSION: Pregnancies conceived after preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic disorders were associated with an increased risk of obstetric complications compared with pregnancies conceived spontaneously or by IVF without preimplantation genetic testing.


Assuntos
Biópsia , Fertilização In Vitro , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação , Adulto , Biópsia/métodos , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fertilização , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Fertilização In Vitro/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/diagnóstico , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
7.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(10): 925-935, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860149

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yields numerous tumor-related incidental findings (IFs) which may trigger diagnostics such as biopsies. To clarify these effects, we studied how whole-body MRI IF disclosure in a population-based cohort affected biopsy frequency and the detection of malignancies. Laboratory disclosures were also assessed. Data from 6753 participants in the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) examined between 2008 and 2012 were utilized. All underwent laboratory examinations and 3371 (49.9%) a whole-body MRI. Electronic biopsy reports from 2002 to 2017 were linked to participants and assigned to outcome categories. Biopsy frequency 2 years pre- and post-SHIP was investigated using generalized estimating equations with a negative-binomial distribution. Overall 8208 IFs (laboratory findings outside reference limits: 6839; MRI: 1369) were disclosed to 4707 participants; 2271 biopsy reports belonged to 1200 participants (17.8%). Of these, 938 biopsies occurred pre-SHIP; 1333 post-SHIP (event rate/100 observation years = 6.9 [95% CI 6.5; 7.4]; 9.9 [9.3; 10.4]). Age, cancer history, recent hospitalization, female sex, and IF disclosure were associated with higher biopsy rates. Nonmalignant biopsy results increased more in participants with disclosures (post-/pre-SHIP rate ratio 1.39 [95% CI 1.22; 1.58]) than without (1.09 [95% CI 0.85; 1.38]). Malignant biopsy results were more frequent post-SHIP (rate ratio 1.74 [95% CI 1.27; 2.42]). Biopsies increased after participation in a population-based cohort study with MRI and laboratory IF disclosure. Most biopsies resulted in no findings and few malignancies were diagnosed, indicating potential overtesting and overdiagnosis. A more restrictive policy regarding IF disclosure from research findings is required.


Assuntos
Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Achados Incidentais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem Corporal Total/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Revelação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Registro Médico Coordenado , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(11): 986-995, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of antibiotics in early life has been linked with childhood inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but data for adults are mixed, and based on smaller investigations that did not compare risk among siblings with shared genetic or environmental risk factors. We aimed to investigate the association between antibiotic therapy and IBD in a large, population-based study. METHODS: In this prospective case-control study, we identified people living in Sweden aged 16 years or older, with a diagnosis of IBD based on histology and at least one diagnosis code for IBD or its subtypes (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease). We identified consecutive patients with incident IBD from the ESPRESSO (Epidemiology Strengthened by histoPathology Reports in Sweden) study, cross-referenced with the Swedish Patient Register and the Prescribed Drug Register. We accrued data for cumulative antibiotic dispensations until 1 year before time of matching for patients and up to five general population controls per patient (matched on the basis of age, sex, county, and calendar year). We also included unaffected full siblings as a secondary control group. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% CIs for diagnosis of incident IBD. FINDINGS: We identified 23 982 new patients with IBD (15 951 ulcerative colitis, 7898 Crohn's disease, 133 unclassified IBD) diagnosed between Jan 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2016. 117 827 matched controls and 28 732 siblings were also identified. After adjusting for several risk factors, aOR in patients who had used antibiotics versus those who had never used antibiotics was 1·88 (95% CI 1·79-1·98) for diagnosis of incident IBD, 1·74 (1·64-1·85) for ulcerative colitis, and 2·27 (2·06-2·49) for Crohn's disease. aOR was higher in patients who had received one antibiotic dispensation (1·11, 1·07-1·15), two antibiotic dispensations (1·38, 1·32-1·44), and three or more antibiotic dispensations (1·55, 1·49-1·61) than patients who had none. Increased risk was noted for ulcerative colitis (aOR with three or more antibiotic dispensations 1·47, 95% CI 1·40-1·54) and Crohn's disease (1·64, 1·53-1·76) with higher estimates corresponding to broad-spectrum antibiotics. Similar but attenuated results were observed when siblings were used as the reference group, with an aOR of 1·35 (95% CI 1·28-1·43) for patients who had received three or more dispensations, compared with general population controls. INTERPRETATION: Higher cumulative exposure to systemic antibiotic therapy, particularly treatments with greater spectrum of microbial coverage, may be associated with a greater risk of new-onset IBD and its subtypes. The association between antimicrobial treatment and IBD did not appear to differ when predisposed siblings were used as the reference controls. Our findings, if substantiated by longer-term prospective studies in humans or mechanistic preclinical investigations, suggest the need to further emphasise antibiotic stewardship to prevent the rise in dysbiosis-related chronic diseases, including IBD. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health. Crohn's and Colitis Foundation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Disbiose , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Antibacterianos/classificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Sistemas de Informação em Farmácia Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Irmãos , Suécia/epidemiologia
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20522, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502003

RESUMO

Data on protocol biopsies (PBs) after pediatric kidney transplantation are rare.We evaluated 6-month post-transplantation renal function in 86 children after PB as observational study. Patients were divided into 3 groups:Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and delta GFR were determined.PBs 6 months post-kidney transplantation did not influence the clinical course in stable pediatric patients and are therefore of questionable value. Decreased kidney function may however be stabilized by therapeutic intervention according to results of PB.


Assuntos
Biópsia/métodos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Masculino , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234518, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping and cytology have been recommended for colposcopy triage, but it is unclear which combinations of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types and cytology with various thresholds provide clinically useful information for the triage after primary HPV screening on self-collected samples. METHOD: Chinese Multi-site Screening Trial (CHIMUST) database focused on self-collected samples was reviewed using the results of Cobas4800 HPV assay. Absolute risks of each genotype for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or worse/ 3 or worse (CIN2+/CIN3+) were calculated. Triage of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or worse cytology was used as the comparator, and diagnostic accuracy for paired comparisons between algorithms was obtained using McNemar's test. RESULTS: A total of 10, 498 women were included, the overall prevalence of hrHPV, HPV16, HPV18, and Other hrHPV genotypes were 13.7%, 2.4%, 0.8%, and 10.5%, respectively. HPV16-positive women had the highest absolute risk among various genotypes for CIN2+/CIN3+ whether in normal or abnormal cytology (ASCUS or worse) and among all age groups. When compared with the comparator, combining HPV16 positivity and/or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse yielded higher specificity (97.7% vs. 97.0%, p<0.0001), similar sensitivity (90.7% vs. 96.3%, p = 0.256) for detection of CIN3+, and a decrease in colposcopy referral rate from 3.5% to 2.7%, similar results were found for CIN2+. Positivity for HPV16 and/or (ASCUS or worse), and positivity for (HPV16 and/or HPV18) and/or (ASCUS or worse) achieved favorable sensitivity compared with the comparator (80.6% and 81.3% vs. 70.1% respectively for CIN2+, p<0.0001; both 96.3% vs. 96.3% for CIN3+, p = 1.000), these algorithms would reduce the colposcopy referral rate to 5.0% and 5.6% respectively, compared with 13.7% of that for HPV alone. CONCLUSIONS: Triage of HPV-positive women on self-collected samples by combining HPV16 or HPV16/18 genotyping with different thresholds of cytology could provide tradeoffs in sensitivity for detecting cervical lesions and colposcopy referral rates, and tailor management in various circumstances of clinical practice.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Triagem/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos , Adulto , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Colo do Útero/citologia , Colo do Útero/patologia , Colo do Útero/virologia , Colposcopia/estatística & dados numéricos , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Papillomavirus Humano 18/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 18/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Triagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
11.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 99(9): 565-566, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347112

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic during the first months of 2020 is causing profound changes in worldwide health care systems, resulting in a major reduction of surgical interventions and routine non-urgent outpatient diagnostic procedures. The lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, one of the most affected countries in Europe, is having severe effects on the otolaryngology medical and surgical activities. The main changes are represented by the postponement of outpatient visits and scheduled surgery, while the only guaranteed service is reserved to diagnostics and surgery for oncology and urgent patients. In these cases, given the sites of action typical of the otolaryngology practice, physicians and nurses are exposed to a high risk of contagion through virus aerosol transmission. Furthermore, as the current measures of lockdown continue, it will be difficult to perform scheduled and new diagnostic assessments, medical treatments and surgical procedures in a timely manner favoring the risk of diagnostic and therapeutic delays with severe impact on patients' health.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Otolaringologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Traqueostomia/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
J Urol ; 204(5): 934-940, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330406

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Active surveillance for prostate cancer relies on regular prostate specific antigen tests and surveillance biopsies. Compliance rates with biopsies vary but the subsequent impact on oncologic outcomes is not known. The objective of this study was to determine whether noncompliance with the confirmatory biopsy negatively impacts prostate cancer specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on a prospective single-arm cohort of men enrolled in active surveillance for prostate cancer between 1995 and 2018 with a median followup of 9.1 years. A total of 1,275 patients were enrolled and 1,043 had a minimum of 3 years of followup and were included in the analysis. Patients were stratified by compliance with a confirmatory biopsy within 24 months of enrollment in active surveillance. The primary outcome was recurrence-free survival. Secondary outcomes included metastatic-free survival and cause specific survival. RESULTS: A total of 1,275 patients were enrolled, and 1,043 had a minimum of 3 years of followup and were included in the analysis, of whom 425 were treated for localized prostate cancer. Patients noncompliant with the confirmatory biopsy had higher rates of recurrence after treatment (19% vs 12%, HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.19-2.26, p=0.003) and metastases (7% vs 2%, HR 3.56, 95% CI 1.8-7.0, p=0.0003) even after accounting for age, prostate specific antigen and Grade Group. Cause specific survival was not significantly different between the 2 groups. The results were consistent even in the subset of patients with Grade Group 1 disease at study entry. CONCLUSIONS: Noncompliance with a confirmatory biopsy compromises the control of prostate cancer in men followed on active surveillance. Patients and physicians should be aware of the importance of adhering to protocol for men on active surveillance.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Seguimentos , Humanos , Calicreínas/sangue , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Conduta Expectante/métodos
13.
BJU Int ; 126(1): 133-141, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and financial implications of a decade of prostate biopsies performed in the UK National Health Service (NHS) through the transrectal (TR) vs the transperineal (TP) route. METHODS: We conducted an evaluation of the TR vs the TP biopsy approach in the context of 28 days post-procedure complications and readmissions. A secondary evaluation of burden of expenditure in NHS hospitals over the entire decade (2008-2019) was conducted through examination of national Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data. RESULTS: In this dataset of 486 467 prostate biopsies (387 879 TR and 98 588 TP biopsies), rates of infection and sepsis were higher for the TR compared to the TP cohort (0.53% vs 0.31%; P < 0.001, confidence interval 99% ). Rates of sepsis have more than doubled for TR biopsies in the last 2 years compared to the previous decade (1.12% vs 0.53%). Infective complications were the main reasons for readmissions in the TR cohort, whereas urinary retention was the predominant reason for readmission in the TP cohort. Over the last decade, non-elective (NEL) readmissions seem higher for the TP group; however, in the last 2 years these have reduced compared to the TR group (3.54% vs 3.74%). The cost estimates for NEL readmissions for the entire decade were £33,589,527.00 and £7,179,926.00 respectively, for TR and TP cohorts (P < 0.001). Estimated costs per patient readmission were £2,225.00 and £1,758.00 in the TR and TP groups (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of nearly half a million prostate biopsies in the NHS over the entire decade gives sufficient evidence for the distinct advantages of the TP route over the TR route in terms of reduced infections and burden of expenditure. In addition, there is a potential for savings both in upstream and downstream costs if biopsy is performed under a local anaesthetic.


Assuntos
Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Períneo , Reto
15.
J Surg Res ; 250: 97-101, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies of internal pathology review (IPR) for melanoma have shown that changes in the pathology analysis are common. How these changes impact clinical management of melanoma or how the margin status reports may modify has not been evaluated. Our goal was to determine what changes to staging and surgical management occurred after IPR of newly diagnosed melanomas and to determine how the final surgical pathology report may correlate with the IPR. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted from 2014 to 2016 of newly diagnosed invasive melanomas referred to a single National Comprehensive Cancer Network tertiary care center. RESULTS: A total of 370 cases met inclusion criteria. The most common feature changed after internal review was mitotic rate, in 155 (41.7%) patients, followed by Breslow depth in 99 (26.9%) patients. Tumor staging was changed in 45 (12.2%) patients. The most common change was a T1a lesion being upgraded to a T1b lesion. These tumor staging changes lead to 38 (10.3%) overall staging differences. A biopsy's deep margin status was changed in 27 (7.3%) patients. Outside hospital reports lacked information about deep margin status in 71 (19.2%) of specimens. Based on the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, 22 (5.9%) patients had changes in their sentinel lymph node biopsy recommendations and one of these patients had a positive node found on pathology. Of those patients who had changes in the T-stage, 16 (4.3%) of them also had changes in the recommended wide local excision radial margin. CONCLUSIONS: IPR of invasive melanoma leads to both changes in staging and the surgical management of melanoma and should remain an important component of care of melanoma patients at a tertiary referral center.


Assuntos
Melanoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Pele/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Institutos de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Gastroenterology ; 158(6): 1574-1583.e2, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microscopic colitis shares pathogenetic mechanisms with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We studied the association between microscopic colitis and risk of incident IBD using data from a nationwide cohort study. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of all adults who received a diagnosis of microscopic colitis from 1990 through 2017 in Sweden and risk of incident IBD. Cases of microscopic colitis (n= 13,957) were identified through Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine codes from the ESPRESSO (Epidemiology Strengthened by histoPathology Reports in Sweden) study, which included gastrointestinal pathology reports from all of Sweden's 28 centers. Individuals with microscopic colitis were matched to 5 general population controls (n = 66,820) and to unaffected siblings (n =13,943). Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Through December of 2017, we identified 323 incident cases of ulcerative colitis (UC) and 108 incident cases of Crohn's disease (CD) in patients with microscopic colitis compared with 94 UC and 42 CD cases in population comparators. Mean times from diagnosis of microscopic colitis to diagnosis of CD was 3.3 ± 3.2 years and to diagnosis of UC was 3.2 ± 3.5 years. In multivariable models, microscopic colitis was associated with an aHR of 12.6 (95% CI 8.8-18.1) for CD, 17.3 (95% CI 13.7-21.8) for UC, and 16.8 (95% CI 13.9-20.3) for IBD. The 10-year absolute excess risks of CD and UC were 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.1) and 2.6 (95% CI 2.2-2.9) percentage points, respectively. In sensitivity analyses, comparing patients with microscopic colitis with their unaffected siblings, the aHRs of CD and UC were 5.4 (95% CI 3.2-9.2) and 9.4 (95% CI 6.4-13.8), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In a population-based study in Sweden, we found a significant increase in risk of incident IBD among patients with microscopic colitis. Future studies should focus on potential mechanisms underlying these observed associations.


Assuntos
Colite Microscópica/epidemiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colite Microscópica/complicações , Colite Microscópica/patologia , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Colite Ulcerativa/etiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo/patologia , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/etiologia , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
17.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 82(5): 1262-1267, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inpatient dermatology has been shown to improve patient outcomes at a reduced cost. Few hospitals have dermatologists available. Teledermatology may allow dermatologists to assess hospitalized patients remotely. OBJECTIVE: To examine the diagnostic concordance between a hospitalist, dermatologist, and teledermatologist using store-and-forward teledermatology. METHODS: For 100 consecutive patients requiring inpatient dermatology consultation, a survey was conducted by all 3 raters to convey diagnostic impressions and therapeutic recommendations. Complete and partial agreements were assessed using the Cohen kappa statistic. RESULTS: Inpatient dermatology consultation often resulted in a change in diagnosis (50.9%) and a change in systemic therapy (41.5%). Likewise, virtual teledermatology consultation would have resulted in a change in diagnosis (54.7%) and a change in systemic therapy (47.2%) at similar rates. Comparing the dermatologist and teledermatologists, diagnostic complete and partial agreement were 52.8% and 84.9%, respectively. Systemic therapy agreement was 77.4%. Teledermatologists recommended biopsy more often (68.5% vs 43.5%). LIMITATIONS: Small sample size, tertiary academic medical center, single rater for inpatient teledermatology with specific inpatient niche. CONCLUSION: Teledermatologists performed comparably to an in-person dermatologist for the diagnosis and management of hospitalized patients with skin conditions. Teledermatology may be a suitable alternative for delivery of inpatient care if no dermatologist is available.


Assuntos
Dermatologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Consulta Remota/estatística & dados numéricos , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Dermatologia/métodos , Dermatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Dermatopatias/terapia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(1): 120-128, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few data are available on the epidemiology and management of GCA in real life. We aimed to address this situation by using health insurance claims data for France. METHODS: This retrospective study used the Echantillon Généraliste de Bénéficiaires (EGB) database, a 1% representative sample of the French national health insurance system. The EGB contains anonymous data on long-term disease status, hospitalizations and reimbursement claims for 752 717 people. Data were collected between 2007 and 2015. The index date was defined as the date of the first occurrence of a GCA code. Demographics, comorbidities, diagnostic tests and therapies were analysed. Annual incidence rates were calculated, and incident and overall GCA cases were studied. RESULTS: We identified 241 patients with GCA. The annual incidence was 7-10/100 000 people ⩾50 years old. Among the 117 patients with incident GCA, 74.4% were females, with mean age 77.6 years and mean follow-up 2.2 years. After the index date, 51.3% underwent temporal artery biopsy and 29.1% high-resolution Doppler ultrasonography. Among the whole cohort, 84.3% used only glucocorticoids. The most-prescribed glucocorticoid-sparing agent was methotrexate (12.0%). CONCLUSION: The incidence of GCA in France is 7-10/100 000 people ⩾ 50 years old. Adjunct agents, mainly methotrexate, are given to only a few patients. The use of temporal artery biopsy in only half of the patients might reflect a shift toward the use of imaging techniques to diagnose GCA.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Arterite de Células Gigantes/epidemiologia , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Ultrassonografia Doppler/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Biópsia/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Arterite de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico , Arterite de Células Gigantes/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Artérias Temporais/patologia
19.
Dermatol Surg ; 46(4): 525-529, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathologists sometimes include commentary on margin involvement in shave biopsy reports of keratinocyte carcinoma (KC). This practice can lead to confusion regarding the need for further treatment. There is limited literature evaluating the reliability of reported histologic margin status in shave biopsies of KC. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the negative predictive value (NPV) of reported clear shave biopsy margins in basal and squamous cell carcinomas to determine whether this assessment is a reliable predictor of complete tumor removal. METHODS: A literature review was performed using the PubMed database. The data were compiled, NPVs were calculated by the tumor subgroup, and a statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: Four studies met inclusion criteria. Two hundred twenty-one KCs were identified (n = 221). All specimens had negative-reported histologic margins (39 squamous cell carcinoma [SCC] and 182 BCC). Fifty-five cases initially noted to have negative margins on biopsy were found to have residual tumor on subsequent analysis: 5 SCC and 50 BCC, translating to 12.8% of all SCC (5/39) and 27.5% for BCC (50/182). Negative predictive values were found to be 75.1% for all KCs, 87.2% for SCC, and 72.5% for BCC. CONCLUSION: Negative histologic margin status on shave biopsy specimens of KC has a poor NPV and is an inadequate predictor for complete tumor removal.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Margens de Excisão , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Pele/patologia , Biópsia/métodos , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Humanos , Queratinócitos/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pele/citologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
20.
Transplantation ; 104(7): 1483-1490, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About half of late kidney allograft losses are attributed to death with function (DWF), a poorly characterized outcome. An ongoing question is whether DWF is a consequence of chronic allograft dysfunction. Using the prospective Long-term Deterioration of Kidney Allograft Function study database, we sought to better define the impact, phenotype, and clinical course of DWF in the current era. METHODS: Three thousand five hundred eighty-seven kidney recipients with functional grafts at 90 days post-transplant were followed prospectively for a median of 5.2 years. RESULTS: Characteristics at transplantation in those with DWF (N = 350, 9.8%) differed from those who otherwise lost their grafts (death-censored graft failure [DC-GF], N = 295, 8.2%) or maintained function (N = 2942, 82.0%); DWF patients were older, sicker, and had been on dialysis longer, with more preexisting cardiovascular disease, whereas DC-GF patients experienced more early rejection, more acute rejection after 90 days, and a clinically significant decrease in kidney function before graft failure. In contrast, the clinical course after transplantation in DWF patients did not differ before death from those who maintained function throughout. CONCLUSIONS: DWF and DC-GF in kidney transplant recipients represent differing clinical phenotypes occurring in distinct patient populations. Reducing the impact of DWF requires better definition of causes and clinical course and then trials of therapies to improve outcomes. Composite endpoints in clinical trials that group DWF and DC-GF together may obscure important clinical findings.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos/patologia , Aloenxertos/fisiopatologia , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Testes de Função Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Transplante Homólogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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