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2.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(15): 1276-1288, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526339

RESUMO

C-Met, also referred to as Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (HGFR), is a heterodimeric receptor tyrosine kinase. It has been determined that c-Met gene mutations, overexpression, and amplification also occur in a variety of human tumor types, and these events are closely related to the aberrant activation of the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway. Meanwhile, high c-Met expression is closely associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. The c-Met kinase has emerged as an attractive target for developing antitumor agents. In this review, we cover the recent advances on the small molecule c-Met inhibitors discovered from 2018 until now, with a main focus on the rational design, synthesis and structureactivity relationship analysis.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/antagonistas & inibidores , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/síntese química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
3.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3275-3287, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368616

RESUMO

p97/VCP is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein that belongs to the AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) ATPase family. It has a variety of cellular functions including ER-associated protein degradation, autophagy, and aggresome formation. Recent studies have shown emerging roles of p97/VCP and its potential as a therapeutic target in several cancer subtypes including multiple myeloma (MM). We conducted a cell-based compound screen to exploit novel small compounds that have cytotoxic activity in myeloma cells. Among approximately 2000 compounds, OSSL_325096 showed relatively strong antiproliferative activity in MM cell lines (IC50 , 100-500 nmol/L). OSSL_325096 induced apoptosis in myeloma cell lines, including a bortezomib-resistant cell line and primary myeloma cells purified from patients. Accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, PERK, CHOP, and IREα, was observed in MM cell lines treated with OSSL_325096, suggesting that it induces ER stress in MM cells. OSSL_325096 has a similar chemical structure to DBeQ, a known p97/VCP inhibitor. Knockdown of the gene encoding p97/VCP induced apoptosis in myeloma cells, accompanied by accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated protein. IC50 of OSSL_325096 to myeloma cell lines were found to be lower (0.1-0.8 µmol/L) than those of DBeQ (2-5 µmol/L). In silico protein-drug-binding simulation suggested possible binding of OSSL_325096 to the ATP binding site in the D2 domain of p97/VCP. In cell-free ATPase assays, OSSL_325096 showed dose-dependent inhibition of p97/VCP ATPase activity. Finally, OSSL_325096 inhibited the growth of subcutaneous myeloma cell tumors in vivo. The present data suggest that OSSL_325096 exerts anti-myeloma activity, at least in part through p97/VCP inhibition.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/administração & dosagem , Adenosina Trifosfatases/antagonistas & inibidores , Adenosina Trifosfatases/química , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Bortezomib/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo
5.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(16): 1464-1483, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264549

RESUMO

The great clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) and PD-1/PDL-1 inhibitor therapies suggests the drawing of a cancer immunotherapy age. However, a considerable proportion of cancer patients currently receive little benefit from these treatment modalities, indicating that multiple immunosuppressive mechanisms exist in the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we mainly discuss recent advances in small molecular regulators targeting G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) that are associated with oncology immunomodulation, including chemokine receptors, purinergic receptors, prostaglandin E receptor EP4 and opioid receptors. Moreover, we outline how they affect tumor immunity and neoplasia by regulating immune cell recruitment and modulating tumor stromal cell biology. We also summarize the data from recent clinical advances in small molecular regulators targeting these GPCRs, in combination with immune checkpoints blockers, such as PD-1/PDL-1 and CTLA4 inhibitors, for cancer treatments.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/antagonistas & inibidores , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Animais , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
6.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(16): 1399-1417, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284862

RESUMO

The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-selective PAC1 receptor (PAC1R, ADCYAP1R1) is a member of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/secretin/glucagon family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). PAC1R has been shown to play crucial roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The activation of PAC1R initiates diverse downstream signal transduction pathways, including adenylyl cyclase, phospholipase C, MEK/ERK, and Akt pathways that regulate a number of physiological systems to maintain functional homeostasis. Accordingly, at times of tissue injury or insult, PACAP/PAC1R activation of these pathways can be trophic to blunt or delay apoptotic events and enhance cell survival. Enhancing PAC1R signaling under these conditions has the potential to mitigate cellular damages associated with cerebrovascular trauma (including stroke), neurodegeneration (such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease), or peripheral organ insults. Conversely, maladaptive PACAP/PAC1R signaling has been implicated in a number of disorders, including stressrelated psychopathologies (i.e., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and related abnormalities), chronic pain and migraine, and metabolic diseases; abrogating PAC1R signaling under these pathological conditions represent opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Given the diverse PAC1R-mediated biological activities, the receptor has emerged as a relevant pharmaceutical target. In this review, we first describe the current knowledge regarding the molecular structure, dynamics, and function of PAC1R. Then, we discuss the roles of PACAP and PAC1R in the activation of a variety of signaling cascades related to the physiology and diseases of the nervous system. Lastly, we examine current drug design and development of peptides and small molecules targeting PAC1R based on a number of structure- activity relationship studies and key pharmacophore elements. At present, the rational design of PAC1R-selective peptide or small-molecule therapeutics is largely hindered by the lack of structural information regarding PAC1R activation mechanisms, the PACAP-PAC1R interface, and the core segments involved in receptor activation. Understanding the molecular basis governing the PACAP interactions with its different cognate receptors will undoubtedly provide a basis for the development and/or refinement of receptor-selective therapeutics.


Assuntos
Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Receptores de Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/antagonistas & inibidores , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Peptídeos/síntese química , Peptídeos/química , Receptores de Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/química , Receptores de Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/síntese química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
7.
Nature ; 571(7763): 72-78, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217586

RESUMO

New antibiotics are needed to combat rising levels of resistance, with new Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) drugs having the highest priority. However, conventional whole-cell and biochemical antibiotic screens have failed. Here we develop a strategy termed PROSPECT (primary screening of strains to prioritize expanded chemistry and targets), in which we screen compounds against pools of strains depleted of essential bacterial targets. We engineered strains that target 474 essential Mtb genes and screened pools of 100-150 strains against activity-enriched and unbiased compound libraries, probing more than 8.5 million chemical-genetic interactions. Primary screens identified over tenfold more hits than screening wild-type Mtb alone, with chemical-genetic interactions providing immediate, direct target insights. We identified over 40 compounds that target DNA gyrase, the cell wall, tryptophan, folate biosynthesis and RNA polymerase, as well as inhibitors that target EfpA. Chemical optimization yielded EfpA inhibitors with potent wild-type activity, thus demonstrating the ability of PROSPECT to yield inhibitors against targets that would have eluded conventional drug discovery.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/classificação , Antituberculosos/isolamento & purificação , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Deleção de Genes , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , DNA Girase/metabolismo , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Ácido Fólico/biossíntese , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/citologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzimologia , Ácidos Micólicos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/classificação , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade por Substrato , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/farmacologia , Triptofano/biossíntese , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/microbiologia
8.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(13): 1162-1172, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though virtual screening methods have proven to be potent in various instances, the technique is practically incomplete to quench the need of drug discovery process. Thus, the quest for novel designing approaches and chemotypes for improved efficacy of lead compounds has been intensified and logistic approaches such as scaffold hopping and hierarchical virtual screening methods were evolved. Till now, in all the previous attempts these two approaches were applied separately. OBJECTIVE: In the current work, we made a novel attempt in terms of blending scaffold hopping and hierarchical virtual screening. The prime objective is to assess the hybrid method for its efficacy in identifying active lead molecules for emerging PPI target Bcl-2 (B-cell Lymphoma 2). METHODS: We designed novel scaffolds from the reported cores and screened a set of 8270 compounds using both scaffold hopping and hierarchical virtual screening for Bcl-2 protein. Also, we enumerated the libraries using clustering, PAINS filtering, physicochemical characterization and SAR matching. RESULTS: We generated a focused library of compounds towards Bcl-2 interface, screened the 8270 compounds and identified top hits for seven families upon fine filtering with PAINS algorithm, features, SAR mapping, synthetic accessibility and similarity search. Our approach retrieved a set of 50 lead compounds. CONCLUSION: Finding rational approach meeting the needs of drug discovery process for PPI targets is the need of the hour which can be fulfilled by an extended scaffold hopping approach resulting in focused PPI targeting by providing novel leads with better potency.


Assuntos
Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Algoritmos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/síntese química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(13): 1173-1187, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimers Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease which is characterized by the deposition of amyloid plaques in the brain- a concept supported by most of the researchers worldwide. The main component of the plaques being amyloid-beta (Aß42) results from the sequential cleavage of Amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta and gamma secretase. This present study intends to inhibit the formation of amyloid plaques by blocking the action of gamma secretase protein with Inhibitors (GSI). METHODS: A number of Gamma Secretase Inhibitors (GSI) were targeted to the protein by molecular docking. The inhibitor having the best affinity was used as a subject for further virtual screening methods to obtain similar compounds. The generated compounds were docked again at the same docking site on the protein to find a compound with higher affinity to inhibit the protein. The highlights of virtually screened compound consisted of Pharmacophore Mapping of the docking site. These steps were followed by comparative assessments for both the compounds, obtained from the two aforesaid docking studies, which included interaction energy descriptors, ADMET profiling and PreADMET evaluations. RESULTS: 111 GSI classified as azepines, sulfonamides and peptide isosteres were used in the study. By molecular docking an amorpholino-amide, compound (22), was identified to be the high affinity compound GSI along with its better interaction profiles.The virtually screened pubchem compound AKOS001083915 (CID:24462213) shows the best affinity with gamma secretase. Collective Pharmacophore mapping (H bonds, electrostatic profile, binding pattern and solvent accesibility) shows a stable interaction. The resulting ADMETand Descriptor values were nearly equivalent. CONCLUSION: These compounds identified herein hold a potential as Gamma Secretase inhibitors.According to PreADMET values the compound AKOS001083915 is effective and specific to the target protein. Its BOILED-egg plot analysis infers the compound permeable to blood brain barrier.Comparative study for both the compounds resulted in having nearly equivalent properties. These compounds have the capacity to inhibit the protein which is indirectly responsible for the formation of amyloid plaques and can be further put to in vitro pharmacokinetic and dynamic studies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Amidas/farmacologia , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/antagonistas & inibidores , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Amidas/síntese química , Amidas/química , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Morfolinas/síntese química , Morfolinas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(15): 1305-1317, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218960

RESUMO

STAT (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) is a cellular signal transcription factor involved in the regulation of many cellular activities, such as cell differentiation, proliferation, angiogenesis in normal cells. During the study of the STAT family, STAT3 was found to be involved in many diseases, such as high expression and sustained activation of STAT3 in tumor cells, promoting tumor growth and proliferation. In the study of inflammation, it was found that it plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory and repairing of damage tissues. Because of the important role of STAT3, a large number of studies have been obtained. At the same time, after more than 20 years of development, STAT3 has also been used as a target for drug therapy. And the discovery of small molecule inhibitors also promoted the study of STAT3. Since STAT3 has been extensively studied in inflammation and tumor regulation, this review presents the current state of research on STAT3.


Assuntos
Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
11.
Eur J Med Chem ; 178: 243-258, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185414

RESUMO

To address the multifactorial nature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), a multi-target-directed ligand approach was herein developed. As a follow-up of our previous studies, a small library of newly designed 2-arylbenzofuran derivatives was evaluated towards cholinesterases and cannabinoid receptors. The two most promising compounds, 8 and 10, were then assessed for their neuroprotective activity and for their ability to modulate the microglial phenotype. Compound 8 emerged as able to fight AD from several directions: it restored the cholinergic system by inhibiting butyrylcholinesterase, showed neuroprotective activity against Aß1-42 oligomers, was a potent and selective CB2 ligand and had immunomodulatory effects, switching microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the neuroprotective M2 phenotype. Derivative 10 was a potent CB2 inverse agonist with promising immunomodulatory properties and could be considered as a tool for investigating the role of CB2 receptors and for developing potential immunomodulating drugs addressing the endocannabinoid system.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Benzofuranos/síntese química , Benzofuranos/química , Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Butirilcolinesterase/química , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Células CHO , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/metabolismo , Cricetulus , Desenho de Drogas , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/síntese química , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/síntese química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Ligação Proteica , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/síntese química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo
12.
Nat Chem ; 11(7): 644-652, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182821

RESUMO

A promising approach in cancer therapy is to find ligands that directly bind ubiquitin (Ub) chains. However, finding molecules capable of tightly and specifically binding Ub chains is challenging given the range of Ub polymer lengths and linkages and their subtle structural differences. Here, we use total chemical synthesis of proteins to generate highly homogeneous Ub chains for screening against trillion-member macrocyclic peptide libraries (RaPID system). De novo cyclic peptides were found that can bind tightly and specifically to K48-linked Ub chains, confirmed by NMR studies. These cyclic peptides protected K48-linked Ub chains from deubiquitinating enzymes and prevented proteasomal degradation of Ub-tagged proteins. The cyclic peptides could enter cells, inhibit growth and induce programmed cell death, opening new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. This highly synthetic approach, with both protein target generation and cyclic peptide discovery performed in vitro, will make other elaborate post-translationally modified targets accessible for drug discovery.


Assuntos
Lisina/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/metabolismo , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteassoma/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Ubiquitinas/síntese química , Ubiquitinas/química
13.
Nat Chem Biol ; 15(7): 657-665, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209350

RESUMO

BCL-2 family protein interactions regulate apoptosis, a critical process that maintains tissue homeostasis but can cause a host of human diseases when deregulated. Venetoclax is the first FDA-approved drug to reactivate apoptosis in cancer by selectively targeting an anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family member. The drug's activity relies on an 'inhibit the inhibitor' mechanism, whereby blockade of a key surface groove on BCL-2 disables its capacity to neutralize pro-apoptotic effectors, such as BAX, a chief executioner protein of the apoptotic pathway. A series of physiologic and pharmacologic regulatory sites that mediate the activation or inhibition of BAX have recently been identified, providing blueprints for the development of alternative apoptosis modulators to block pathologic cell survival or avert unwanted cell death by drugging BAX directly.


Assuntos
Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
14.
Nat Chem Biol ; 15(7): 666-668, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209353

RESUMO

The complement pathway is an important part of the immune system, and uncontrolled activation is implicated in many diseases. The human complement component 5 protein (C5) is a validated drug target within the complement pathway, as an anti-C5 antibody (Soliris) is an approved therapy for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Here, we report the identification, optimization and mechanism of action for the first small-molecule inhibitor of C5 complement protein.


Assuntos
Complemento C5/antagonistas & inibidores , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Complemento C5/metabolismo , Humanos , Conformação Molecular , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
15.
Nat Chem Biol ; 15(7): 710-720, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222192

RESUMO

Autophagy mediates the degradation of damaged proteins, organelles and pathogens, and plays a key role in health and disease. Thus, the identification of new mechanisms involved in the regulation of autophagy is of major interest. In particular, little is known about the role of lipids and lipid-binding proteins in the early steps of autophagosome biogenesis. Using target-agnostic, high-content, image-based identification of indicative phenotypic changes induced by small molecules, we have identified autogramins as a new class of autophagy inhibitor. Autogramins selectively target the recently discovered cholesterol transfer protein GRAM domain-containing protein 1A (GRAMD1A, which had not previously been implicated in autophagy), and directly compete with cholesterol binding to the GRAMD1A StART domain. GRAMD1A accumulates at sites of autophagosome initiation, affects cholesterol distribution in response to starvation and is required for autophagosome biogenesis. These findings identify a new biological function of GRAMD1A and a new role for cholesterol in autophagy.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Modelos Moleculares , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
16.
Nat Chem Biol ; 15(6): 565-574, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086331

RESUMO

Enzymes that act on multiple substrates are common in biology but pose unique challenges as therapeutic targets. The metalloprotease insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) modulates blood glucose levels by cleaving insulin, a hormone that promotes glucose clearance. However, IDE also degrades glucagon, a hormone that elevates glucose levels and opposes the effect of insulin. IDE inhibitors to treat diabetes, therefore, should prevent IDE-mediated insulin degradation, but not glucagon degradation, in contrast with traditional modes of enzyme inhibition. Using a high-throughput screen for non-active-site ligands, we discovered potent and highly specific small-molecule inhibitors that alter IDE's substrate selectivity. X-ray co-crystal structures, including an IDE-ligand-glucagon ternary complex, revealed substrate-dependent interactions that enable these inhibitors to potently block insulin binding while allowing glucagon cleavage, even at saturating inhibitor concentrations. These findings suggest a path for developing IDE-targeting therapeutics, and offer a blueprint for modulating other enzymes in a substrate-selective manner to unlock their therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/antagonistas & inibidores , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Especificidade por Substrato
17.
Eur J Med Chem ; 177: 105-115, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129449

RESUMO

Human lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) plays a critical role in the glycolytic process, making the enzyme an ideal of anti-cancer drug target. Herein, we report the discovery of novel potent LDHA inhibitors by screening an in-house library. The hit-to-lead modification enabled us to identify compound 24c, which inhibited LDHA activity with an EC50 value of 90 nM, and reduced MiaPaCa-2 cancer cell proliferation with an IC50 value of 2.1 µM. In line with the in vitro anticancer activity, 24c suppressed the tumor growth at a dose of 10 mg/kg in a MiaPaCa-2 cells xenograft model, but with little effect to the mice weight. Moreover, 24c strongly inhibited MiaPaCa-2 cell colonies formation, induced MiaPaCa-2 cell apoptosis, and arrested MiaPaCa-2 cell cycle at G2 phase. In addition, the mitochondrial bioenergetics analysis suggested that 24c could reprogram cancer cell metabolic pathways from glycolysis to oxidation phosphorylation, which verified by decreasing the extracellular acidification rates and lactate formation, and increasing oxygen consumption rate in cancer cell. All these results indicate 24c is a promising metabolic modulator for the anticancer drug development.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Pironas/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/química , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Camundongos Nus , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Piperazinas/síntese química , Piperazinas/química , Piperazinas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Pironas/síntese química , Pironas/química , Pironas/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/síntese química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060229

RESUMO

Background: KDM5 enzymes are H3K4 specific histone demethylases involved in transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. These proteins are overexpressed in different kinds of cancer, including breast, prostate and bladder carcinomas, with positive effects on cancer proliferation and chemoresistance. For these reasons, these enzymes are potential therapeutic targets. Methods: In the present study, we analyzed the effects of three different inhibitors of KDM5 enzymes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells over-expressing one of them, namely KDM5B/JARID1B. In particular we tested H3K4 demethylation (western blot); radio-sensitivity (cytoxicity and clonogenic assays) and damage accumulation (COMET assay and kinetics of H2AX phosphorylation). Results: we show that all three compounds with completely different chemical structures can selectively inhibit KDM5 enzymes and are capable of increasing sensitivity of breast cancer cells to ionizing radiation and radiation-induced damage. Conclusions: These findings confirm the involvement of H3K4 specific demethylases in the response to DNA damage, show a requirement of the catalytic function and suggest new strategies for the therapeutic use of their inhibitors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Histona Desmetilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Tolerância a Radiação/efeitos dos fármacos , Radiossensibilizantes/química , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos da radiação
19.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060249

RESUMO

Co-infection of malaria and tuberculosis, although not thoroughly investigated, has been noted. With the increasing prevalence of tuberculosis in the African region, wherein malaria is endemic, it is intuitive to suggest that the probability of co-infection with these diseases is likely to increase. To avoid the issue of drug-drug interactions when managing co-infections, it is imperative to investigate new molecules with dual activities against the causal agents of these diseases. To this effect, a small library of quinolone-thiosemicarbazones was synthesised and evaluated in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causal agents of malaria and tuberculosis, respectively. The compounds were also evaluated against HeLa cells for overt cytotoxicity. Most compounds in this series exhibited activities against both organisms, with compound 10, emerging as the hit; with an MIC90 of 2 µM against H37Rv strain of M. tuberculosis and an IC50 of 1 µM against the 3D7 strain of P. falciparum. This study highlights quinolone-thiosemicarabazones as a class of compounds that can be exploited further in search of novel, safe agents with potent activities against both the causal agents of malaria and tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolonas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/síntese química , Tiossemicarbazonas/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Doces , Interações de Medicamentos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Estrutura Molecular , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Tuberculose
20.
Nat Chem Biol ; 15(7): 730-736, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110306

RESUMO

N-linked glycosylation in monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is crucial for structural and functional properties of mAb therapeutics, including stability, pharmacokinetics, safety and clinical efficacy. The biopharmaceutical industry currently lacks tools to precisely control N-glycosylation levels during mAb production. In this study, we engineered Chinese hamster ovary cells with synthetic genetic circuits to tune N-glycosylation of a stably expressed IgG. We knocked out two key glycosyltransferase genes, α-1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8) and ß-1,4-galactosyltransferase (ß4GALT1), genomically integrated circuits expressing synthetic glycosyltransferase genes under constitutive or inducible promoters and generated antibodies with concurrently desired fucosylation (0-97%) and galactosylation (0-87%) levels. Simultaneous and independent control of FUT8 and ß4GALT1 expression was achieved using orthogonal small molecule inducers. Effector function studies confirmed that glycosylation profile changes affected antibody binding to a cell surface receptor. Precise and rational modification of N-glycosylation will allow new recombinant protein therapeutics with tailored in vitro and in vivo effects for various biotechnological and biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/biossíntese , Engenharia Celular , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Glicosilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
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