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1.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 41, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that sodium bicarbonate ingestion may enhance intense exercise performance, but may also cause severe gastrointestinal distress. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a modified sodium bicarbonate (SB) ingestion protocol would elevate serum bicarbonate concentration more than previous methods without causing gastrointestinal distress. METHODS: In randomized order, seven (5 men, 2 women) elite middle-distance runners ingested either placebo, Modified SB (600 mg·kg- 1 over 19.5 h), or Acute SB (300 mg·kg- 1) in opaque gelatin capsules. Baseline and post-ingestion blood samples were analyzed for bicarbonate, pH, sodium, hematocrit, and lactate. Repeated measures ANOVA (2 time points × 3 conditions) were analyzed to determine differences in serum bicarbonate, lactate, sodium, blood pH, and hematocrit. Gastrointestinal distress was assessed via self-report on a Likert scale of 1-10. Simple (condition) and repeated (time) within-participant contrasts were used to determine the location of any statistically significant main and interaction effects (p ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: Both Modified SB (7.6 mmol·L- 1, p < 0.01) and Acute SB (5.8 mmol·L- 1, p < 0.01) increased serum bicarbonate concentration compared to the placebo (p ≤ 0.05). Post-ingestion serum bicarbonate concentration was significantly higher for the Modified SB (34.7 ± 2.2 mmol·L- 1, 28.0% increase) trials than the Acute SB (33.5 ± 2.0 mmol·L- 1, 20.9% increase) trials (p = 0.05). There was no reported severe GI distress in the Modified SB trials, but two cases in the Acute SB trials. CONCLUSIONS: Modified SB elevated serum bicarbonate concentration more than Acute SB, without any severe gastrointestinal side effects. Consequently, it is recommended that future experimentation involving SB by researchers and athletes use the novel ingestion protocol described in this study due to its potential for improved effectiveness and reduced gastrointestinal impact. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT03813329 . Registered 23 January 2019 - Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Bicarbonatos/sangue , Corrida , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Atletas , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias , Hematócrito , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Sódio/sangue , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 37, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477133

RESUMO

The timing of macronutrient ingestion in relation to exercise is a purported strategy to augment muscle accretion, muscle and athletic performance, and recovery. To date, the majority of macronutrient nutrient timing research has focused on carbohydrate and protein intake. However, emerging research suggests that the strategic ingestion of various ergogenic aids and micronutrients may also have beneficial effects. Therefore, the purpose of this narrative review is to critically evaluate and summarize the available literature examining the timing of ergogenic aids (caffeine, creatine, nitrates, sodium bicarbonate, beta-alanine) and micronutrients (iron, calcium) on muscle adaptations and exercise performance. In summary, preliminary data is available to indicate the timing of caffeine, nitrates, and creatine monohydrate may impact outcomes such as exercise performance, strength gains and other exercise training adaptations. Furthermore, data is available to suggest that timing the administration of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate may help to minimize known untoward adverse events while maintaining potential ergogenic outcomes. Finally, limited data indicates that timed ingestion of calcium and iron may help with the uptake and metabolism of these nutrients. While encouraging, much more research is needed to better understand how timed administration of these nutrients and others may impact performance, health, or other exercise training outcomes.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Exercício , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Creatina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Nitratos/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , beta-Alanina/administração & dosagem
3.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(11): 711-716, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434137

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether NaHCO3, administered via a 9-h stacked loading protocol (i.e. repeated supplementation with small doses in order to obtain a gradual increase in blood [HCO3 -]), has an ergogenic effect on repeated all-out exercise. Twelve physically active males were randomly assigned to receive either NaHCO3 (BIC) or placebo (PL) in a double-blind cross-over design. NaHCO3 supplementation was divided in three identical 3-h cycles: a 6.3 g bolus at the start, followed by 2.1 g doses at +1-h and +2-h, yielding a total NaHCO3 intake of 0.4 g·kg-1 BM over 9-h. At the end of each cycle, participants performed 2-min all-out cycling. Capillary blood samples were analyzed for [HCO3 -], pH and [La-]. Pre-exercise blood [HCO3 -] in PL decreased from 25.6±0.2 mmol·L-1 in bout 1 to 23.6±0.2 mmol·L-1 in bout 4, while increasing from 25.5±0.2 to 31.2±0.4 mmol·L-1 in BIC (P<0.05). Concomitantly, pre-exercise pH values gradually decreased in PL (from 7.41±0.00 to 7.39±0.01) and increased in BIC (from 7.41±0.01 to 7.47±0.01; P<0.05). Mean power output of the four bouts was higher in BIC (428±20 W) than in PL (420±20 W; P<0.05). The ergogenic effect on repeated all-out exercise occurred in the absence of gastrointestinal distress.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Teste de Esforço , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/efeitos adversos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/sangue , Bicarbonato de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/sangue , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8027-8039, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279544

RESUMO

Two experiments were carried out to evaluate different dietary buffers and their influence on (1) rumen pH in dairy cows and (2) milk production in dairy cows. The supplements included were calcareous marine algae (CMA; Lithothamnion calcareum), with or without marine magnesium oxide (MM; precipitated magnesia derived from seawater), and sodium bicarbonate (SB). Dietary treatments in experiment 1 consisted of the control [32.9% starch and sugar, and 19.9% neutral detergent fiber from forage per kg of dry matter (DM)] including no dietary buffer (CON); the control plus 0.45% DM CMA (CMA); the control plus 0.45% DM CMA and 0.11% DM MM (CMA+MM); the control plus 0.9% DM SB (SB). Diets were formulated to a dry matter intake (DMI) of 18 kg per cow/d. Dietary treatments in experiment 2 also consisted of CON (28.3% starch and sugar, and 23% neutral detergent fiber from forage per kg of DM), CMA, CMA+MM, and SB and were formulated to achieve identical intakes of experimental ingredients (80 g of CMA, 80 g of CMA plus 20 g MM, and 160 g of SB per cow/d) with a DMI of 22.6 kg per cow/d. Experiment 1 used 4 rumen-cannulated dairy cows in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Rumen pH was measured over five 2-h periods, following feeding, using rumen pH probes. In experiment 2, 52 multiparous and 4 primiparous cows (62.7 ± 3.4 d in milk) were assigned to 4 experimental treatments for 80 d. Both CMA treatments maintained a greater mean rumen pH than the CON during 4 of the 5 periods following feeding and the CON had a greater number of hours below rumen pH 5.5 compared with all other treatments. Dry matter intakes tended to be higher on the SB compared with CON. The CMA treatment increased the production of milk fat and protein yield (kg/d) compared with all other treatments. Both CMA and CMA+MM increased milk fat yield compared with CON but were similar to each other and SB. Protein yield was highest in the CMA treatment compared with CON, CMA+MM, and SB. All 3 buffer treatments increased milk fat concentration compared with CON but did not differ from each other. The SB treatment reduced milk protein concentration and milk production efficiency, energy-corrected milk per kilogram of DMI. Results indicate that the addition of CMA can benefit milk fat and protein production when included in diets based on typical feedstuffs of the northern European region. The use of CMA when compared with SB, in such diets, can increase milk protein production and milk production efficiency.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Óxido de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Rodófitas , Rúmen/metabolismo , Animais , Tampões (Química) , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactação , Óxido de Magnésio/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem
5.
Anesth Analg ; 129(1): 63-72, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bupivacaine cardiotoxicity mainly manifests as inhibition of the cardiac sodium channel, which slows conduction, particularly at the ventricular level. Experimental studies have demonstrated that intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) can reduce the cardiotoxic effects of bupivacaine, but the extent of these effects is controversial. Sodium bicarbonate (B) represents the standard treatment of toxicity related to sodium channel-blocking drugs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of ILEs and B on the speed of recovery from bupivacaine-induced effects on the electrocardiographic parameters. METHODS: Bupivacaine 4 mg/kg was administered to 24 anesthetized pigs. Three minutes after delivering the bupivacaine bolus, the animals were given the following: ILE 1.5 mL/kg followed by 0.25 mL/kg/min (ILE group) and B 2 mEq/kg followed by 1 mEq/kg/h (B group). Controls (C group) were given saline solution, 50 mL followed by 1 mL/kg/h. Electrophysiological parameters were evaluated in sinus rhythm and during right ventricular pacing at several time intervals up to 30 minutes. Data were analyzed as the area under the curve (AUC) for the first 10 minutes (AUC10) or 30 minutes (AUC30). RESULTS: Bupivacaine increased the sinus cycle length, PR interval, and QRS duration. AUC30 of the sinus rhythm QRS duration after antidote administration was significantly different among the 3 groups (P = .003). B group experienced faster recovery from intoxication than the C group (AUC10, P = .003; AUC30, P = .003) or the ILE group (AUC10, P = .018). During the first minute, 50% of the B group (versus 0% of the ILE and C groups) had recovered >30% of QRS duration (P = .011). The trend toward faster recovery in the ILE group than in the C group did not reach significance (AUC10, P = .23; AUC30, P = .06). Effects on the paced QRS duration at a rate of 150 bpm were more intense but with similar results (B versus C group: AUC10, P = .009; AUC30, P = .009; B versus ILE: AUC10, P = .015; AUC30, P = .024). The recovery process of the paced QRS tended to be slower for all antidotes. CONCLUSIONS: In a closed-chest swine model, B was an effective treatment for electrophysiological alterations caused by established bupivacaine toxicity. At clinical doses, B ameliorated bupivacaine electrocardiographic toxicity faster than ILE. Use-dependent effects of bupivacaine are prominent and delay the effects of both antidotes, but B produces faster recovery than ILE.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Bupivacaína , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Cardiotoxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 44(2): 188-199, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and metabolic acidosis might accelerate vascular calcification. The T50 calcification inhibition test (T50-test) is a global functional test analyzing the overall propensity of calcification in serum, and low T50-time is associated with progressive aortic stiffening and with all-cause mortality in non-dialysis CKD, dialysis, and transplant patients. Low serum bicarbonate is associated with a short T50-time and alkali supplementation could be a simple modifier of calcification propensity. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation on T50-time in CKD patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The SoBic-study is an ongoing randomized-controlled trial in CKD-G3 and G4 patients with chronic metabolic acidosis (serum HCO3- ≤21 mmol/L), in which patients are randomized to either achieve serum HCO3- levels of 24 ± 1 mmol/L (intervention group) or 20 ± 1 mmol/L (rescue group). The effect of bicarbonate treatment on T50-time was assessed. RESULTS: The study cohort consisted of 35 (14 female) patients aged 57 (±15) years, and 18 were randomized to the intervention group. The mean T50-time was 275 (± 64) min. After 4 weeks, the mean change of T50-time was 4 (±69) min in the intervention group and 18 min (±56) in the rescue group (ß = -25; 95% CI: -71 to 22; p = 0.298). Moreover, change of serum bicarbonate in individual patients was not associated with change in T50-time, analyzed by regression analysis. Change of serum phosphate had a significant impact on change of T50-time (ß = -145; 95% CI: -237 to -52). CONCLUSION: Oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation showed no effect on T50-time in acidotic CKD patients.


Assuntos
Acidose/tratamento farmacológico , Calcinose/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Calcinose/sangue , Calcinose/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Rigidez Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(8): 962-972, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at investigating the isolated effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on repeated sprint ability (RSA). METHODS: Following a search through PubMed and Scopus, 13 studies (7 with caffeine and 6 with NaHCO3) were found to meet inclusion criteria. Random-effects of standardized mean difference (SMD) for total work and best sprint performance was examined. Study quality was assessed using QualSyst. RESULTS: The meta-analysis indicated that caffeine ingestion did not improve the total work done (weighted average effect size Hedges's g = -0.01, 95%CI: -0.32 to 0.31, p = 0.97), best sprint (weighted average effect size Hedges's g = -0.02, 95% CI: -0.32 to 0.27; p = 0.87) or last sprint performance (weighed average effect size Hedge's g = -0.27, 95%CI: -0.68 to 0.14; p = 0.20), when compared with a placebo condition. Similarly, NaHCO3 ingestion did not improve the total work done (weighted average effect size Hedges's g = 0.43, 95% CI: -0.11 to 0.97, p = 0.12), best sprint (weighted average effect size Hedges's g = 0.02, 95% CI -0.30 to 0.34; p = 0.90) or last sprint performance (weighted average effect size Hedge's g = 0.20, 95%CI: -0.13 to 0.52, p = 0.14), compared with a placebo condition. Quality assessment of selected articles was classified as strong. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis provides evidence that repeated sprint ability is not affected by acute ingestion of caffeine or NaHCO3.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem
8.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 18, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Past studies have found that sodium bicarbonate ingestion prior to exercise has a performance-enhancing effect on high-intensity exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation on anaerobic performance during six weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). METHODS: Twenty healthy college-age male participants were randomly assigned to either the HCO3- group (SB) or the placebo group (PL), with 10 subjects in each group. Both groups completed 6 weeks (3 days/week) of HIIT with the SB ingesting an orange-flavored solution containing 15 g xylitol and 0.2 g HCO3-/kg body mass during each training day, and PL ingesting a similar beverage that was HCO3--free. This study separated 6 weeks of training into two stages with different training intensities, with the first 3 weeks at a lower intensity than the second 3 weeks. Blood samples to measure serum HCO3- were obtained 5 min before and 30 min after the following HIIT training sessions: Week 1, training session 1; week 3, training session 3; week 6, training session 3. Three 30s Wingate tests (WAnT) were conducted before, in the middle, and after the training and the supplementation interventions, with peak power, mean power, and fatigue index obtained during WAnT, and blood lactate and heart rate obtained after WAnT. RESULTS: Our findings indicate the following: 1) Serum HCO3- level of SB was significantly higher than PL (p < 0.05) both before and after each HIIT; 2) Relative peak power in WAnT was significantly higher in the SB group after 6 weeks (p < 0.01); 3) Lactate clearance rate and the lactate clearance velocity after 10 min of WAnT were both significantly higher in SB in the post-test (p < 0.01); 4) Heart rate recovery rate at 10 min after WAnT in both SB and PL after 6 weeks were significantly improved (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), resulting in no difference between groups on these measures. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that supplementation of HCO3- at the level of 0.2 g/kg body mass before HIIT training enhances the effect of HIIT on anaerobic performance, and improves the blood lactate clearance rate and the blood lactate clearance velocity following anaerobic exercise.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Limiar Anaeróbio , Bicarbonatos/sangue , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 14(7): 871-879, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034295

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The 2000-m rowing-ergometer test is the most common measure of rowing performance. Because athletes use different intervention strategies for enhancing performance, investigating the effect of preconditioning strategies on the 2000-m test is of great relevance. This study evaluated the effects of different preconditioning strategies on 2000-m rowing-ergometer performance in trained rowers. METHODS: A search of electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) identified 27 effects of different preconditioning strategies from 17 studies. Outcomes were calculated as percentage differences between control and experimental interventions, and data were presented as mean ± 90% confidence interval. Performance data were converted to the same metrics, that is, mean power. Meta-regression analyses were conducted to assess whether performance level or caffeine dose could affect the percentage change. RESULTS: The overall beneficial effect on 2000-m mean power was 2.1% (90% confidence limit [CL] ±0.6%). Training status affected the percentage change with interventions, with a -1.1% (90% CL ±1.2%) possible small decrease for 1.0-W·kg-1 increment in performance baseline. Caffeine consumption most likely improves performance, with superior effect in higher doses (≥6 mg·kg-1). Sodium bicarbonate and beta-alanine consumption resulted in likely (2.6% [90% CL ±1.5%]) and very likely (1.4% [90% CL ±1.2%]) performance improvements, respectively. However, some preconditioning strategies such as heat acclimation, rehydration, and creatine resulted in small to moderate enhancements in 2000-m performance. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of caffeine and beta-alanine is a popular and effective strategy to improve 2000-m ergometer performance in trained rowers. Additional research is warranted to confirm the benefit of other strategies to 2000-m rowing-ergometer performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Esportes Aquáticos/fisiologia , Atletas , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ergometria , Humanos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , beta-Alanina/administração & dosagem
10.
Anticancer Res ; 39(4): 1935-1942, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal mucositis occurs in virtually all patients with head and neck cancer receiving radiochemotherapy. The manipulation of the oral cavity microbiota represents an intriguing and challenging target. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 75 patients were enrolled to receive Lactobacillus brevis CD2 lozenges or oral care regimen with sodium bicarbonate mouthwashes. The primary endpoint was the incidence of grade 3 or 4 oropharyngeal mucositis during radiotherapy treatment. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in the incidence of grade 3-4 oropharyngeal mucositis between the intervention and control groups (40.6% vs. 41.6% respectively, p=0.974). The incidence of pain, dysphagia, body weight loss and quality of life were not different between the experimental and standard arm. CONCLUSION: Our study was not able to demonstrate the efficacy of L. brevis CD2 lozenges in preventing radiation-induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer. Although modulating homeostasis of the salivary microbiota in the oral cavity seems attractive, it clearly needs further study.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Lactobacillus brevis/fisiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Estomatite/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Saliva/microbiologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Estomatite/diagnóstico , Estomatite/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(4): 1090-1098, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012184

RESUMO

This study investigated effect of increasing level of dietary sodium using sodium bicarbonate or sodium chloride on growth performance, mortality, characteristics of carcass, organs and tibia, calcium and phosphorus of serum in broilers reared in a high-altitude area (1,700 m above sea level). A total of 588 Ross 308 male broiler chicks were used in seven treatments, six replicates per treatment of 14 birds per each from 1 to 38 d of age. Seven dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (with 0.16% sodium and 0.23% chloride), top-dressed for six diets to give three supplementary levels of sodium (0.07%, 0.14% and 0.21%) from sodium bicarbonate (respectively by 0.26%, 0.52% and 0.78%) or sodium chloride (respectively by 0.18%, 0.36% and 0.54%), resulting in seven diets with total sodium and chloride levels of 0.16% and 0.23%, 0.23% and 0.23%, 0.30% and 0.23%, 0.37% and 0.23%, 0.23% and 0.33%, 0.30% and 0.44%, 0.37% and 0.55% respectively. Increasing sodium level improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) linearly and quadratically. However, when FCR was calculated without adjusting for feed intake of mortalities, the enhanced sodium level did not improve this parameter. Increasing sodium level via sodium chloride enhanced ascites mortality, total mortality, relative weight of heart and right ventricle linearly. Increasing sodium level reduced serum calcium and enhanced serum phosphorus linearly; however, there was a linear tendency to increase tibia ash when sodium level was enhanced by sodium bicarbonate (p = 0.08) or sodium chloride (p = 0.07). Increasing sodium level via sodium bicarbonate tended (p = 0.08) to reduce tibia strength linearly. In conclusion, a diet with 0.16% sodium and 0.23% chloride is enough for broiler chicken reared in a high-altitude area, and increasing dietary sodium level via sodium chloride has detrimental effect on survivability of broiler in such condition.


Assuntos
Altitude , Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gordura Abdominal/anatomia & histologia , Gordura Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Pâncreas/anatomia & histologia , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem
13.
Animal ; 13(10): 2252-2259, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819265

RESUMO

Controlling rumen fermentation using buffering agents could contribute to enhancing ruminant productivity and performance. This study was realized to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of AcidBuf, sodium bicarbonate, calseapowder and WMC seaweed (Utva Lactuca extra) on the animal performance, volatile fatty acids, rumen pH, rumen histology and carcass characteristics of growing male Awassi lambs. A total of 60 lambs was divided into five groups. One group served as a control and fed only on a concentrate diet without any buffering, whereas the other four groups were fed the concentrate diet supplemented with 0.4% AcidBuf (Buf1), 0.4% AcidBuf plus sodium bicarbonate, 50 : 50 (Buf2), 0.4% calseapowder (Buf3) or 0.4% WMC Seaweed (Buf4) for 98 days. The feed conversion ratio was (P<0.05) improved in Buf2 compared to the control and other treatment groups. The propionic acid decreased, whereas butyric acid was increased in the treatment groups (P<0.05) compared to the control. The pH of the rumen fluid and the length of submucosa were (P<0.05) higher in Buf4 and Buf1, respectively, compared to the control. Hot and cold carcass weights were (P<0.05) higher in Buf4 compared to Buf1. Lean meat percentage and rib eye area were (P<0.05) higher in Buf4; while the fat percentage was (P<0.05) lower in Buf2 and Buf4 groups compared to the control. The lightness and yellowness of meat were (P<0.05) higher in Buf1 and Buf4 compared to the control. The meat pH was (P<0.05) higher in Buf3 and Buf4 compared to Buf2 (at 1 h) and control (at 24 h). The visceral depot fat (%) was reduced with Buf3 and Buf4 compared to the control. The results indicated that dietary supplementation of different buffering agents improved feed efficiency, rumen pH, carcass characteristics and decreased the body fat in growing Awassi lambs.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Carne Vermelha/normas , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Tampões (Química) , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia
14.
J Sports Sci ; 37(13): 1464-1471, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668281

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of two separate doses of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on 4 km time trial (TT) cycling performance and post-exercise acid base balance recovery in hypoxia. Fourteen club-level cyclists completed four cycling TT's, followed by a 40 min passive recovery in normobaric hypoxic conditions (FiO2 = 14.5%) following one of either: two doses of NaHCO3 (0.2 g.kg-1 BM; SBC2, or 0.3 g.kg-1 BM; SBC3), a taste-matched placebo (0.07 g.kg-1 BM sodium chloride; PLA), or a control trial in a double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures and crossover design study. Compared to PLA, TT performance was improved following SBC2 (p = 0.04, g = 0.16, very likely beneficial), but was improved to a greater extent following SBC3 (p = 0.01, g = 0.24, very likely beneficial). Furthermore, a likely benefit of ingesting SBC3 over SBC2 was observed (p = 0.13, g = 0.10), although there was a large inter-individual variation. Both SBC treatments achieved full recovery within 40 min, which was not observed in either PLA or CON following the TT. In conclusion, NaHCO3 improves 4 km TT performance and acid base balance recovery in acute moderate hypoxic conditions, however the optimal dose warrants an individual approach.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Ácido-Base/efeitos dos fármacos , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hipóxia , Masculino , Oxigênio/sangue , Percepção , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/efeitos adversos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/sangue , Esforço Físico , Bicarbonato de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/sangue , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 40(2): 137-142, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670313

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Primary atrophic rhinitis (PAR) is a well-known old disease characterized by a roomy nose and extensive crustations. This study was designed to investigate the effect of topical Mitomycin-C as an adjunct to medical treatment with respect to objective and subjective improvement in patients treated with PAR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in January 2016 and March 2018. Fifty adult patients aged 18 to 45 with PAR were randomly divided into 2 groups. STUDY GROUP: treatment with Mitomycin-C dissolved in an alkaline wash plus rifampicin and control group: only treated with rifampicin and alkaline nasal wash. Subjective scores for the following symptoms: After 12 weeks of treatment, foul smell, anosmia, crusting, epistaxis, and nasal blockade, an objective score of crusting, the status of nasal mucosa, nature of the secretions and condition of nasal cavity were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The degree of crustations (P < 0.0001) and the severity of epistaxis (P < 0.0001) were significantly improved in patients treated with Mitomycin-C dissolved in an alkaline wash (i.e. the study group), and the secretions returned significantly to normal (P < 0.0001). Both groups had significant improvements in both subjective and objective parameters of the assessment. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with primary atrophic rhinitis, the use of Mitomycin-C dissolved in an alkaline nasal wash as an adjunct to oral rifampicin can produce a beneficial result than rifampicin and alkaline nasal wash alone.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Mitomicina/administração & dosagem , Líquido da Lavagem Nasal , Rinite Atrófica/terapia , Rifampina/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Administração Tópica , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Combinada , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 25(8): 1860-1866, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636529

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Urinary alkalinization with intravenous sodium bicarbonate is standard during high-dose methotrexate administration. Due to a national intravenous sodium bicarbonate shortage, a urinary alkalinization protocol involving hyperhydration with intravenous fluids, oral bicarbonate, and intravenous or oral acetazolamide was utilized from 10 April to 30 May 2017 ("shortage protocol"). This study compared outcomes between protocols. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective chart review was conducted for adults who received methotrexate ≥500 mg/m2 on ≥ two occasions, at least once during each protocol, between 19 February and 19 July 2017. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (50% male), median age 65 years, received 76 total high-dose methotrexate cycles. Shortage protocol was used in 37 cycles (48.7%). Mean time to methotrexate clearance did not differ between groups (p = ns). Mean time to urinary alkalinization and duration of hospitalization were not statistically different (p = 0.49 and 0.23, respectively). Average total bicarbonate administered per 24 hours was higher in standard protocol (p < 0.05), but hydration rates were similar (p = 0.73). Creatinine clearance and urine output on days 1 and 2 post-high-dose methotrexate did not significantly differ (creatinine clearance day 1, p = 0.27; creatinine clearance day 2, p = 0.55; urine output day 1, p = 0.62; urine output day 2, p = 0.60). Interruptions in alkalinization were significantly higher during shortage (0.41 ± 0.75 instances of urine pH < 7 during standard vs. 1.3 ± 1.7 under shortage, p < 0.05).


Assuntos
Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 276(2): 447-457, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536161

RESUMO

PURPOSES: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a mineral-rich solution vs normal saline solution (0.9% NaCl) following endoscopic complete bilateral ethmoidectomy. METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label trial in subjects suffering from steroid-resistant sinonasal polyposis. Adults performed 4 nasal irrigations of mineral or saline solutions daily for 28 days. Evaluations included subject-reported RHINO quality of life (QoL) and NOSE scores, tolerability, and satisfaction, the Lund-Kennedy endoscopic score and assessments of crusting, secretions and mucociliary clearance (rhinoscintigraphy). RESULTS: A total of 189 subjects were randomized. Clinically relevant improvements (> 20 points) in RhinoQOL and NOSE scores were measured in both groups without any significant inter-group difference. Among the subjects with impaired RhinoQOL at pre-inclusion, the change in Impact-RhinoQOL score was significantly superior in mineral-rich vs saline solution at day 21 (p = 0.028) and day 28 (p = 0.027). The Lund-Kennedy score continuously improved in both groups earlier with the mineral-rich solution. Crusts were significantly fewer in number and less severe/obstructive in patients receiving mineral-rich vs saline solution at day 7 (p = 0.026) and day 14 (p = 0.016). Furthermore, secretions disappeared significantly more quickly and were less thick/purulent with mineral-rich solution at day 14 (p = 0.002) and day 21 (p = 0.043). Less epistaxis was reported in the mineral vs saline solution (p = 0.008 at day 21). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the composition of a nasal irrigation solution influences endoscopic scores and QoL after sinus surgery for patients over 60, those with an initially poor QoL and higher symptom score, and smokers.


Assuntos
Cloretos/administração & dosagem , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Solução Salina/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos , Administração Intranasal , Endoscopia , Seio Etmoidal/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pólipos Nasais/prevenção & controle , Pólipos Nasais/cirurgia , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Rinite/prevenção & controle , Sinusite/prevenção & controle
18.
J Sports Sci ; 37(7): 762-771, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319077

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the acute and chronic effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on Wingate performance. Following a search through PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science, 9 studies were found meeting inclusion criteria (6 acute and 3 chronic). Random-effects meta-analysis of standardized mean difference (SMD) for peak and mean power was performed. Study quality was assessed using the QualSyst. Results of the meta-analysis showed that acute ingestion of NaHCO3 did not improve Wingate test peak (weighted average effect size Hedges's g = 0.02, 95%CI: - 0.19 to 0.23, P = 0.87) or mean power (weighted average effect size Hedges's g = 0.15, 95%CI: -0.06 to 0.36, P = 0.92). However, chronic ingestion of NaHCO3 improved Wingate test peak (weighted average effect size Hedges's g = 1.21, 95%CI: 0.83 to 1.42, P = 0.001) and mean power (weighted average effect size Hedges's g = 1.26, 95%CI: 0.96 to 1.56, P = 0.001). Quality assessment of selected articles was classified as strong. This meta-analysis provides evidence that chronic, but not acute, ingestion of NaHCO3 increases both Wingate test peak and mean power.


Assuntos
Acidose/prevenção & controle , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Esquema de Medicação , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/sangue
19.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 41(5): 371-375, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475303

RESUMO

A nationwide shortage of intravenous (IV) sodium bicarbonate required institutions to explore alternative options for urinary alkalinization for high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). Children's Hospital Colorado implemented a protocol utilizing oral alkalinizing agents as alternatives to intravenous sodium bicarbonate during the shortage. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of oral alkalinization strategies for HDMTX administration. This retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric institution and evaluated cycles of HDMTX administered with at least one dose of oral sodium bicarbonate tablets or sodium citrate-citric acid oral solution. The time to achieve urine pH of ≥7 was 3.48 hours from the start of alkalinization. A median dose of 66.4 mEq/m/day of oral sodium bicarbonate was administered to maintain a urine pH of ≥7 until methotrexate was cleared. Gastrointestinal side effects occurred with 43% of HDMTX cycles and patients switched to IV sodium acetate in 25.5% of HDMTX cycles, primarily due to inadequate alkalinization or intolerance. During a shortage of IV sodium bicarbonate, oral alkalinization is an effective strategy for most patients to allow for administration of HDMTX.


Assuntos
Antiácidos/uso terapêutico , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/provisão & distribução , Urina/química , Administração Intravenosa , Antiácidos/administração & dosagem , Antiácidos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acetato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem
20.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 25(7): 1675-1681, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30360674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-dose methotrexate is used to treat a variety of malignancies. Methotrexate-associated supportive care and the threshold methotrexate level for the discontinuation of supportive care are not consistent among studies. We evaluated the implementation of high-dose methotrexate administration guidelines, which raised the standard threshold methotrexate level for the discontinuation of supportive care from <0.05 to <0.1 µmol. METHODS: A single-center, observational analysis of patients receiving high-dose methotrexate from 1 January 2015 to 31 May 2017 was conducted. The primary endpoint was time from the start of the methotrexate infusion until the discontinuation of the sodium bicarbonate infusion, before and after guideline implementation. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients met the inclusion criteria, which comprised of a total of 136 individual methotrexate doses and were included in the retrospective analysis. Twenty-four patients were included in the prospective analysis, which comprised a total of 46 individual methotrexate doses. The primary endpoint, time until discontinuation of the sodium bicarbonate infusion, was a median of 97.7 h in the retrospective group versus 73.2 h in the prospective group (p = 0.098). Secondary endpoints also favored patients in the prospective group, including hours of hospitalization, number of methotrexate levels checked, weight gained during admission, and adherence to the guideline. CONCLUSION: Among patients who received high-dose methotrexate, implementation of a guideline using a methotrexate threshold of <0.1 µmol was able to significantly decrease the time to discontinuation of supportive care and subsequently may lead to early hospital discharge given that we did not show a statistical significance.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Alta do Paciente/normas , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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