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1.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(21): 1872-1876, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696799

RESUMO

PPIs are involved in diverse biochemical events and perform their functions through the formation of protein-protein complexes or PPI networks. The large and flat interacting surfaces of PPIs make discovery of small-molecule modulators a challenging task. New strategies and more effective chemical technologies are needed to facilitate the development of PPIs small-molecule inhibitors. Covalent modification of a nucleophilic residue located proximally to the immediate vicinity of PPIs can overcome the disadvantages of large interacting surfaces and provides high-affinity inhibitors with increased duration of action and prolonged target modulation. On the other hand, covalent inhibitors that target non-conserved protein residues demonstrate improved selectivity over related protein family members. Herein, we highlight the latest progress of small-molecule covalent PPIs inhibitors and hope to shed light on future PPIs inhibitor design and development. The relevant challenges and opportunities are also discussed.


Assuntos
Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(88): 13311-13314, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631199

RESUMO

Herein, we report a strategy for generating conformationally restricted α-helix mimetic small molecules by introducing covalent bridges that limit rotation about the central axis of α-helix mimetics. We demonstrate that the bridged α-helix mimetics have enhanced binding affinity and specificity to the target protein due to the restricted conformation as well as extra interaction of the bridge with the protein surface.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos de Anel em Ponte/química , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos de Anel em Ponte/farmacologia , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/antagonistas & inibidores , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
7.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(15): 1276-1288, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526339

RESUMO

C-Met, also referred to as Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (HGFR), is a heterodimeric receptor tyrosine kinase. It has been determined that c-Met gene mutations, overexpression, and amplification also occur in a variety of human tumor types, and these events are closely related to the aberrant activation of the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway. Meanwhile, high c-Met expression is closely associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. The c-Met kinase has emerged as an attractive target for developing antitumor agents. In this review, we cover the recent advances on the small molecule c-Met inhibitors discovered from 2018 until now, with a main focus on the rational design, synthesis and structureactivity relationship analysis.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/antagonistas & inibidores , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/síntese química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
8.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(10): 5169-5174, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476124

RESUMO

Aggregation of amyloid-ß (Aß) peptides is a crucial step in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Identifying aggregation inhibitors against AD has been a great challenge. We report an atomistic simulation study of the inhibition mechanism of two small molecules, homotaurine and scyllo-inositol, which are AD drug candidates currently under investigation. We show that both small molecules promote a conformational change of the Aß42 monomer toward a more collapsed phase through a nonspecific binding mechanism. This finding provides atomistic-level insights into designing potential drug candidates for future AD treatments.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/antagonistas & inibidores , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Agregados Proteicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
9.
Nat Chem Biol ; 15(10): 937-944, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527835

RESUMO

Targeted protein degradation as a therapeutic modality has seen dramatic progress and massive investment in recent years because of the convergence of two key scientific breakthroughs: optimization of first-generation peptidic proteolysis-targeted chimeras (PROTACs) into more drug-like molecules able to support in vivo proof of concept and the discovery that clinical molecules function as degraders by binding and repurposing the proteins cereblon and DCAF15. This provided clinical validation for the general approach through the cereblon modulator class of drugs and provided highly drug-like and ligand-efficient E3 ligase binders upon which to tether target-binding moieties. Increasingly rational and systematic approaches including biophysical and structural studies on ternary complexes are being leveraged as the field advances. In this Perspective we summarize the discoveries that have laid the foundation for future degradation therapeutics, focusing on those classes of small molecules that redirect E3 ubiquitin ligases to non-native substrates.


Assuntos
Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação , Humanos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Ligação Proteica , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/química , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
11.
Eur J Med Chem ; 181: 111581, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400711

RESUMO

Casein kinase (CK) is a type of conserved serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates many important proteins in body. Researchers found that CK is involved in a variety of signaling pathways, and also plays an important role in inflammation, cancer, and nervous system diseases. Thus, it is considered to be a promising target for the treatment of related diseases. Many CK small molecule inhibitors have been reported so far, and most are ATP competitive inhibitors. However, these CK inhibitors lack the basic properties required for in vivo use, such as selectivity, cell permeability, metabolic stability, correct pharmacokinetic characteristics, and cellular environment. But small molecule inhibitors still have an advantage in drug research due to their controllable pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties. CX-4945 discovered by Cylene Pharmaceutical is the only one CK2 inhibitor entering into Phase II clinical trials till now. In recent years, significant advances have been made in the design of non-competitive inhibitors of CK and in the application of multi-target inhibition strategies. Here, we review the published CK inhibitors and analyze their structure-activity relationships (SAR). We also summarized the eutectic structure with identified hot spots to provide a reference for future drug discovery.


Assuntos
Caseína Quinase II/antagonistas & inibidores , Caseína Quinase I/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Animais , Caseína Quinase I/química , Caseína Quinase I/metabolismo , Caseína Quinase II/química , Caseína Quinase II/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
12.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(21): 1918-1947, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393249

RESUMO

microRNAs (miRNAs) are an evolutionarily conserved class of small single-stranded noncoding RNAs. The aberrant expression of specific miRNAs has been implicated in the development and progression of diverse cardiovascular diseases. For many decades, miRNA therapeutics has flourished, taking advantage of the fact that miRNAs can modulate gene expression and control cellular phenotypes at the posttranscriptional level. Genetic replacement or knockdown of target miRNAs by chemical molecules, referred to as miRNA mimics or inhibitors, has been used to reverse their abnormal expression as well as their adverse biological effects in vitro and in vivo in an effort to fully implement the therapeutic potential of miRNA-targeting treatment. However, the limitations of the chemical structure and delivery systems are hindering progress towards clinical translation. Here, we focus on the regulatory mechanisms and therapeutic trials of several representative miRNAs in the context of specific cardiovascular diseases; from this basic perspective, we evaluate chemical modifications and delivery vectors of miRNA-based chemical molecules and consider the underlying challenges of miRNA therapeutics as well as the clinical perspectives on their applications.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
13.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(19): 1751-1767, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418662

RESUMO

The discovery of bioactive molecules is an expensive and time-consuming process and new strategies are continuously searched for in order to optimize this process. Virtual Screening (VS) is one of the recent strategies that has been explored for the identification of candidate bioactive molecules. The number of new techniques and software that can be applied in this strategy has grown considerably in recent years, so, before their use, it is necessary to understand the basics an also the limitations behind each one to get the most out of them. It is also necessary to assess the real contributions of this strategy so that more significant progress can be made in the future. In this context, this review aims to discuss some important points related to VS, including the use of virtual ligand and biotarget libraries, structurebased and ligand-based VS techniques, as well as to present recent cases where this strategy was successfully applied.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos
15.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(18): 1650-1675, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424369

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is the causative agent responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. More than 60 million infections and 25 million deaths have occurred since AIDS was first identified in the early 1980s. Advances in available therapeutics, in particular combination antiretroviral therapy, have significantly improved the treatment of HIV infection and have facilitated the shift from high mortality and morbidity to that of a manageable chronic disease. Unfortunately, none of the currently available drugs are curative of HIV. To deal with the rapid emergence of drug resistance, off-target effects, and the overall difficulty of eradicating the virus, an urgent need exists to develop new drugs, especially against targets critically important for the HIV-1 life cycle. Viral entry, which involves the interaction of the surface envelope glycoprotein, gp120, with the cellular receptor, CD4, is the first step of HIV-1 infection. Gp120 has been validated as an attractive target for anti-HIV-1 drug design or novel HIV detection tools. Several small molecule gp120 antagonists are currently under investigation as potential entry inhibitors. Pyrrole, piperazine, triazole, pyrazolinone, oxalamide, and piperidine derivatives, among others, have been investigated as gp120 antagonist candidates. Herein, we discuss the current state of research with respect to the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of oxalamide derivatives and five-membered heterocycles, namely, the pyrrole-containing small molecule as inhibitors of gp120 and HIV entry.


Assuntos
Amidas/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Fusão de HIV/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Amidas/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Descoberta de Drogas , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/metabolismo , Inibidores da Fusão de HIV/química , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pirróis/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
16.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(18): 1599-1620, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424370

RESUMO

Viral entry, the first process in the reproduction of viruses, primarily involves attachment of the viral envelope proteins to membranes of the host cell. The crucial components that play an important role in viral entry include viral surface glycoprotein gp120, viral transmembrane glycoprotein gp41, host cell glycoprotein (CD4), and host cell chemokine receptors (CCR5 and CXCR4). Inhibition of the multiple molecular interactions of these components can restrain viruses, such as HIV-1, from fusion with the host cell, blocking them from reproducing. This review article specifically focuses on the recent progress in the development of small-molecule HIV-1 entry inhibitors and incorporates important aspects of their structural modification that lead to the discovery of new molecular scaffolds with more potency.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína gp41 do Envelope de HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Fusão de HIV/farmacologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/metabolismo , Proteína gp41 do Envelope de HIV/metabolismo , Inibidores da Fusão de HIV/química , Humanos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
17.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3275-3287, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368616

RESUMO

p97/VCP is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein that belongs to the AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) ATPase family. It has a variety of cellular functions including ER-associated protein degradation, autophagy, and aggresome formation. Recent studies have shown emerging roles of p97/VCP and its potential as a therapeutic target in several cancer subtypes including multiple myeloma (MM). We conducted a cell-based compound screen to exploit novel small compounds that have cytotoxic activity in myeloma cells. Among approximately 2000 compounds, OSSL_325096 showed relatively strong antiproliferative activity in MM cell lines (IC50 , 100-500 nmol/L). OSSL_325096 induced apoptosis in myeloma cell lines, including a bortezomib-resistant cell line and primary myeloma cells purified from patients. Accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, PERK, CHOP, and IREα, was observed in MM cell lines treated with OSSL_325096, suggesting that it induces ER stress in MM cells. OSSL_325096 has a similar chemical structure to DBeQ, a known p97/VCP inhibitor. Knockdown of the gene encoding p97/VCP induced apoptosis in myeloma cells, accompanied by accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated protein. IC50 of OSSL_325096 to myeloma cell lines were found to be lower (0.1-0.8 µmol/L) than those of DBeQ (2-5 µmol/L). In silico protein-drug-binding simulation suggested possible binding of OSSL_325096 to the ATP binding site in the D2 domain of p97/VCP. In cell-free ATPase assays, OSSL_325096 showed dose-dependent inhibition of p97/VCP ATPase activity. Finally, OSSL_325096 inhibited the growth of subcutaneous myeloma cell tumors in vivo. The present data suggest that OSSL_325096 exerts anti-myeloma activity, at least in part through p97/VCP inhibition.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/administração & dosagem , Adenosina Trifosfatases/antagonistas & inibidores , Adenosina Trifosfatases/química , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Bortezomib/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo
18.
Pharm Res ; 36(9): 137, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332533

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pitt Hopkins Syndrome (PTHS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations of a specific gene, transcription factor 4 (TCF4), located on chromosome 18. PTHS results in individuals that have moderate to severe intellectual disability, with most exhibiting psychomotor delay. PTHS also exhibits features of autistic spectrum disorders, which are characterized by the impaired ability to communicate and socialize. PTHS is comorbid with a higher prevalence of epileptic seizures which can be present from birth or which commonly develop in childhood. Attenuated or absent TCF4 expression results in increased translation of peripheral ion channels Kv7.1 and Nav1.8 which triggers an increase in after-hyperpolarization and altered firing properties. METHODS: We now describe a high throughput screen (HTS) of 1280 approved drugs and machine learning models developed from this data. The ion channels were expressed in either CHO (KV7.1) or HEK293 (Nav1.8) cells and the HTS used either 86Rb+ efflux (KV7.1) or a FLIPR assay (Nav1.8). RESULTS: The HTS delivered 55 inhibitors of Kv7.1 (4.2% hit rate) and 93 inhibitors of Nav1.8 (7.2% hit rate) at a screening concentration of 10 µM. These datasets also enabled us to generate and validate Bayesian machine learning models for these ion channels. We also describe a structure activity relationship for several dihydropyridine compounds as inhibitors of Nav1.8. CONCLUSIONS: This work could lead to the potential repurposing of nicardipine or other dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists as potential treatments for PTHS acting via Nav1.8, as there are currently no approved treatments for this rare disorder.


Assuntos
Di-Hidropiridinas/farmacologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Hiperventilação/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência Intelectual/tratamento farmacológico , Canal de Potássio KCNQ1/antagonistas & inibidores , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.8/metabolismo , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/farmacologia , Bloqueadores do Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem/farmacologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Di-Hidropiridinas/química , Facies , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Canal de Potássio KCNQ1/metabolismo , Aprendizado de Máquina , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Bloqueadores do Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem/química
19.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(16): 1464-1483, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264549

RESUMO

The great clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) and PD-1/PDL-1 inhibitor therapies suggests the drawing of a cancer immunotherapy age. However, a considerable proportion of cancer patients currently receive little benefit from these treatment modalities, indicating that multiple immunosuppressive mechanisms exist in the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we mainly discuss recent advances in small molecular regulators targeting G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) that are associated with oncology immunomodulation, including chemokine receptors, purinergic receptors, prostaglandin E receptor EP4 and opioid receptors. Moreover, we outline how they affect tumor immunity and neoplasia by regulating immune cell recruitment and modulating tumor stromal cell biology. We also summarize the data from recent clinical advances in small molecular regulators targeting these GPCRs, in combination with immune checkpoints blockers, such as PD-1/PDL-1 and CTLA4 inhibitors, for cancer treatments.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/antagonistas & inibidores , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Animais , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
20.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(16): 1399-1417, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284862

RESUMO

The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-selective PAC1 receptor (PAC1R, ADCYAP1R1) is a member of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/secretin/glucagon family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). PAC1R has been shown to play crucial roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The activation of PAC1R initiates diverse downstream signal transduction pathways, including adenylyl cyclase, phospholipase C, MEK/ERK, and Akt pathways that regulate a number of physiological systems to maintain functional homeostasis. Accordingly, at times of tissue injury or insult, PACAP/PAC1R activation of these pathways can be trophic to blunt or delay apoptotic events and enhance cell survival. Enhancing PAC1R signaling under these conditions has the potential to mitigate cellular damages associated with cerebrovascular trauma (including stroke), neurodegeneration (such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease), or peripheral organ insults. Conversely, maladaptive PACAP/PAC1R signaling has been implicated in a number of disorders, including stressrelated psychopathologies (i.e., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and related abnormalities), chronic pain and migraine, and metabolic diseases; abrogating PAC1R signaling under these pathological conditions represent opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Given the diverse PAC1R-mediated biological activities, the receptor has emerged as a relevant pharmaceutical target. In this review, we first describe the current knowledge regarding the molecular structure, dynamics, and function of PAC1R. Then, we discuss the roles of PACAP and PAC1R in the activation of a variety of signaling cascades related to the physiology and diseases of the nervous system. Lastly, we examine current drug design and development of peptides and small molecules targeting PAC1R based on a number of structure- activity relationship studies and key pharmacophore elements. At present, the rational design of PAC1R-selective peptide or small-molecule therapeutics is largely hindered by the lack of structural information regarding PAC1R activation mechanisms, the PACAP-PAC1R interface, and the core segments involved in receptor activation. Understanding the molecular basis governing the PACAP interactions with its different cognate receptors will undoubtedly provide a basis for the development and/or refinement of receptor-selective therapeutics.


Assuntos
Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Receptores de Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/antagonistas & inibidores , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Peptídeos/síntese química , Peptídeos/química , Receptores de Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/química , Receptores de Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/síntese química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
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