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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111386, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243594

RESUMO

Renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) is a common pathological response in a broad range of prevalent chronic kidney diseases and ultimately leads to renal failure and death. Although RIF causes a high morbi-mortality worldwide, effective therapeutic drugs are urgently needed. Myofibroblasts are identified as the main effector during the process of RIF. Multiple types of cells, including fibroblasts, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, macrophages and pericytes, contribute to renal myofibroblasts origin, and lots of mediators, including signaling pathways (Transforming growth factor-ß1, mammalian target of rapamycin and reactive oxygen species) and epigenetic modifications (Histone acetylation, microRNA and long non-coding RNA) are participated in renal myofibroblasts activation during renal fibrogenesis, suggesting that these mediators may be the promising targets for treating RIF. In addition, many small molecules show profound therapeutic effects on RIF by suppressing the origin and activation of renal myofibroblasts. Taken together, the review focuses on the mechanisms of the origin and activation of renal myofibroblasts in RIF and the small molecules against them improving RIF, which will provide a new insight for RIF therapy.


Assuntos
Fibrose/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Animais , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281245

RESUMO

Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), or progeria, is an extremely rare disorder that belongs to the class of laminopathies, diseases characterized by alterations in the genes that encode for the lamin proteins or for their associated interacting proteins. In particular, progeria is caused by a point mutation in the gene that codifies for the lamin A gene. This mutation ultimately leads to the biosynthesis of a mutated version of lamin A called progerin, which accumulates abnormally in the nuclear lamina. This accumulation elicits several alterations at the nuclear, cellular, and tissue levels that are phenotypically reflected in a systemic disorder with important alterations, mainly in the cardiovascular system, bones, skin, and overall growth, which results in premature death at an average age of 14.5 years. In 2020, lonafarnib became the first (and only) FDA approved drug for treating progeria. In this context, the present review focuses on the different therapeutic strategies currently under development, with special attention to the new small molecules described in recent years, which may represent the upcoming first-in-class drugs with new mechanisms of action endowed with effectiveness not only to treat but also to cure progeria.


Assuntos
Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Progéria/terapia , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Envelhecimento/genética , Senilidade Prematura/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Senescência Celular/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lamina Tipo A/genética , Laminopatias/terapia , Mutação , Lâmina Nuclear/genética , Lâmina Nuclear/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Progéria/genética , Progéria/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4262, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253738

RESUMO

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in conferring stem cell properties and therapeutic resistance to cancer cells. Therefore, identification of drugs that can reprogram EMT may provide new therapeutic strategies. Here, we report that cells derived from claudin-low mammary tumors, a mesenchymal subtype of triple-negative breast cancer, exhibit a distinctive organoid structure with extended "spikes" in 3D matrices. Upon a miR-200 induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), the organoids switch to a smoother round morphology. Based on these observations, we developed a morphological screening method with accompanying analytical pipelines that leverage deep neural networks and nearest neighborhood classification to screen for EMT-reversing drugs. Through screening of a targeted epigenetic drug library, we identified multiple class I HDAC inhibitors and Bromodomain inhibitors that reverse EMT. These data support the use of morphological screening of mesenchymal mammary tumor organoids as a platform to identify drugs that reverse EMT.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia , Mesoderma/patologia , Organoides/patologia , Animais , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
4.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199417

RESUMO

Blockade of the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) interaction is currently the focus in the field of cancer immunotherapy, and so far, several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have achieved encouraging outcomes in cancer treatment. Despite this achievement, mAbs-based therapies are struggling with limitations including poor tissue and tumor penetration, long half-life time, poor oral bioavailability, and expensive production costs, which prompted a shift towards the development of the small-molecule inhibitors of PD-1/PD-L1 pathways. Even though many small-molecule inhibitors targeting PD-1/PD-L1 interaction have been reported, their development lags behind the corresponding mAb, partly due to the challenges of developing drug-like small molecules. Herein, we report the discovery of a series of novel inhibitors targeting PD-1/PD-L1 interaction via structural simplification strategy by using BMS-1058 as a starting point. Among them, compound A9 stands out as the most promising candidate with excellent PD-L1 inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.93 nM, LE = 0.43) and high binding affinity to hPD-L1 (KD = 3.64 nM, LE = 0.40). Furthermore, A9 can significantly promote the production of IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner by rescuing PD-L1 mediated T-cell inhibition in Hep3B/OS-8/hPD-L1 and CD3-positive T cells co-culture assay. Taken together, these results suggest that A9 is a promising inhibitor of PD-1/PD-L1 interaction and is worthy for further study.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Antígeno B7-H1/química , Linhagem Celular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/química , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
5.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205049

RESUMO

Aberrant RNA-protein complexes are formed in a variety of diseases. Identifying the ligands that interfere with their formation is a valuable therapeutic strategy. Molecular simulation, validated against experimental data, has recently emerged as a powerful tool to predict both the pose and energetics of such ligands. Thus, the use of molecular simulation may provide insight into aberrant molecular interactions in diseases and, from a drug design perspective, may allow for the employment of less wet lab resources than traditional in vitro compound screening approaches. With regard to basic research questions, molecular simulation can support the understanding of the exact molecular interaction and binding mode. Here, we focus on examples targeting RNA-protein complexes in neurodegenerative diseases and viral infections. These examples illustrate that the strategy is rather general and could be applied to different pharmacologically relevant approaches. We close this study by outlining one of these approaches, namely the light-controllable association of small molecules with RNA, as an emerging approach in RNA-targeting therapy.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Processos Fotoquímicos , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química
6.
Biochem J ; 478(13): 2533-2535, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198320

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we began a project in March 2020 to identify small molecule inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 enzymes from a library of chemical compounds containing many established pharmaceuticals. Our hope was that inhibitors we found might slow the replication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in cells and ultimately be useful in the treatment of COVID-19. The seven accompanying manuscripts describe the results of these chemical screens. This overview summarises the main highlights from these screens and discusses the implications of our results and how our results might be exploited in future.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
7.
Biochem J ; 478(13): 2405-2423, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198322

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global public health challenge. While the efficacy of vaccines against emerging and future virus variants remains unclear, there is a need for therapeutics. Repurposing existing drugs represents a promising and potentially rapid opportunity to find novel antivirals against SARS-CoV-2. The virus encodes at least nine enzymatic activities that are potential drug targets. Here, we have expressed, purified and developed enzymatic assays for SARS-CoV-2 nsp13 helicase, a viral replication protein that is essential for the coronavirus life cycle. We screened a custom chemical library of over 5000 previously characterized pharmaceuticals for nsp13 inhibitors using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based high-throughput screening approach. From this, we have identified FPA-124 and several suramin-related compounds as novel inhibitors of nsp13 helicase activity in vitro. We describe the efficacy of these drugs using assays we developed to monitor SARS-CoV-2 growth in Vero E6 cells.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , RNA Helicases/antagonistas & inibidores , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Suramina/farmacologia , Células Vero , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
8.
Biochem J ; 478(13): 2425-2443, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198323

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic has turned into the largest public health and economic crisis in recent history impacting virtually all sectors of society. There is a need for effective therapeutics to battle the ongoing pandemic. Repurposing existing drugs with known pharmacological safety profiles is a fast and cost-effective approach to identify novel treatments. The COVID-19 etiologic agent is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. Coronaviruses rely on the enzymatic activity of the replication-transcription complex (RTC) to multiply inside host cells. The RTC core catalytic component is the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) holoenzyme. The RdRp is one of the key druggable targets for CoVs due to its essential role in viral replication, high degree of sequence and structural conservation and the lack of homologues in human cells. Here, we have expressed, purified and biochemically characterised active SARS-CoV-2 RdRp complexes. We developed a novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based strand displacement assay for monitoring SARS-CoV-2 RdRp activity suitable for a high-throughput format. As part of a larger research project to identify inhibitors for all the enzymatic activities encoded by SARS-CoV-2, we used this assay to screen a custom chemical library of over 5000 approved and investigational compounds for novel SARS-CoV-2 RdRp inhibitors. We identified three novel compounds (GSK-650394, C646 and BH3I-1) and confirmed suramin and suramin-like compounds as in vitro SARS-CoV-2 RdRp activity inhibitors. We also characterised the antiviral efficacy of these drugs in cell-based assays that we developed to monitor SARS-CoV-2 growth.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Animais , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Holoenzimas/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Suramina/farmacologia , Células Vero , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
9.
Biochem J ; 478(13): 2465-2479, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198324

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for COVID-19, a human disease that has caused over 2 million deaths, stretched health systems to near-breaking point and endangered economies of countries and families around the world. Antiviral treatments to combat COVID-19 are currently lacking. Remdesivir, the only antiviral drug approved for the treatment of COVID-19, can affect disease severity, but better treatments are needed. SARS-CoV-2 encodes 16 non-structural proteins (nsp) that possess different enzymatic activities with important roles in viral genome replication, transcription and host immune evasion. One key aspect of host immune evasion is performed by the uridine-directed endoribonuclease activity of nsp15. Here we describe the expression and purification of nsp15 recombinant protein. We have developed biochemical assays to follow its activity, and we have found evidence for allosteric behaviour. We screened a custom chemical library of over 5000 compounds to identify nsp15 endoribonuclease inhibitors, and we identified and validated NSC95397 as an inhibitor of nsp15 endoribonuclease in vitro. Although NSC95397 did not inhibit SARS-CoV-2 growth in VERO E6 cells, further studies will be required to determine the effect of nsp15 inhibition on host immune evasion.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Endorribonucleases/antagonistas & inibidores , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação Alostérica , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endorribonucleases/isolamento & purificação , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Fluorescência , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Técnicas In Vitro , Cinética , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Soluções , Células Vero , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
10.
Biochem J ; 478(13): 2517-2531, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198325

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as the biggest life-threatening disease of this century. Whilst vaccination should provide a long-term solution, this is pitted against the constant threat of mutations in the virus rendering the current vaccines less effective. Consequently, small molecule antiviral agents would be extremely useful to complement the vaccination program. The causative agent of COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which encodes at least nine enzymatic activities that all have drug targeting potential. The papain-like protease (PLpro) contained in the nsp3 protein generates viral non-structural proteins from a polyprotein precursor, and cleaves ubiquitin and ISG protein conjugates. Here we describe the expression and purification of PLpro. We developed a protease assay that was used to screen a custom compound library from which we identified dihydrotanshinone I and Ro 08-2750 as compounds that inhibit PLpro in protease and isopeptidase assays and also inhibit viral replication in cell culture-based assays.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Animais , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/genética , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/isolamento & purificação , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Flavinas/farmacologia , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Furanos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Quinonas/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Biochem J ; 478(13): 2445-2464, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198326

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is a coronavirus that emerged in 2019 and rapidly spread across the world causing a deadly pandemic with tremendous social and economic costs. Healthcare systems worldwide are under great pressure, and there is an urgent need for effective antiviral treatments. The only currently approved antiviral treatment for COVID-19 is remdesivir, an inhibitor of viral genome replication. SARS-CoV-2 proliferation relies on the enzymatic activities of the non-structural proteins (nsp), which makes them interesting targets for the development of new antiviral treatments. With the aim to identify novel SARS-CoV-2 antivirals, we have purified the exoribonuclease/methyltransferase (nsp14) and its cofactor (nsp10) and developed biochemical assays compatible with high-throughput approaches to screen for exoribonuclease inhibitors. We have screened a library of over 5000 commercial compounds and identified patulin and aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) as inhibitors of nsp14 exoribonuclease in vitro. We found that patulin and ATA inhibit replication of SARS-CoV-2 in a VERO E6 cell-culture model. These two new antiviral compounds will be valuable tools for further coronavirus research as well as potentially contributing to new therapeutic opportunities for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Exorribonucleases/antagonistas & inibidores , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Ácido Aurintricarboxílico/farmacologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Patulina/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Células Vero , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/metabolismo
12.
Biochem J ; 478(13): 2499-2515, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198327

RESUMO

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), spread around the world with unprecedented health and socio-economic effects for the global population. While different vaccines are now being made available, very few antiviral drugs have been approved. The main viral protease (nsp5) of SARS-CoV-2 provides an excellent target for antivirals, due to its essential and conserved function in the viral replication cycle. We have expressed, purified and developed assays for nsp5 protease activity. We screened the nsp5 protease against a custom chemical library of over 5000 characterised pharmaceuticals. We identified calpain inhibitor I and three different peptidyl fluoromethylketones (FMK) as inhibitors of nsp5 activity in vitro, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. By altering the sequence of our peptidomimetic FMK inhibitors to better mimic the substrate sequence of nsp5, we generated an inhibitor with a subnanomolar IC50. Calpain inhibitor I inhibited viral infection in monkey-derived Vero E6 cells, with an EC50 in the low micromolar range. The most potent and commercially available peptidyl-FMK compound inhibited viral growth in Vero E6 cells to some extent, while our custom peptidyl FMK inhibitor offered a marked antiviral improvement.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Clorometilcetonas de Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Animais , Azóis/farmacologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/genética , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/isolamento & purificação , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Leupeptinas/farmacologia , Compostos Organosselênicos/farmacologia , Peptidomiméticos , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Células Vero , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
13.
Biochem J ; 478(13): 2481-2497, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198328

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented itself as one of the most critical public health challenges of the century, with SARS-CoV-2 being the third member of the Coronaviridae family to cause a fatal disease in humans. There is currently only one antiviral compound, remdesivir, that can be used for the treatment of COVID-19. To identify additional potential therapeutics, we investigated the enzymatic proteins encoded in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. In this study, we focussed on the viral RNA cap methyltransferases, which play key roles in enabling viral protein translation and facilitating viral escape from the immune system. We expressed and purified both the guanine-N7 methyltransferase nsp14, and the nsp16 2'-O-methyltransferase with its activating cofactor, nsp10. We performed an in vitro high-throughput screen for inhibitors of nsp14 using a custom compound library of over 5000 pharmaceutical compounds that have previously been characterised in either clinical or basic research. We identified four compounds as potential inhibitors of nsp14, all of which also showed antiviral capacity in a cell-based model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Three of the four compounds also exhibited synergistic effects on viral replication with remdesivir.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Exorribonucleases/antagonistas & inibidores , Metiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Capuzes de RNA/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/química , Clorobenzenos/farmacologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Exorribonucleases/genética , Exorribonucleases/isolamento & purificação , Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Indazóis/farmacologia , Indenos/farmacologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/isolamento & purificação , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Fenotiazinas/farmacologia , Purinas/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Especificidade por Substrato , Trifluperidol/farmacologia , Células Vero , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/genética , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/metabolismo
14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(12): 16287-16315, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230220

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA methylation is associated with malignant tumor progression and is modulated by various m6A RNA methylation regulator proteins. However, its role in endometrial cancer is unclear. In this work, we analyzed sequence, copy number variation, and clinical data obtained from the TCGA database. Expression was validated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Changes in m6A RNA methylation regulators were closely related to the clinicopathological stage and prognosis of endometrial cancer. In particular, ZC3H13, YTHDC1, and METTL14 were identified as potential markers for endometrial cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The TIMER algorithm indicated that immune cell infiltration correlated with changes in ZC3H13, YTHDC1, and METTL14 expression. Meanwhile, ZC3H13 or YTHDC1 knockdown promoted the proliferation and invasion of endometrial cancer cells. Through gene enrichment analysis, we constructed a regulatory network in order to explore the potential molecular mechanism involving ZC3H13, YTHDC1, and METTL14. Virtual screening predicted interactions of potential therapeutic compounds with METTL14 and YTHDC1. These findings advance the understanding of RNA epigenetic modifications in endometrial cancer while identifying m6A regulators associated with immune infiltration, prognosis, and potential treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Ligantes , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mutação/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208755

RESUMO

Although the approved vaccines are proving to be of utmost importance in containing the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) threat, they will hardly be resolutive as new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, a single-stranded RNA virus) variants might be insensitive to the immune response they induce. In this scenario, developing an effective therapy is still a dire need. Different targets for therapeutic antibodies and diagnostics have been identified, among which the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein, particularly its receptor-binding domain, has been defined as crucial. In this context, we aim to focus attention also on the role played by the S N-terminal domain (S1-NTD) in the virus attachment, already recognized as a valuable target for neutralizing antibodies, in particular, building on a cavity mapping indicating the presence of two druggable pockets and on the recent literature hypothesizing the presence of a ganglioside-binding domain. In this perspective, we aim at proposing S1-NTD as a putative target for designing small molecules hopefully able to hamper the SARS-CoV-2 attachment to host cells.


Assuntos
SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/metabolismo , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/farmacologia , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/uso terapêutico , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/uso terapêutico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Ligação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073419

RESUMO

Specific adhesion of P. falciparum parasite-infected erythrocytes (IE) in deep vascular beds can result in severe complications, such as cerebral malaria, placental malaria, respiratory distress, and severe anemia. Cerebral malaria and severe malaria syndromes were associated previously with sequestration of IE to a microvasculature receptor ICAM-1. The screening of Torrey Pines Scaffold Ranking library, which consists of more than 30 million compounds designed around 75 molecular scaffolds, identified small molecules that inhibit cytoadhesion of ICAM-1-binding IE to surface-immobilized receptor at IC50 range down to ~350 nM. With their low cytotoxicity toward erythrocytes and human endothelial cells, these molecules might be suitable for development into potentially effective adjunct anti-adhesion drugs to treat cerebral and/or severe malaria syndromes. Our two-step high-throughput screening approach is specifically designed to work with compound mixtures to make screening and deconvolution to single active compounds fast and efficient.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Eritrócitos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Malária Falciparum , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Eritrócitos/patologia , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/metabolismo , Malária Falciparum/patologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
17.
J Med Chem ; 64(11): 7110-7155, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060847

RESUMO

RNAs are involved in an enormous range of cellular processes, including gene regulation, protein synthesis, and cell differentiation, and dysfunctional RNAs are associated with disorders such as cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and viral infections. Thus, the identification of compounds with the ability to bind RNAs and modulate their functions is an exciting approach for developing next-generation therapies. Numerous RNA-binding agents have been reported over the past decade, but the design of synthetic molecules with selectivity for specific RNA sequences is still in its infancy. In this perspective, we highlight recent advances in targeting RNAs with synthetic molecules, and we discuss the potential value of this approach for the development of innovative therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , RNA/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , Splicing de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Longo não Codificante/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
18.
Science ; 372(6547): 1169-1175, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112687

RESUMO

Emergent resistance to all clinical antibiotics calls for the next generation of therapeutics. Here we report an effective antimicrobial strategy targeting the bacterial hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-mediated defense system. We identified cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) as the primary generator of H2S in two major human pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and discovered small molecules that inhibit bacterial CSE. These inhibitors potentiate bactericidal antibiotics against both pathogens in vitro and in mouse models of infection. CSE inhibitors also suppress bacterial tolerance, disrupting biofilm formation and substantially reducing the number of persister bacteria that survive antibiotic treatment. Our results establish bacterial H2S as a multifunctional defense factor and CSE as a drug target for versatile antibiotic enhancers.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cistationina gama-Liase/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cistationina gama-Liase/química , Cistationina gama-Liase/genética , Cistationina gama-Liase/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzimologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071039

RESUMO

ABCG2 is an ABC membrane protein reverse transport pump, which removes toxic substances such as medicines out of cells. As a result, drug bioavailability is an unexpected change and negatively influences the ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity), leading to multi-drug resistance (MDR). Currently, in spite of promising studies, screening for ABCG2 inhibitors showed modest results. The aim of this study was to search for small molecules that could inhibit the ABCG2 pump. We first used the WISS MODEL automatic server to build up ABCG2 homology protein from 655 amino acids. Pharmacophore models, which were con-structed based on strong ABCG2 inhibitors (IC50 < 1 µM), consist of two hydrophobic (Hyd) groups, two hydrogen bonding acceptors (Acc2), and an aromatic or conjugated ring (Aro|PiR). Using molecular docking method, 714 substances from the DrugBank and 837 substances from the TCM with potential to inhibit the ABCG2 were obtained. These chemicals maybe favor synthesized or extracted and bioactivity testing.


Assuntos
Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/química , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/química , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/fisiologia , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073048

RESUMO

Thioxanthones are bioisosteres of the naturally occurring xanthones. They have been described for multiple activities, including antitumor. As such, the synthesis of a library of thioxanthones was pursued, but unexpectedly, four tetracyclic thioxanthenes with a quinazoline-chromene scaffold were obtained. These compounds were studied for their human tumor cell growth inhibition activity, in the cell lines A375-C5, MCF-7 and NCI-H460. Photophysical studies were also performed. Two of the compounds displayed GI50 values below 10 µM for the three tested cell lines, and structure-activity relationship studies were established. Three compounds presented similar wavelengths of absorption and emission, characteristic of dyes with a push-pull character. The structures of two compounds were elucidated by X-ray crystallography. Two tetracyclic thioxanthenes emerged as hit compounds. One of the two compounds accumulated intracellularly as a bright fluorescent dye in the green channel, as analyzed by both fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, making it a promising theranostic cancer drug candidate.


Assuntos
Tioxantenos/química , Tioxantenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Fluorescência , Inibidores do Crescimento/farmacologia , Humanos , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Xantonas/química , Xantonas/farmacologia
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