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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(18)2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509987

RESUMO

In this paper, a new control-centric approach is introduced to model the characteristics of flex sensors on a goniometric glove, which is designed to capture the user hand gesture that can be used to wirelessly control a bionic hand. The main technique employs the inverse dynamic model strategy along with a black-box identification for the compensator design, which is aimed to provide an approximate linear mapping between the raw sensor output and the dynamic finger goniometry. To smoothly recover the goniometry on the bionic hand's side during the wireless transmission, the compensator is restructured into a Hammerstein-Wiener model, which consists of a linear dynamic system and two static nonlinearities. A series of real-time experiments involving several hand gestures have been conducted to analyze the performance of the proposed method. The associated temporal and spatial gesture data from both the glove and the bionic hand are recorded, and the performance is evaluated in terms of the integral of absolute error between the glove's and the bionic hand's dynamic goniometry. The proposed method is also compared with the raw sensor data, which has been preliminarily calibrated with the finger goniometry, and the Wiener model, which is based on the initial inverse dynamic design strategy. Experimental results with several trials for each gesture show that a great improvement is obtained via the Hammerstein-Wiener compensator approach where the resulting average errors are significantly smaller than the other two methods. This concludes that the proposed strategy can remarkably improve the dynamic goniometry of the glove, and thus provides a smooth human-robot collaboration with the bionic hand.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Artrometria Articular , Biônica , Mãos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 245: 112047, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394179

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Description of the pharmacological activities of Sanghuang mushrooms (Inonotus Sanghuang) can be traced back to Tang dynasty of China 1300 years ago. This mushroom has been widely accepted in China, Japan, Korea and certain regions of Europe as a nutraceutical medicine for enhancing immunity or an alternative medicine for prevention or inhibition of tumorigenesis. However, this mushroom is rarely available from the mulberry trees in the wild because of the rigorous conditions needed for formation of the Sanghuang mushrooms. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to establish a practical protocol for culture, particularly for a bunch of production of Sanghuang mushrooms possibly to commercialize the cultured Sanghuang based on deep comparison of quality and pharmacological activities between the cultured and the wild Sanghuang. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A phylogenetic tree containing five strains of the wild Sanghuang was constructed using rDNA markers. Different temperatures and medium compositions were surveyed to develop a practical protocol for culture of the Sanghuang mushrooms. 5-fluorouracil was used to induce the immunodeficient mice. Chemotherapeutic components and pharmacological activities were deeply analyzed between a cultured strain (SG) and three strains of the wild Sanghuang. RESULTS: Maintenance of a temperature of 22-28 °C and a high relative humidity of 90-95%, and use of a high ratio (80%) of mulberry tree sticks in the medium were critical to successful culture of Sanghuang. The cultured mushrooms were yellow with a uniform shape, while the wild Sanghuang was dark brown with a smaller and irregular shape. The cultured mushrooms contained significantly higher levels of polysaccharides, amino acids, and water-soluble nutraceuticals, whereas flavones in the wild Sanghuang were significantly higher (P < 0.05). Use of a dose of 8 mg/kg or 16 mg/kg to immunoregenerate the immunodeficient mice was comparable between the cultured and wild Sanghang based on analysis of hematological parameters and histological examination of the thymus and spleen in the treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the potential of the immunoregenerative functions of the cultured Sanghuang for cancer chemotherapy and suggests that the cultured Sanghuang can be an alternative to wild Sanghuang used for nutraceutical medicine.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Agaricales , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Agaricales/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos , Biônica , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Feminino , Fluoruracila , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Filogenia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/patologia
3.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 20(8): 647-659, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273962

RESUMO

In maxillofacial surgery, there is a significant need for the design and fabrication of porous scaffolds with customizable bionic structures and mechanical properties suitable for bone tissue engineering. In this paper, we characterize the porous Ti6Al4V implant, which is one of the most promising and attractive biomedical applications due to the similarity of its modulus to human bones. We describe the mechanical properties of this implant, which we suggest is capable of providing important biological functions for bone tissue regeneration. We characterize a novel bionic design and fabrication process for porous implants. A design concept of "reducing dimensions and designing layer by layer" was used to construct layered slice and rod-connected mesh structure (LSRCMS) implants. Porous LSRCMS implants with different parameters and porosities were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM). Printed samples were evaluated by microstructure characterization, specific mechanical properties were analyzed by mechanical tests, and finite element analysis was used to digitally calculate the stress characteristics of the LSRCMS under loading forces. Our results show that the samples fabricated by SLM had good structure printing quality with reasonable pore sizes. The porosity, pore size, and strut thickness of manufactured samples ranged from (60.95± 0.27)% to (81.23±0.32)%, (480±28) to (685±31) µm, and (263±28) to (265±28) µm, respectively. The compression results show that the Young's modulus and the yield strength ranged from (2.23±0.03) to (6.36±0.06) GPa and (21.36±0.42) to (122.85±3.85) MPa, respectively. We also show that the Young's modulus and yield strength of the LSRCMS samples can be predicted by the Gibson-Ashby model. Further, we prove the structural stability of our novel design by finite element analysis. Our results illustrate that our novel SLM-fabricated porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds based on an LSRCMS are a promising material for bone implants, and are potentially applicable to the field of bone defect repair.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/patologia , Implante de Prótese Maxilofacial , Impressão Tridimensional , Desenho de Prótese , Cirurgia Bucal/instrumentação , Titânio/química , Biônica , Substitutos Ósseos/química , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Força Compressiva , Módulo de Elasticidade , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Lasers , Teste de Materiais , Porosidade , Pressão , Próteses e Implantes , Estresse Mecânico , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
4.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 142: 111519, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326862

RESUMO

Rhinophore, a bio-chemical sensory organ with soft and stretchable/retractable features in many marine molluscs species, exhibits tunable chemosensory abilities in terms of far/near-field chemical detection and molecules' source orientation. However, existing artificial bio-chemical sensors cannot provide tunable modality sensing. Inspired by the anatomical units (folded sensory epithelium) and the functions of a rhinophore, this work introduces a stretchable electrochemical sensor that offers a programmable electro-catalytic performance towards glucose based on the fold/unfold regulation of the gold nanomembrane on an elastic fiber. Geometrical design rationale and covalent bonding strategy are used to realize the robust mechanical and electrical stability of this stretchable bionic sensor. Electrochemical tests demonstrated that the sensitivities of the as-prepared bionic sensor exhibit a linear relationship with its strain states from 0% to 150%. Bio-inspired sensory functions are tested by regulating the strain of the bionic sensor. The sensor achieves a sensitivity of 195.4 µA mM-1 in a low glucose concentration range of 8-206 µM at 150% strain for potentially far-field chemical detection, and a sensitivity of 14.2 µA mM-1 in a high concentration range of 10-100 mM at 0% strain for near-field chemical detection. Moreover, the bionic sensor performs the detection while extending its length can largely enhance the response signal, which is used to distinguish the molecules' source direction. This proposed bionic sensor can be useful in wearable devices, robotics and bionics applications which require diverse modality sensing and smart chemical tracking system.


Assuntos
Biônica/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Glucose/análise , Moluscos , Animais , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Elasticidade , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Ouro/química , Membranas Artificiais , Moluscos/anatomia & histologia , Moluscos/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
6.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 131(23-24): 599-607, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss of an extremity at any level has a major impact on a patient's life. Using bionic reconstruction, extremity function can be restored and the patient reintegrated into daily life. Surgical procedures including selective nerve transfer and anchoring of prostheses into bone are combined with structured rehabilitation and modern prosthetic fitting. The patient is thereby able to use the prostheses intuitively and with multiple degrees of freedom. METHODS: This article presents the concept and approach for modern bionic reconstruction in detail and the relevant literature. The nerve transfer matrices for targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) and the concept of osseointegration to optimally fit a patient with a modern prosthesis are described in detail. As a clinical example, the case of a patient who suffered from traumatic amputation and subsequently received TMR in combination with an osseointegrated implant and structured rehabilitation is presented. RESULTS: Using bionic reconstruction, basic hand functions can be restored and bimanual dexterity can expand the range of daily activities. Besides this approach to bionic reconstruction, its advantages and disadvantages are compared to hand transplantation. The limitations and perspectives of modern bionic reconstruction are also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Bionic reconstruction is a sophisticated method for restoring extremity function and nowadays can be considered a standard of care for all levels of upper extremity amputations. An interdisciplinary approach and structured rehabilitation are necessary to master prosthetic function to ultimately reintegrate patients into daily life.


Assuntos
Amputação/reabilitação , Membros Artificiais , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Osseointegração , Extremidade Superior/cirurgia , Biônica , Humanos , Osseointegração/fisiologia , Desenho de Prótese , Implantação de Prótese , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos
8.
Nano Lett ; 19(6): 4017-4022, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144824

RESUMO

Antibodies have two identical binding domains and can therefore form a well-defined conducting bridge by binding a pair of electrodes functionalized with an epitope. The conductance measured between these two fixed points on the antibody does not change with the size of the electrode gap. A second conduction path is via one specific attachment to an epitope and a second nonspecific attachment to the surface of the antibody. In this case, the conductance does change with gap size, yielding an estimated electronic decay length >6 nm, long enough that it is not possible to distinguish between an exponential or a hyperbolic distance dependence. This decay length is substantially greater than that measured for hopping transport in an organic molecular wire.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/química , Biônica/instrumentação , Epitopos/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Eletrodos , Transporte de Elétrons , Desenho de Equipamento , Proteínas Imobilizadas/química , Modelos Moleculares
9.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 139: 111296, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128480

RESUMO

Remarkable research efforts have been devoted to replicate the tactile sensitivity of human skin. Unfortunately, so far flexible pressure sensors reported barely fit the tactile requirements for fingertips, which could endure a pressure over 100 kPa and also can sense a gentle touch. It is vital to develop flexible pressure sensors which can ensure high sensitivity and wide operation range simultaneously, to satisfy the demands of mimicking the pressure sensing function of fingertips. In this work, a mini-size, light-weight but high-performance graphene film based pressure sensor is presented. Owing to the advanced structure with fluctuations on surface and fluffy-layered structure in cross-section of the graphene film, this pressure sensor shows an extraordinary performance of high sensitivity of 10.39 kPa-1 (0-2 kPa), ultra-wide operation range up to 200 kPa, impressively stable repeatability, high working frequency, rapid response and recovery time. Moreover, the demonstrated results of the detection of traditional Chinese medicine wrist-pulse waveform and the bionic fingertip tactile sensors, suggest the great application potential of the obtain device in biomedical field and bionic skins field.


Assuntos
Biônica/métodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Pele/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Grafite/química , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pressão
10.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 179: 208-217, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959233

RESUMO

Polyurethane is a good matrix material with wide application prospects in tissue engineering because of its adjustable and mechanical properties. A novel biodegradable crosslinked poly(ester urethane) (CPU) with flexible poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) components has been synthesized using a ferric iron catalyst in our laboratory. In the present study, to promote the interaction between the CPU material and cells, the material was superficially modified by silk fibroin (SF) grafting using an aminolysis and glutaraldehyde crosslinking method to achieve a biocompatible material, CPU-SF. Considering the esophageal-specific architecture, three types of scaffolds were fabricated. S1 was a CPU-SF channel (200 µm in diameter and 30 µm in depth with 30 µm of wall thickness) to support muscle regeneration; S2 was the decellularized matrix of the esophageal mucosa/submucosa obtained by enzyme treatment; and S3 was a combination of S1 and S2, aiming to promote esophageal regeneration with histological structure and function. The biological properties and functions of the materials and scaffolds were investigated by qualitative and quantitative analyses using scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining, cell adhesion and proliferation measurements, and western blotting technology. The results showed that esophageal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and epithelial cells (ECs) were very well supported by the scaffolds. In particular, SMCs exhibited guided directional growth and ECs infiltrated the acellular mucosa with retained biological functions when co-cultured on the composite scaffold S3. These findings suggest that the composite bionic scaffold will be a good alternative for esophageal replacement.


Assuntos
Biônica , Esôfago/fisiologia , Poliésteres/farmacologia , Poliuretanos/farmacologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Mucosa/ultraestrutura , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos
11.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214711, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives are to determine neural dynamics during gait using electro-encephalography and source localization, and to investigate the attentional demand during walking in able-bodied individuals, and individuals with an amputation. MATERIALS & METHODS: Six able-bodied individuals conducted one experimental trial, and 6 unilateral transtibial and 6 unilateral transfemoral amputees performed 2 experimental trials; the first with the prosthesis currently used by the subjects and the second with a novel powered transtibial prosthesis, i.e. the Ankle Mimicking Prosthetic foot 4.0. Each experimental trial comprised 2 walking tasks; 6 and 2 minutes treadmill walking at normal speed interspersed by 5 minutes of rest. During 6 minutes walking the Sustained Attention to Response (go-no go) Task, which measures reaction time and accuracy, was performed. Electro-encephalographic data were gathered when subjects walked 2 minutes. Motor-related cortical potentials and brain source activity during gait were examined. Normality and (non-) parametric tests were conducted (p<0.05). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In contrast to transtibial amputees, transfemoral amputees required more attentional demands during walking with Ankle Mimicking Prosthetic foot 4.0 compared to the current passive prosthetic device and able-bodied individuals (reaction time and accuracy: p≤0.028). Since risk of falling is associated with altered attentional demands, propulsive forces of the novel device need to be better controlled for transfemoral amputees. No motor-related cortical potentials at Cz were observed in transfemoral amputees walking with the novel prosthesis, whereas motor-related cortical potentials between transtibial amputees and able-bodied individuals during walking at normal speed did not differ. The first positive electro-physiological peak deflection appeared during toe-off phase and showed higher activity within the underlying brain sources in transtibial amputees walking with Ankle Mimicking Prosthetic foot 4.0 compared to able-bodied individuals. The required higher neural input to accomplish the same physical activity compared to able-bodied individuals is possibly due to the limited acclimation period to the novel device and consequently increased afferent sensory feedback for postural control.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Atenção , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Desenho de Prótese , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Biônica , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
12.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 377(2138): 20180263, 2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967069

RESUMO

To save energy and reduce environmental impacts, new technologies towards a development of a sustainable 'greener' economy are needed. The main opportunity to improve sustainability by reducing emissions is within the transport sector. More than 90% of all goods worldwide are transported by ships. Particularly maritime ships using heavy fuel oil and marine gas oil play a major role. The total fuel consumption of shipping in 2016 was about 250 m t (domestic ca. 50 m t, international shipping ca. 200 m t). The vast portion of the energy consumption of a ship is the need to overcome the drag between ship hull and water-depending on the shape of the vessel and its size up to 90% of total fuel consumption. This means reducing drag helps to save fuel and reduces carbon emissions as well as pollution considerably. Different techniques for drag reduction are known, e.g. the micro-bubble technique or the bulbous bow. We investigated a novel bioinspired technique since 2002: the application of biomimetic surfaces with long-term stable air layers on ship hulls, serving as a slip agent. This technology is based on the Salvinia Effect, allowing a permanent stabilization of air layers under water. In this case study, we analysed the possible savings, which also could be combined with modified micro-bubble technologies. We calculated, based on a selection of five ship types, representing 75% of the world fleet, that air-layer hull coatings could lead to estimated savings of 32.5 million tons of fuel (meaning 13.0% of the worldwide shipping fuel consumption), equal to 18.5 billion US$ and 130.0 million tons of CO2e per year. The positive impacts on global temperature and other greenhouse gases are calculated and could be a contributing factor in accomplishing the UN Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The study is a contribution to enhance our patchy knowledge concerning the potential economic and ecological benefit of bionics and biomimetic technologies. This article is part of the theme issue 'Bioinspired materials and surfaces for green science and technology'.


Assuntos
Ar , Biônica/métodos , Combustíveis Fósseis , Oceanos e Mares , Navios , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Água , Biônica/economia , Mudança Climática , Custos e Análise de Custo , Hidrodinâmica , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia
14.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212368, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794587

RESUMO

It is evident through biology research that, biological neural network could be implemented through two means: by congenital heredity, or by posteriority learning. However, traditionally, artificial neural network, especially the Deep learning Neural Networks (DNNs) are implemented only through exhaustive training and learning. Fixed structure is built, and then parameters are trained through huge amount of data. In this way, there are a lot of redundancies in the implemented artificial neural network. This redundancy not only requires more effort to train the network, but also costs more computing resources when used. In this paper, we proposed a bionic way to implement artificial neural network through construction rather than training and learning. The hierarchy of the neural network is designed according to analysis of the required functionality, and then module design is carried out to form each hierarchy. We choose the Drosophila's visual neural network as a test case to verify our method's validation. The results show that the bionic artificial neural network built through our method could work as a bionic compound eye, which can achieve the detection of the object and their movement, and the results are better on some properties, compared with the Drosophila's biological compound eyes.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Biônica , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Cor , Aprendizado de Máquina , Movimento , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão
15.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 130: 254-261, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771714

RESUMO

Urolithiasis commonly occurs in kidney and ureteral, and may cause local organ/tissue damage, even kidney failure. The incidence of this disease is increasing worldwide, in which calcium oxalate is the major composition forming the urinary calculus. Therefore, to monitor this disease for the prevention and treatment, measuring the oxalate in the urine is of great significance. Here, a rapid and sensitive colorimetric method was developed based on 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine-manganese dioxide (TMB-MnO2) nanosheets for oxalate detection. MnO2 nanosheets acted as an efficient biomimetic oxidase to catalyze the reaction with TMB and oxalate. Pale yellow TMB can be oxidized to blue oxide TMB catalyzed by BSA-stabilized MnO2 nanosheets, and oxalate can selectively inhibit this reaction by consuming and reacting with MnO2 nanosheets, thus achieving the quantitative detection of oxalate. Moreover, a home-made bionic electronic-eye (E-eye) system was developed as a portable in-situ detection platform to efficiently measure the oxalate concentrations in 10 s by direct photographing. By optimizing experimental conditions, this method shows a wide linear range (7.8 µM to 250 µM) and a low detection limit (0.91 µM) for oxalate detection. Besides, this method exhibits high selectivity even with 80-fold interfering chemicals. Furthermore, the performance of the method was validated by testing the artificial urine samples, indicating its great potential for monitoring and diagnosis of urolithiasis in point-of-care applications.


Assuntos
Biônica/métodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Oxalatos/isolamento & purificação , Oxirredutases/química , Biomimética , Colorimetria , Glutationa/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Nanoestruturas/química , Oxalatos/química , Oxirredução
16.
Artif Organs ; 43(2): 109-118, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653695

RESUMO

Even though the hand comprises only 1% of our body weight, about 30% of our central nervous systems (CNS) capacity is related to its control. The loss of a hand thus presents not only the loss of the most important tool allowing us to interact with our environment, but also leaves a dramatic sensory-motor deficit that challenges our CNS. Reconstruction of hand function is therefore not only an essential part of restoring body integrity and functional wholeness but also closes the loop of our neural circuits diminishing phantom sensation and neural pain. If biology fails to restore meaningful function, today we can resort to complex mechatronic replacement that have functional capabilities that in some respects even outperform biological alternatives, such as hand transplantation. As with replantation and transplantations, the challenge of bionic replacement is connecting the target with the CNS to achieve natural and intuitive control. In recent years, we have developed a number of strategies to improve neural interfacing, signal extraction, interpretation and stable mechanical attachment that are important parts of our current research. This work gives an overview of recent advances in bionic reconstruction, surgical refinements over technological interfacing, skeletal fixation, and modern rehabilitation tools that allow quick integration of prosthetic replacement.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Biônica , Mãos , Desenho de Prótese , Humanos
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(9): 8362-8370, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214479

RESUMO

The concepts of the cities we know nowadays, and which we are accustomed to, change at a very rapid pace. The philosophy of their design is also changing. It will base on new standards, entering a completely different, futuristic dimension. This stage is related to changes in the perception of space, location and lack of belonging to definite, national or cultural structures. Cities of the future are cities primarily intelligent, zero-energetic, zero-waste, environmentally sustainable, self-sufficient in terms of both organic food production and symbiosis between the environment and industry. New cities will be able to have new organisational structures-either city states, or, apolitical, jigsaw-like structures that can change their position-like in the case of the city of Artisanopolis, designed as a floating city, close to the land, reminiscent of the legendary Atlantis. This paper is focused on the main issues connected with problems of the contemporary city planning. The purpose of the research was to identify existing technological solutions, whose aim is to use solar energy and urban greenery. The studies were based on literature related to future city development issues and futuristic projects of the architects and city planners. In the paper, the following issues have been verified: futuristic cities and districts, and original bionic buildings, both residential and industrial. The results of the analysis have been presented in a tabular form.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Biônica , Cidades , Previsões , Habitação , Indústrias
18.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 47(2): 576-589, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341740

RESUMO

During defecation, solid, semisolid or liquid stools are eliminated via the anus in a complex physiological process. Up to 25% of the population are affected by anorectal disorders that are poorly recognized and treated. We developed a new bionics device, a simulated stool named Fecobionics, to replace several current tests of anorectal function. Fecobionics was developed to simulate the defecation process that depends on rectal forces, the anorectal size angle, and anorectal size and sensitivity. Fecobionics provided axial pressure signatures, measurement of bending (anorectal angle) and geometric mapping in a single examination. It had the consistency and shape of normal stool. The device had a soft core with embedded electronics and a bag for distension. The paper describes the device development and validation. Furthermore, data were obtained in preliminary experiments in pigs, healthy human subjects and patients with focus on four important features of the system, i.e. measurements of pressure signatures, bending characteristics, impedance measurements and data transmission. Accurate pressure and orientation data as well as geometric profiles were successfully obtained on the bench as well as in vivo in pigs and human subjects during defecation. Fecobionics is a novel technology imitating defecation. The clinical future ultimately depends on its ability to impact on daily treatment of anorectal disorders. A potential long-term clinical application is use of the device for biofeedback training for dyssynergic defecation.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/fisiopatologia , Biônica/instrumentação , Defecação , Equipamentos para Diagnóstico , Reto/fisiopatologia , Humanos
19.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 143(1): 62e-76e, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Facial palsy is a devastating condition potentially amenable to rehabilitation by functional electrical stimulation. Herein, a novel paradigm for unilateral facial reanimation using an implantable neuroprosthetic device is proposed and its feasibility demonstrated in a live rodent model. The paradigm comprises use of healthy-side electromyographic activity as control inputs to a system whose outputs are neural stimuli to effect symmetric facial displacements. The vexing issue of suppressing undesirable activity resulting from aberrant neural regeneration (synkinesis) or nerve transfer procedures is addressed using proximal neural blockade. METHODS: Epimysial and nerve cuff electrode arrays were implanted in the faces of Wistar rats. Stimuli were delivered to evoke blinks and whisks of various durations and amplitudes. The dynamic relation between electromyographic signals and facial displacements was modeled, and model predictions were compared against measured displacements. Optimal parameters to achieve facial nerve blockade by means of high-frequency alternating current were determined, and the safety of continuous delivery was assessed. RESULTS: Electrode implantation was well tolerated. Blinks and whisks of tunable amplitudes and durations were evoked by controlled variation of neural stimuli parameters. Facial displacements predicted from electromyographic input modelling matched those observed with a variance-accounted-for exceeding 96 percent. Effective and reversible facial nerve blockade in awake behaving animals was achieved, without detrimental effect noted from long-term continual use. CONCLUSIONS: Proof-of-principle of rehabilitation of hemifacial palsy by means of a neuroprosthetic device has been demonstrated. The use of proximal neural blockade coupled with distal functional electrical stimulation may have relevance to rehabilitation of other peripheral motor nerve deficits.


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Paralisia Facial/terapia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Sincinesia/reabilitação , Animais , Biônica , Terapia Combinada , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletromiografia/métodos , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Implantação de Prótese/métodos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Resultado do Tratamento
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