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1.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 44, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ergogenic properties of acute caffeine (CAF) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on athletic performance have been previously investigated. However, each sport has unique physiological and technical characteristics which warrants optimizing supplementations strategies for maximizing performance. This study examined the effects of CAF and NaHCO3 ingestion on physiological responses and rate of perceived exertion during a Karate-specific aerobic test (KSAT) in competitive karatekas. METHODS: In a double-blind, crossover, randomized placebo-controlled trial, eight Karatekas underwent five experimental conditions including control (CON), placebo (PLA), CAF, NaHCO3, and CAF + NaHCO3 before completing KSAT. Capsules containing 6 mg/kg BW CAF were consumed 50 min prior to a KSAT whilst 0.3 g/kg BW NaHCO3 was consumed for 3 days leading to and 120, 90, and 60 min prior to a KSAT. Time to exhaustion (TTE), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate (BL) were measured before, immediately after and 3 min following KSAT. RESULTS: TTE was significantly greater following CAF, NaHCO3, and CAF + NaHCO3 consumption compared to PLA and CON. However, the differences between CAF, NaHCO3, and CAF + NaHCO3 were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). BL increased significantly from baseline to immediately after and 3 min following KSAT in all conditions (p < 0.01), while RPE at the end of KSAT was not significantly different between conditions (p = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: Karate practitioners may benefit from the ergogenic effects of CAF and NaHCO3 when consumed separately or together.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Adolescente , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Hypertension ; 74(5): 1104-1112, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522618

RESUMO

Sodium bicarbonate has long been used to treat chronic kidney disease. It has been demonstrated to slow the decline in glomerular filtration rate in chronic kidney disease patient; however, the mechanisms are not completely understood. We hypothesized that NaHCO3 dilates afferent arterioles (Af-Art) by stimulating nitric oxide (NO) release mediated by the Na+/HCO3- cotransporter (NBC) contributing to the elevation in glomerular filtration rate. Isolated microperfused mouse renal Af-Art, preconstricted with norepinephrine (1 µmol/L), dilated 45±2% (n=6, P<0.05) in response to NaHCO3 (44 mmol/L). Whereas, NaCl solution containing the same Na+ concentration was not effective. The mRNA for NBCn1 and NBCe1 were detected in microdissected Af-Art using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The Af-Art intracellular pH measured with 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6) carboxyfluorescein, acetoxymethyl ester increased significantly by 0.29±0.02 (n=6; P<0.05) in the presence of NaHCO3, which was blunted by N-cyanosulphonamide compound (S0859) that is an inhibitor of the NBC family. After clamping the intracellular pH with 10 µM nigericin, changing the bath solution pH from 7.4 to 7.8 still dilates the Af-Art by 53±4% (n=7; P<0.005) and increases NO generation by 22±3% (n=7; P<0.005). Both pH-induced NO generation and vasodilation were blocked by L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester. NaHCO3 increased NO generation in Af-Art by 19±4% (n=5; P<0.005) and elevated glomerular filtration rate in conscious mice by 36% (233 versus 318 ul/min; n=9-10; P<0.0001). S0859 and L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester blocked NaHCO3-induced increases in NO generation and vasodilation. We conclude that NBCn1 and NBCe1 are expressed in Af-Art and that NaHCO3 dilates Af-Art via NBCs mediated by NO that increases the glomerular filtration rate.


Assuntos
Arteríolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glomérulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Simportadores de Sódio-Bicarbonato/metabolismo , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Arteríolas/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Perfusão/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Simportadores de Sódio-Bicarbonato/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Vasodilatação/fisiologia
3.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 142: 84-93, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277045

RESUMO

S-nitrosylation, regulated by S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), is considered as an important route for nitric oxide (NO)-modulated stress tolerance in plants. However, genetic evidence for the GSNOR-mediated integrated regulation of S-nitrosylation and plant stress response remains elusive until now. In the present study, we used a site-specific nitrosoproteomic approach to identify 334 endogenously S-nitrosylated proteins with 425 S-nitrosylated sites from the wild type (WT) and GSNOR-knockdown (G) tomato plants under both control (C) and sodic alkaline stress (S) conditions. In detail, the results revealed 68, 92, 54 and 56 up-regulated, as well as 10, 36, 14 and 10 down-regulated S-nitrosylated proteins in G-C/WT-C, G-S/WT-S, WT-S/WT-C, and G-S/G-C, which is the first dataset for S-nitrosylated proteins in Solanaceae. These S-nitrosylated proteins are involved in a wide range of various metabolic, cellular and catalytic processes. Based on this data, proteins involving in NO homeostasis control, signaling of Ca2+, ethylene and MAPK, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, osmotic regulation, as well as energy support pathway have been identified and selected as the key and sensitive targets that were regulated by GSNOR-modulated S-nitrosylation in response to sodic alkaline stress. Taken together, GSNOR is actively involved in the regulation of sodic alkaline stress tolerance by S-nitrosylation. And the present study provided valuable resources and new clues for the study of S-nitrosylation-regulated metabolism in tomato plants.


Assuntos
Aldeído Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Aldeído Oxirredutases/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteômica/métodos , Interferência de RNA , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(3): 1103-1105, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278726

RESUMO

Invasive fungal infections caused by Candida albicans constitute a prevalent worldwide health problem. Due to limited antifungal agents available, more efforts have been made towards searching the novel anti-candida drugs with low cytotoxicity. The present study was aimed to investigate the antifungal activities of baicalin and/or sodium bicarbonate (SB) against 29 C. albicans isolates including 27 clinical ones. By using broth microdilution method and checkerboard assay, it was observed that the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of baicalin and SB alone were > 2048 µg/mL, and those of baicalin and SB in combination decreased 16-32 folds with fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) in a range of 0.094-0.375. The results presented the strong synergism between SB and baicalin in 27 clinical C. albicans isolates and provided an alternative choice against C. albicans.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/microbiologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos
5.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1784-1790, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218686

RESUMO

Freezing and thawing occur during storage, transportation, and retail display, leading to deterioration of frozen shrimp. The objective of this research was to investigate the change in quality of frozen white shrimp treated by lysine and NaHCO3 after multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Shrimp were soaked in lysine and lysine/NaHCO3 each at 1% (w/v) frozen in an air-blast freezer at -30 °C, and kept in a chest freezer (-18 ± 2 °C) for a week before they were thawed using tap water before the analysis (freeze-thaw cycle 1). The samples were subjected to five freeze-thaw cycles, which were repeated every week. Qualities of the samples were determined for thawing loss, cutting force, and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), as well as oxidation stability by using Rancimat. The use of lysine/NaHCO3 could significantly reduce thawing loss at all freeze-thaw cycles compared to the control and lysine treatment (P < 0.05). Similar results were found with TVB-N and the oxidation stability of the samples. A difference in cutting forces of the shrimp between lysine and lysine/NaHCO3 treatment was found when the frequency of freeze-thawing was increased to three cycles; it was lower than that in the control at all cycles. Histological study showed that the treatment with lysine/NaHCO3 led to the swelling of muscle fibers and fewer fragments at five freeze-thaw cycles. The results showed that lysine/NaHCO3 could effectively retard the quality loss from repeated freeze-thawing during frozen storage. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Repeated freezing and thawing usually occur during storage, transportation, retail display or in restaurants, and in consumers' kitchens. The temperature at the manufacturing site and during transportation in a tropical country like Thailand is relatively high, and frozen food producers come across quality deterioration resulting from multiple freeze-thaw cycles occurring during transportation and storage. Frozen shrimp producers require research to improve product quality by adding nonphosphate food additives or, if possible, by using natural food ingredients instead of polyphosphate or sodium bicarbonate.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Lisina/farmacologia , Penaeidae/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Animais , Congelamento , Alimentos Congelados/análise , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Qualidade , Tailândia
6.
J Sports Sci Med ; 18(2): 271-281, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191097

RESUMO

According to recent literature sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been proposed as a performance enhancing aid by reducing acidosis during exercise. The aim of the current review is to investigate if the duration of exercise is an essential factor for the effect of NaHCO3. To collect the latest studies from electronic database of PubMed, study publication time was restricted from December 2006 to December 2016. The search was updated in July 2018. The studies were divided into exercise durations of > 4 or ≤ 4 minutes for easier comparability of their effects in different exercises. Only randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Of the 775 studies, 35 met the inclusion criteria. Study design, subjects, effects as well as outcome criteria were inconsistent throughout the studies. Seventeen of these studies reported performance enhancing effects after supplementing NaHCO3. Eleven of twenty studies with exercise duration of ≤ 4 minutes showed positive and four diverse results after supplementing NaHCO3. On the other hand six of fifteen studies with an exercise duration of >4 minutes showed performance enhancing and two studies showed diverse results. Consequently, the duration of exercise might be influential for inducing a performance enhancing effect when supplementing NaHCO3, but to which extent, remains unclear due to the inconsistencies in the study results.


Assuntos
Acidose/prevenção & controle , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Atletas , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(8): 962-972, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at investigating the isolated effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on repeated sprint ability (RSA). METHODS: Following a search through PubMed and Scopus, 13 studies (7 with caffeine and 6 with NaHCO3) were found to meet inclusion criteria. Random-effects of standardized mean difference (SMD) for total work and best sprint performance was examined. Study quality was assessed using QualSyst. RESULTS: The meta-analysis indicated that caffeine ingestion did not improve the total work done (weighted average effect size Hedges's g = -0.01, 95%CI: -0.32 to 0.31, p = 0.97), best sprint (weighted average effect size Hedges's g = -0.02, 95% CI: -0.32 to 0.27; p = 0.87) or last sprint performance (weighed average effect size Hedge's g = -0.27, 95%CI: -0.68 to 0.14; p = 0.20), when compared with a placebo condition. Similarly, NaHCO3 ingestion did not improve the total work done (weighted average effect size Hedges's g = 0.43, 95% CI: -0.11 to 0.97, p = 0.12), best sprint (weighted average effect size Hedges's g = 0.02, 95% CI -0.30 to 0.34; p = 0.90) or last sprint performance (weighted average effect size Hedge's g = 0.20, 95%CI: -0.13 to 0.52, p = 0.14), compared with a placebo condition. Quality assessment of selected articles was classified as strong. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis provides evidence that repeated sprint ability is not affected by acute ingestion of caffeine or NaHCO3.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem
8.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 44(2): 188-199, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and metabolic acidosis might accelerate vascular calcification. The T50 calcification inhibition test (T50-test) is a global functional test analyzing the overall propensity of calcification in serum, and low T50-time is associated with progressive aortic stiffening and with all-cause mortality in non-dialysis CKD, dialysis, and transplant patients. Low serum bicarbonate is associated with a short T50-time and alkali supplementation could be a simple modifier of calcification propensity. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation on T50-time in CKD patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The SoBic-study is an ongoing randomized-controlled trial in CKD-G3 and G4 patients with chronic metabolic acidosis (serum HCO3- ≤21 mmol/L), in which patients are randomized to either achieve serum HCO3- levels of 24 ± 1 mmol/L (intervention group) or 20 ± 1 mmol/L (rescue group). The effect of bicarbonate treatment on T50-time was assessed. RESULTS: The study cohort consisted of 35 (14 female) patients aged 57 (±15) years, and 18 were randomized to the intervention group. The mean T50-time was 275 (± 64) min. After 4 weeks, the mean change of T50-time was 4 (±69) min in the intervention group and 18 min (±56) in the rescue group (ß = -25; 95% CI: -71 to 22; p = 0.298). Moreover, change of serum bicarbonate in individual patients was not associated with change in T50-time, analyzed by regression analysis. Change of serum phosphate had a significant impact on change of T50-time (ß = -145; 95% CI: -237 to -52). CONCLUSION: Oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation showed no effect on T50-time in acidotic CKD patients.


Assuntos
Acidose/tratamento farmacológico , Calcinose/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Calcinose/sangue , Calcinose/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Rigidez Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 138: 58-64, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852238

RESUMO

Alkali (high-pH) stress is an important factor limiting agricultural production and has complex effects on plant metabolism. Transcriptomics is widely used in the discovery of stress-response genes, but it provides only a rough estimation for gene expression. Proteomics may be more helpful than transcriptomics for the discovery and identification of stress-response genes. In this study, wheat plants were treated with sodic alkaline stress (50 mM, NaHCO3: Na2CO3 = 1:1; pH 9.7), and then proteomic analysis was carried out on control and stressed plants. We detected 3,104 proteins, including 69 alkaline stress-response proteins. Five superoxide dismutases, three malate dehydrogenases, three dehydrin proteins, and one V-ATPase protein were upregulated in sodic alkaline-stressed wheat roots. We propose that these salinity response proteins may be important for ion homeostasis and osmotic regulation of sodic alkaline-stressed wheat. Additionally, two malic enzymes and many enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) were downregulated in the roots. The upregulation of malate dehydrogenase and the downregulation of TCA enzymes and malic enzymes may enhance the accumulation of malate in sodic alkaline-stressed wheat roots. Previous studies have demonstrated that the accumulation of malate in roots is a crucial adaptive mechanism of wheat to sodic alkaline stress. Herein, our proteomics results provided molecular insights into this adaptive mechanism.


Assuntos
Carbonatos/farmacologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Osmorregulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Triticum/metabolismo , Álcalis/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Triticum/genética
10.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 38(1-2): 149-155, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806853

RESUMO

The extracellular pH of solid tumors is unequivocally acidic due to a combination of high rates of lactic acid production (a consequence of fermentative glycolytic metabolism) and poor perfusion. This has been documented by us and others in a wide variety of solid tumor models, primarily using magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). This acidity contributes to tumor progression by inducing genome instability, promoting local invasion and metastases, inhibiting anti-tumor immunity, and conferring resistance to chemo- and radio-therapies. Systemic buffer therapies can neutralize tumor acidity and has been shown to inhibit local invasion and metastasis and improve immune surveillance in a variety of cancer model systems. This review will revisit the causes and consequences of acidosis by summarizing strategies used by cancer cells to adapt to acidosis, and how this acidity associated with carcinogenesis, metastasis, and immune function. Finally, this review will discuss how neutralization of acidity can be used to inhibit carcinogenesis and metastasis and improve anti-cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Acidose/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Acidose/tratamento farmacológico , Acidose/imunologia , Animais , Tampões (Química) , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia
11.
Vet Rec ; 184(5): 155, 2019 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661018

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine if buffering mepivacaine HCL (mepHCl) with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) would significantly decrease the time to onset of analgesia when performing median and ulnar nerve blocks in naturally lame horses. Median and ulnar nerve blocks were performed on the naturally lame limb of nine horses during two separate study periods, with a minimum washout period of three days between study periods. Nerve blocks were performed by administering mepHCl alone or mepHCl mixed with NaHCO3 (nine parts 2 per cent mepHCl to one part 8.4 per cent NaHCO3). Lameness was evaluated objectively using a wireless, inertial, sensor-based, motion analysis system (Lameness Locator) prior to the high regional nerve block and every five minutes following administration of the nerve block for 75 min. Resolution of lameness occurred earlier and was more profound for horses administered median and ulnar nerve blocks performed with mepHCl and NaHCO3 than when these nerve blocks were performed using only mepHCl.


Assuntos
Analgesia/veterinária , Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Coxeadura Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Mepivacaína/farmacologia , Bloqueio Nervoso/veterinária , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Analgesia/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Cavalos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Prosthet Dent ; 121(1): 83-89, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017164

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Clinical evidence on the best chemical protocol for the disinfection and removal of biofilm from complete dentures is lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this crossover randomized clinical trial was to assess the effectiveness of various chemical hygiene clinical protocols in reducing the microbial viability of biofilm formed on complete dentures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this triple-blind (participants, dentist, and outcome evaluator) study, complete denture wearers without candidiasis were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=40) according to the chemical hygiene protocol: water (placebo), 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution, 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate solution, and 5% sodium bicarbonate solution. The biofilm formed on the palate intaglio and denture teeth was collected and assessed in each experimental phase for quantitative microbial viability at the seventh and 14th day after using the chemical protocol. RESULTS: Two participants were lost. Data were analyzed by MANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. Soaking dentures was not effective in decreasing Candida albicans, C. non-albicans, and lactobacillus counts. The use of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine decreased total microorganisms and Streptococcus mutans counts for both palate and teeth compared with water and sodium bicarbonate. The intaglio of the dentures always presented higher microbial counts than did the denture teeth. CONCLUSIONS: The use of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine and mechanical cleansing with a toothbrush decreased microbial viability in healthy complete denture wearers.


Assuntos
Prótese Total , Desinfecção/métodos , Desinfecção/normas , Higiene/normas , Idoso , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Prótese Total/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Escovação Dentária
13.
Amino Acids ; 51(1): 83-96, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182286

RESUMO

The effects of ß-alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) on energy metabolism during work-matched high-intensity exercise and cycling time-trial performance were examined in 71 male cyclists. They were randomised to receive BA + placebo (BA, n = 18), placebo + SB (SB, n = 17), BA + SB (BASB, n = 19), or placebo + placebo (PLA, n = 18). BA was supplemented for 28 days (6.4 g day-1) and SB (0.3 g kg-1) ingested 60 min before exercise on the post-supplementation trial. Dextrose and calcium carbonate were placebos for BA and SB, respectively. Before (PRE) and after (POST) supplementation, participants performed a high-intensity intermittent cycling test (HICT-110%) consisting of four 60-s bouts at 110% of their maximal power output (60-s rest between bouts). The estimated contribution of the energy systems was calculated for each bout in 39 of the participants (BA: n = 9; SB: n = 10; BASB: n = 10, PLA: n = 10). Ten minutes after HICT-110%, cycling performance was determined in a 30-kJ time-trial test in all participants. Both groups receiving SB increased estimated glycolytic contribution in the overall HICT-110%, which approached significance (SB: + 23%, p = 0.068 vs. PRE; BASB: + 18%, p = 0.059 vs. PRE). No effects of supplementation were observed for the estimated oxidative and ATP-PCr systems. Time to complete 30 kJ was not significantly changed by any of the treatments, although a trend toward significance was shown in the BASB group (p = 0.06). We conclude that SB, but not BA, increases the estimated glycolytic contribution to high-intensity intermittent exercise when total work done is controlled and that BA and SB, either alone or in combination, do not improve short-duration cycling time-trial performance.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , beta-Alanina/farmacologia , Adulto , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , beta-Alanina/administração & dosagem
14.
Indian J Dent Res ; 29(5): 672-677, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409952

RESUMO

Denture stomatitis, periodontitis, and peri-implantitis are the growing problems in restorative dentistry. Chemicals play an important role as an adjuvant to mechanical cleaning of teeth, implants, surrounding tissues, and prostheses. Current mouth rinses are reported to affect the tissues and prostheses if used on a long-term basis. Sodium bicarbonate, the common baking soda, has been reported to be versatile. A search of the resources through Medline and Google Scholar was made to understand the current status of the mouth rinses and the use of sodium bicarbonate. Different MeSH and search criteria were used for the different search engines. Baking soda, being a common household item, with its ready availability, safety, minimal abrasivity, and bactericidal property makes it a patient-friendly mouthwash, component in the dentifrice, or chewing gum, which can be used on a long-term basis as an adjunct virtually free of any side effects.


Assuntos
Antissépticos Bucais , Bicarbonato de Sódio , Antibacterianos , Goma de Mascar , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Dentifrícios , Higienizadores de Dentadura , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais/efeitos adversos , Higiene Bucal , Peri-Implantite/prevenção & controle , Segurança , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Estomatite/prevenção & controle , Estomatite sob Prótese/prevenção & controle , Abrasão Dentária/induzido quimicamente , Abrasão Dentária/prevenção & controle , Clareadores Dentários
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(11): 9777-9788, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172393

RESUMO

With the objective of evaluating the potential effects of sodium bicarbonate or a magnesium-based product on rumen pH and milk performance of dairy cattle exposed to a dietary challenge, 30 lactating Holstein cows (648 ± 67 kg of body weight; 44.4 ± 9.9 kg/d of milk yield; 155 ± 75 d in milk) were blocked by parity (9 primiparous and 21 multiparous) and randomly distributed to 3 treatment groups. One group received a total mixed ration (TMR) that acted as a control (CTR), a second group (SB) received the same TMR but with an additional supplementation of 0.8% of sodium bicarbonate, and a third group (MG) received the same TMR as CTR but an additional supplementation of 0.4% of a magnesium-based product (pHix-Up, Timab, Dinard, France). After 1 wk of exposure to this TMR, all 3 rations were supplemented with 1 kg/d of barley, which was then increased 1 kg/wk until reaching 3 kg/d of barley during wk 4 of the study. Every kilogram of barley replaced 1 kg of forage in the diet. Individual feed intake and behavior were monitored using electronic feed bins. Seven cows per treatment were equipped with an intraruminal bolus that recorded pH every 15 min. As the severity of the barley challenge increased, dry matter intake decreased, but this decrease was more pronounced in SB cows than in MG cows, with an intermediate response for CTR cows. The MG cows produced more milk when challenged with 2 or 3 kg/d of additional barley than when challenged with 1 kg/d, whereas CTR cows produced less milk with the 3 kg/d challenge compared with 1 or 2 kg/d, and the SB cows maintained milk production. Milk fat content decreased with barley challenges, with CTR cows experiencing a more severe decrease than SB cows, which maintained stable butterfat values throughout the study, and MG cows showed a decline in milk fat content only with the 3 kg/d of additional barley. Meal size was also reduced as the severity of barley challenge increased, and this reduction was more modest in MG cows than in SB cows. The number of daily meals consumed by SB and MG cows was more constant than that recorded in CTR cows. Cows on the CTR and SB treatments showed a marked decrease in rumen pH with the 3 kg/d of additional barley, whereas MG cows maintained stable rumen pH during the barley challenges and had greater average rumen pH (5.93 ± 0.04) than CTR cows (5.83 ± 0.04) with the 3 kg/d of additional barley; SB cows showed intermediate values (5.85 ± 0.04). Last, MG cows spent less time (32.3 ± 6.1%) with rumen pH ≤5.8 when exposed to the 3 kg/d of barley challenge than CTR and SB cows (50.7 ± 5.02%). In conclusion, supplementation with MG prevents the decline in dry matter intake and milk production induced by a rumen challenge, whereas supplementation with SB prevents the decay in milk production but does not prevent the decrease in feed intake. These changes were probably due to the ability of the MG treatment to prevent a reduction in rumen pH when challenging cows with 3 kg/d of additional barley in the ration.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Óxido de Magnésio/farmacologia , Leite/metabolismo , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Hordeum , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação , Paridade , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Biocontrol Sci ; 23(3): 85-96, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249967

RESUMO

Studies have reported that cell density, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and redox reactions, can induce bioluminescence in bacteria. Conversely, the relationship between seawater components and luminescence is not well understood. The efficacy of marine luminous bacteria as biosensors, and their reactivity to fungicides (for example postharvest pesticides) are also unknown. Therefore, we studied the relationship between the luminescence of Aliivibrio fischeri and the composition of artificial seawater media and analyzed the toxicity of fungicides using A. fischeri grown only with the elements essential to induce luminescence. Luminescence was activated in the presence of KCl, NaHCO3, and MgSO4. In addition, we cultivated A. fischeri with other compounds, including K+, HCO3-, and SO42- ions. These results suggested that A. fischeri requires K+, HCO3-, and SO42- ions to activate cell density-independent luminescence. Additionally, A. fischeri cultured in 2.81% NaCl solutions containing KCl, NaHCO3, and MgSO4 exhibited a decrease in luminescence in the presence of sodium orthophenylphenol at >10 ppm. This result suggests that A. fischeri can be used as a biosensor to detect the presence of sodium ortho-phenylphenol.


Assuntos
Aliivibrio fischeri/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Compostos de Bifenilo/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Medições Luminescentes/normas , Água do Mar/química , Aliivibrio fischeri/efeitos dos fármacos , Aliivibrio fischeri/fisiologia , Organismos Aquáticos , Carga Bacteriana , Imidazóis/análise , Luminescência , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Sulfato de Magnésio/química , Sulfato de Magnésio/farmacologia , Cloreto de Potássio/química , Cloreto de Potássio/farmacologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Bicarbonato de Sódio/química , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 190(10): 608, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255210

RESUMO

This quantitative and qualitative study aimed to evaluate the level of fungal contamination in computer keyboards from an Integrated Health Center (IHC) at Piauí, Brazil, and to evaluate the efficacy of 50% sodium bicarbonate and 50% alcoholic vinegar solutions to eliminate these microorganisms. Ten keyboards from six sectors of the IHC were chosen randomly, and the collection was performed in three situations: (i) before of disinfection, (ii) after disinfection with solution of sodium bicarbonate, and (iii) after disinfection with solution of alcoholic vinegar. Samples were inoculated in Petri dishes with dextrose agar potato plus chloramphenicol and incubated at room temperature for 72 h. All keyboards were contaminated with opportunistic fungi, with Cladosporium cladosporioides (29.4%) being the most frequent species, followed by Curvularia lunata (17.6%) and Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, and Curvularia clavata with 11.8% each. The two solutions were proven to be efficient in eliminating fungal contamination; however, the sodium bicarbonate solution caused esthetic damages in keyboards. In addition, this study is the first report of the antifungal activity of alcoholic vinegar in filamentous fungi. Based on our findings, we suggest a daily disinfection of keyboards with a 50% vinegar solution plus adequate hygiene from the hands of professionals before and after the use of the computer and its annexes, as key actions to reduce nosocomial infections, particularly in economically disadvantaged countries.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Alternaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Cladosporium/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Alternaria/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus niger/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Computadores , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
18.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 13(10): 1463-1470, 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We examined the effect of alkali replacement for metabolic acidosis on vascular endothelial function in patients with CKD. METHODS: We performed a pilot, prospective, open-label 14-week crossover study examining the effect of oral sodium bicarbonate treatment on vascular function in 20 patients with an eGFR of 15-44 ml/min per 1.73 m2 with low serum bicarbonate levels (16-21 mEq/L). Each period was 6 weeks in duration with a 2-week washout period in between. Patients were treated to goal serum bicarbonate of ≥23 mEq/L. The primary end point was change in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) between treatment and control conditions. Secondary end points included changes in markers of inflammation, bone turnover, mineral metabolism, and calcification. RESULTS: Eighteen patients completed the study and were included in the primary efficacy analysis. The mean (SD) age and eGFR were 59 (12) years and 26 (8) ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively. Serum bicarbonate increased significantly with sodium bicarbonate treatment (+2.7±2.9 mEq/L, P≤0.001), whereas there was no change in bicarbonate levels in the control group. FMD significantly improved after sodium bicarbonate therapy (mean±SD, FMD baseline: 4.1%±4.1%; 6 weeks: 5.2%±2.9%; P=0.04) There was no significant change in FMD in the control group (mean±SD, FMD baseline: 4.6%±3.1%; 6 weeks: 4.1%±3.4%; P=0.20). Compared with control, sodium bicarbonate treatment resulted in a significant increase in FMD (mean, 1.8%; 95% confidence interval, 0.3 to 3.3; P=0.02). There was no significant change in bone markers or serum calcification propensity with treatment. Serum phosphorus and intact fibroblast growth factor 23 increased significantly during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate significantly improved vascular endothelial function in patients with stages 3b and 4 CKD.


Assuntos
Acidose/tratamento farmacológico , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Acidose/etiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações
19.
Injury ; 49(10): 1763-1773, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dakin's solution (buffered sodium hypochlorite) has been used as a topical adjunct for the treatment of invasive fungal infections in trauma patients. Prudent use of Dakin's solution (DS) for complex musculoskeletal wound management implies balancing antimicrobial efficacy and human tissue toxicity, but little empirical evidence exists to inform clinical practice. To identify potentially efficacious DS concentrations and application methods, we conducted two animal studies to evaluate the ability of DS to reduce bacterial burden in small and large animal models of contaminated musculoskeletal wounds. METHODS: An established rat (Rattus norvegicus) contaminated femoral defect model was employed to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of DS as a topical adjunctive treatment for Staphylococcus aureus infection. A range of clinically-relevant DS concentrations (0.00025%-0.125%) were tested, both with and without periodic replenishment during treatment. Next, an established goat (Capra hircus) musculoskeletal wound model, consisting of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa contaminated proximal tibia cortical defect, muscle crush, and thermal injury, was utilized to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of dilute DS (0.0025% and 0.025%) as a surgical irrigant solution. In situ reactive chlorine concentrations were monitored throughout each treatment using an automated iodometric titration approach. RESULTS: In a rat wound model, DS treatment did not significantly reduce S. aureus bioburden after 14 days as compared to saline control. Two treatment groups (0.01% single application and 0.025% multiple application) exhibited significantly higher bacterial burden than control. In a goat musculoskeletal wound model, neither 0.0025% nor 0.025% DS significantly altered P. aeruginosa bioburden immediately following treatment or at 48 h post-treatment. Overall, DS applied to exposed soft tissue exhibited rapid degradation, e.g., 0.125% DS degraded 32% after 5 s progressing to 86% degradation after 15 min following single application. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe evidence of a therapeutic benefit following Dakin's solution treatment for any tested concentration or application method in two contaminated musculoskeletal wound models. Despite confirmation of robust bactericidal activity in vitro, our findings suggest DS at current clinically-used concentrations does not kill tissue surface-attached bacteria, nor does it necessarily cause host tissue toxicity that exacerbates infection in the setting of complex musculoskeletal injury.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia , Animais , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Combinação de Medicamentos , Cabras , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Cicatrização
20.
Nitric Oxide ; 79: 45-50, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063984

RESUMO

Macrophages are known to play pivotal roles in host-defense through inflammation via both innate and acquired immune systems, and so on. In an earlier paper, we showed the influence of the type of culture medium, Ham's F-12 or DMEM, on activated macrophage phenotypes induced by LPS and IFNγ. The production of nitric oxide (NO), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-1ß, as well as the induction of superoxide-generating activity of J774.1/JA-4 cells was different depending on the type of culture medium. In this present study, we showed that sodium bicarbonate concentrations in these culture media, 14 mM in Ham's F-12 and 44 mM in DMEM, were crucial to explaining the differences in the induction of activated macrophage phenotypes, especially in that of iNOS. A concentration-dependent change in pH did not result in any remarkable difference in iNOS expression or NO production. Moreover, high sodium bicarbonate in culture medium increased not only NO production but also TNFα production in the activated macrophages. These results suggest that sodium bicarbonate would be a regulatory factor of NO and TNFα production in macrophages and that its concentration has a crucial role in macrophage activation.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese
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