Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.647
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067438

RESUMO

Human biomonitoring (HBM) monitors levels of environmental pollutants in human samples, which often is a topic of concern for residents near industrially contaminated sites (ICSs). Around an ICS area in Menen (Belgium), including a (former) municipal waste incinerator and a metal recovery plant, increasing environmental concentrations of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were observed, causing growing concern among residents and authorities. The local community succeeded in convincing the responsible authorities to investigate the problem and offer research funding. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured in two consecutive HBM studies (2002-2006 and 2010-2011), in the context of the Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS), as well as in soil and locally produced food. Meanwhile, local authorities discouraged consumption of locally produced food in a delineated area of higher exposure risk. Ultimately, HBM and environmental data enabled tailored dietary recommendations. This article demonstrates the usefulness of HBM in documenting the body burdens of residents near the ICS, identifying exposure routes, evaluating remediating actions and providing information for tailored policy strategies aiding to further exposure reduction. It also highlights the role of the local stakeholders as an example of community-based participatory research and how such an approach can create societal support for research and policy.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Bélgica , Monitoramento Biológico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Políticas , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071295

RESUMO

Historically, chemicals exceeding maximum allowable exposure levels have been disastrous to underdeveloped countries. The global food industry is primarily affected by toxic chemical substances because of natural and anthropogenic factors. Food safety is therefore threatened due to contamination by chemicals throughout the various stages of food production. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the form of pesticides and other chemical substances such as Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) have a widely documented negative impact due to their long-lasting effect on the environment. This present review focuses on the chemical contamination pathways along the various stages of food production until the food reaches the consumer. The contamination of food can stem from various sources such as the agricultural sector and pollution from industrialized regions through the air, water, and soil. Therefore, it is imperative to control the application of chemicals during food packaging, the application of pesticides, and antibiotics in the food industry to prevent undesired residues on foodstuffs. Ultimately, the protection of consumers from food-related chemical toxicity depends on stringent efforts from regulatory authorities both in developed and underdeveloped nations.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Solo
3.
Ecotoxicology ; 30(6): 1116-1125, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089116

RESUMO

Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were used to assess the effectiveness of reducing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure to wildlife as a result of contaminated sediment removal at locations across the Great Lakes under two dredging scenarios, full or spot dredging. For comparative purposes, other locations where no dredging occurred were also assessed. Calculating accumulation rate, from the mass of a contaminant in tree swallow eggs and nestling carcasses, is a useful tool to assess the effectiveness of sediment removal. It has the advantage over more commonly used metrics such as cubic yards of sediment removed or kg of a contaminant removed, because it assesses a biotic endpoint that has more societal understanding. Egg and nestling concentrations of total PCBs and accumulation rate (µg of total PCBs accumulated per day) were compared pre- and post-dredge. At the most contaminated site, Waukegan Harbor, Illinois, the accumulation rate decreased by 95% because of dredging. At less contaminated locations in Wisconsin and Ohio, the accumulation rate was reduced by dredging as well, but not to such a large extent (~50%). Even at reference locations, there was a very small amount (0.01-0.06 µg/day) of PCBs accumulated each day because of the prevalence of this contaminant in the environment. The profile of individual PCB congeners also differed pre-and post-dredge and demonstrated significant changes as a result of dredging activities.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Andorinhas , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Illinois , Lagos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Árvores , Wisconsin
4.
Anal Chem ; 93(25): 8774-8782, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128636

RESUMO

Distributions of chlorine isotopologues are potentially a fingerprint feature of organochlorines. However, the exact distributions remain little known. This study measured compound-specific chlorine isotopologue distributions of six polychlorinated organic compounds (POCs) for source identification. Complete chlorine isotopologues of POCs were detected by gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. The measured relative abundances (Ameas), theoretical relative abundances (Atheo), and relative variations between Ameas and Atheo (ΔA) of chlorine isotopologues were determined. These ΔA values were applied to characterize differences in isotopologue distribution patterns, and the ΔA patterns directly illustrated the distribution characteristics. Perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) from two manufacturers were chosen as model analytes to develop and validate the analytical method, including precision, concentration dependency, and temporal drift. The ΔA values of isotopologues of the PCE and TCE chemicals were from -82.5 to 19.9‰ with standard deviations (SDs) of 0.3-16.9‰. In addition, the ΔA values of the first three isotopologues (with 0-2 37Cl atoms) were from -15.5 to 19.9‰ with SDs of 0.3-1.6‰, showing sufficient precisions. No concentration dependency and temporal drift of ΔA were observed. The method has been successfully applied to source identification for PCE and TCE in commercial chemicals and plastic materials, and four polychlorinated biphenyls in chemicals and sediments, demonstrating that the ΔA values and ΔA patterns were discernable for POCs from different sources. This study demonstrates that compound-specific chlorine isotopologue distributions of POCs are differentiable and measurable, proposing a novel approach to perform fingerprinting analysis for the distributions, which is anticipated to facilitate source identification for organochlorine pollutants.


Assuntos
Cloro , Bifenilos Policlorados , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Isótopos , Compostos Orgânicos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(12): 8159-8168, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061511

RESUMO

Whales accumulate high levels of environmental pollutants. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites (OH-PCBs) could be linked to abnormal behavior, which may lead to mass stranding of marine mammals. Whales may thus suffer from adverse effects such as neuronal dysfunction, yet testing the neurotoxicity of these compounds has never been feasible for these species. This study established neurons chemically reprogrammed from fibroblasts of mass stranded melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) and used them for in vitro neurotoxicity assays. Exposure to 4-hydroxy-2',3,5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (4'OH-CB72), a metabolite of PCBs, caused apoptosis in the reprogrammed neurons. Transcriptome analysis of 4'OH-CB72-treated whale neurons showed altered expressions of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation, chromatin degradation, axonal transport, and neurodegenerative diseases. These results suggest that 4'OH-CB72 exposure may induce neurodegeneration through disrupted apoptotic processes. A comparison of the results with human reprogrammed neurons revealed the specific effects on the whale neurons. Our noninvasive approach using fibroblast-derived neurons is useful for hazard and risk assessments of neurotoxicity in whales.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Neurônios , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Baleias
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 784: 147250, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088037

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants with former applications in electric transformers, capacitors, hydraulic fluids or joint sealants. While current internal exposure to PCBs can be readily assessed by human biomonitoring, the evaluation of longgone past exposures, in particular the estimation of past exposure to lower chlorinated non-dioxin-like PCB 28, 52 or 101 is limited due to the relatively short biological half-life of these PCB-congeners. This study was aimed to find a proxy that would allow an estimation of the former plasma level for these congeners even several years after exposure cessation. We used biomonitoring data of the German HELPcB cohort with six consecutive follow-up investigations and identified the congeners PCB 66, 74 and 99 as suitable proxies for the congeners of interest. The biological half-lives of the proxies as well as their individual correlation with the plasma levels of PCB 28, 52 and 101 was considered in the calculation models. The correlation coefficients and the inter correlation coefficient 3 (ICC3) between measured and calculated initial values were applied for validation. For external validation purposes we used longitudinal biomonitoring data from two different cohorts with indoor exposure to lower chlorinated PCBs. The backward estimation from current PCB 74 levels to former PCB 28 levels led to an ICC3 of 0.682 and a correlation of rho = 0.724 within the HELPcB cohort. The external validation revealed an ICC3 of 0.723 and a correlation of rho = 0.654. The external validation for PCB 101 was feasible, but measures were not comparably good (ICC3 = 0.460; Rho = 0.516). External validation for PCB 52 was not successful, maybe due to the lower level of burden. Our model shows that a rough estimation of former plasma levels of lower chlorinated PCBs is possible even years after exposure cessation using current measurements of PCB74.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
7.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(6): 792-796, 2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139822

RESUMO

Concentrations of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs) in 26 serum samples of the residents from Hubei Province were analyzed via high-resolution gas chromatograph tandem high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC-HRMS) method. Total concentrations of twelve dl-PCBs (Σdl-PCBs) were in range of 366.30-4 945.77 pg/g fat, with the mean value (2 093.76 pg/g fat), and PCB 118 was the predominant congener. For six ndl-PCBs, total concentrations (Σndl-PCBs) were in range of 2 671.32-20 626.26 pg/g fat (mean 12 505.45 pg/g fat), and PCB 153 was the predominant congener. Mean concentration of Σdl-PCBs were significantly and positively associated with age (rs=0.574, P=0.002). The mean World Health Organization toxicity equivalent (WHO-TEQ) of dl-PCBs (ΣTEQdl-PCBs) were range from 0.07 to 8.69 pg/g fat.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Dioxinas/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise
8.
Environ Res ; 198: 111224, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933496

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) represent a concern for the environment and human health due to their persistence and toxicity. Exposure in Slovenia is geographically differentiated because the country, as part of former Yugoslavia, has a history of industry and regional contamination and is - at the same time - known for its clean nature. The PCB pollution of the Krupa River drew the public's attention to the chemical burden of Slovenians, and the demand for studies has been rising since. We assessed the exposure of men (n = 548) and primiparous women (n = 536) to POPs in 12 regions of Slovenia as well as exposure pathways via questionnaires. Most PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs could be determined in pooled samples of maternal milk at low concentrations (1.57 pg/gTEQ, 1.47 pg/gTEQ, and 1076 pg/g fat, respectively), but a much lower number of compounds could be measured above the LOQ in pooled men's plasma samples (PCDD/Fs 0.08 pg/gTEQ, PCBs 0.007 pg/gTEQ, ΣPBDE 920 pg/g), and only HCB, p,p'-DDE, ΣDDT, and the non-dioxin-like PCB congeners 138, 153, and 180 could be determined in individual samples of milk (concentration range 5-60 ng/g fat). In individual samples of men's serum, only p,p'-DDE and ΣPCB were detected at concentrations of 0.25 ng/g and 0.3 ng/g, respectively. Nonetheless, we were able to differentiate between polluted and unpolluted areas on a national level, with higher exposure levels in the PCB polluted region of Bela Krajina, the industrial region Zasavje, and the capital, Ljubljana. Despite low concentrations, determinants of exposure, such as age, proximity to roads, old building materials, private water supplies, and consumption of alcohol, fish, meat, and eggs that have previously been observed only at higher levels could still be identified. Furthermore, levels of PCBs and PBDEs were highly correlated suggesting common exposure sources and pathways, whereas PCDD/Fs were correlated to a lesser extent. The calculated ratio between DDT and DDE in maternal milk samples was decreasing with the year of sampling, suggesting no ongoing exposure to DDT. The study findings suggest low exposure of men and lactating women to legacy pollutants in Slovenia, which gave rise to the hypothesis that Slovenia's geographical location might provide shelter from the long-range transport of POPs via Westerly winds. This hypothesis remains to be confirmed within future studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Animais , Dibenzofuranos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Eslovênia
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 785: 147287, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933771

RESUMO

The placental transfer and congener composition of organic contaminants (OCs) in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins have been little studied. In the present study, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and 28 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were analyzed in muscle, lung, liver, kidney, and blubber tissues from three mother-fetus pairs of this species stranded along the Pearl River Estuary, China. For PCBs, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorobenzene congeners were dominant in all the analyzed samples. Among them, hexachlorobenzene congeners showed the highest level in most dolphin mother-fetus tissue samples. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs in adult females were higher in the detoxification organs (liver and kidneys) than in the muscles and lungs, whereas muscle tissues in fetuses generally exhibited higher PCBs and OCPs levels than the livers and kidneys. The most abundant PAHs in the four tissues were those with lower molecular weights, which were also the most water-soluble and bioavailable. Negative correlations between the octanol/water partition coefficients (log KOW) and the fetus/mother ratios for PCB congeners revealed that the transfer of PCBs may be determined by their lipid solubility. OCPs and PCBs with low molecular weights and low log KOW values would be more likely to accumulate in the dolphin liver, lung, kidney and muscle tissues. Furthermore, OCs with low molecular weights and low log KOW values were more concentrated in the fetal blubber, lung, and liver tissues than in their respective mothers. The ubiquitous existence of OCs in the mother-fetus pairs strongly suggested that these contaminants could pass through the placenta and partition in fetal tissue. The high transfer efficiency of PAHs and PCBs indicated that the placenta might not be an efficient barrier for these pollutants. PCBs levels in both mother and fetus dolphins could cause immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , China , Feminino , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Placenta/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Gravidez , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 168: 112456, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991986

RESUMO

A thresher shark poached by fishermen in the stretch of sea between the island of Ponza and the coast of Terracina (Lazio, Central Italy, Mediterranean Sea) and confiscated by the Italian health authorities was evaluated for the presence of chemical contaminants. Hg mean concentration of 2.1 mg kg-1 was found in muscle; speciation analysis confirmed it was almost in the toxic organic form of MeHg (2.0 mg kg-1). The Se:Hg molar ratio was <1 not protective against the toxic effect of Hg. 137Cs was detected at a mean concentration of 0.53 Bq kg-1, and 40K, radioisotope of natural origin was found at 91 Bq kg-1. Dioxins and PCBs were found in the common thresher shark at mean concentrations of 0.012 and 0.088 pg TEQ-WHO g-1 w.w. while NDL PCBs at 4.5 ng g-1 w.w., lower than limits set by European Regulation. The major concern is constituted by the presence of Hg twice the maximum limit set by EU Regulation, then the consumption of thresher shark flesh should be strongly discouraged.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Tubarões , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
11.
Chemosphere ; 280: 130645, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933998

RESUMO

Concentrations and distributions of PAHs and chlorinated aromatic compounds including PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, chlorophenols (CPs), and chlorobenzenes (CBz) in the municipal waste incinerator are investigated to characterize their formation and emission via intensive stack sampling. In addition, the toxicity of fly ash contribution by PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs is evaluated in this study. The results reveal that concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in flue gas are significantly lower than those of CPs, CBz, and PAHs. Additionally, the removal efficiencies of PAHs and chlorinated aromatic compounds achieved with existing air pollution control devices are evaluated, indicating that the removal efficiencies achieved with activated carbon injection + baghouse (95-99%) are higher than those with semi-dry scrubber (SDS). Besides, PCDD/Fs and PCBs TEQ concentrations in SDS and BH ashes are within 1.61-2.66 WHO-TEQ/g and 0.09-0.19 WHO-TEQ/g, respectively. Furthermore, the calculated mass flow rates suggest that the input rate of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs of SDS are 60.24 mg/h and 59.74 mg/h, respectively. The mass flow rates of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs after SDS in flue gas are 32.47 mg/h and 49.73 mg/h, respectively. However, the discharge rates of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from SDS are 120.60 mg/h and 27.05 mg/h, respectively, indicating that PCDD/Fs are significantly formed within the SDS. PCDD/Fs formation is attributed to the operating temperature of SDS (240 ± 11.5 °C), which is within the temperature window for de novo synthesis. Thus, operating parameters of the APCDs should be optimized to reduce the formation of PAHs and chlorinated aromatic pollutants from MWI.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Clorofenóis , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Clorobenzenos/análise , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Incineração , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 219: 112316, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993093

RESUMO

The long-term health of many South African estuaries is impacted by pollutants entering these systems through industrial and agricultural runoff, sewage outfalls, contaminated storm water drainage, flows from informal settlements, and plastic materials in marine debris. Uncontrolled inputs combined with poor environmental management often result in elevated levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in affected estuaries. Data on POPs research from 1960 to 2020 were analysed in terms of their sources, environmental investigations, and health implications. The outcome showed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and per- and poly-fluoroalkyl sulphonates (PFASs) to exceed the US EPA health advisory levels for drinking water. Concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water were below the WHO limits, while those in fish tissues from most estuaries were found to be below the US FDA limits. Although environmental compartments in some estuaries (e.g. Rooiels and uMngeni estuaries) seem to be less contaminated relative to other marine systems around the world, many others were polluted and critically modified (e.g. Durban Bay, Swartkops, Sundays, and Buffalo systems). Due to inconsistent monitoring methods coupled with limited data availability, temporal trends were unclear. Of the 290 estuaries in South Africa, 65 were prioritised and recommended for POPs evaluation based on their pollution sources, and a monitoring strategy was defined in terms of sampling. Government policies to curb marine pollution need to be enforced to prevent chronic contamination that leads to water quality deterioration and loss of ecosystem services.


Assuntos
Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Animais , Ecossistema , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estuários , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Plásticos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , África do Sul , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946521

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that resist biochemical degradation, moving long distances across the atmosphere before deposition occurs. Our goal was to provide up-to-date data on the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in breast milk from Chilean women and to estimate the exposure of infants due to breast milk consumption. In Chile, we conducted a cross-sectional study based on methodologies proposed by the WHO, with a sample of 30 women recruited from three defined areas: 10 from the Arica Region (urban; Arica and Parinacota Region), 10 from Coltauco (rural; O'Higgins Region), and 10 from Molina (40% rural; Maule Region). High-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) was performed on pooled samples from each area. We calculated equivalent toxic concentrations (WHO-TEQ) based on the current WHO Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEF). The minimum and maximum values of ∑ PCDDs/Fs + DL-PCBs-TEQ were 4.317 pg TEQ/g fat in Coltauco and 6.31 pg TEQ/g fat in Arica. Molina had a total TEQ of 5.50 pg TEQ/g fat. The contribution of PCDD/Fs was approximately five-fold higher than that of DL-PCBs. The Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of ∑ PCDDs/Fs + DL-PCBs based on the three pooled samples ranged between 6.71 and 26.28 pg TEQ/kg body weight (bw)/day, with a mean intake of 16.11 (±6.71) pg TEQ/kg bw/day in breastfed children from 0 to 24 months old. These levels were lower than those reported in international studies. Despite the fact that the observed levels were low compared to those in most industrialized countries, the detection of a variety of POPs in breast milk from Chilean women indicates the need for follow-up studies to determine whether such exposures during childhood could represent a health risk in adulthood.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos , Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Adulto , Animais , Benzofuranos/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Dibenzofuranos , Dioxinas/análise , Feminino , Furanos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leite Humano/química , Projetos Piloto , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(6): 321, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945020

RESUMO

One hundred forty-three surface sediment (0-5 cm depth) samples were collected from locations representing industrialized areas, less-industrialized areas, and e-waste recycling areas in the Pearl River Delta (PRD). The spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their potential adverse effects on aquatic organisms were investigated. The average PCB concentration in the less-industrialized areas (background) in the PRD was approximately 10 ng/g dry weight (dw), which was generally half that found in the industrialized areas (approximately 22 ng/g dw). Severe PCB contamination, with concentrations ranging from 1000 to 26500 ng/g dw, was found in pond sediments collected from e-waste recycling areas. It is very likely that such contamination would have had adverse effects on the aquatic biota there. PCBs in the e-waste recycling areas were dominated by penta- and hex-PCB congeners, which made them significantly different from those found in other regions, where tri- and tetra-PCB congeners were predominant. Higher abundances of less chlorinated congeners were seen in the less-industrialized areas compared to the industrialized areas. Differences in the transport abilities of different congeners, together with dechlorination of higher chlorinated congeners, is the most likely reasons for this.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Rios , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
15.
Environ Res ; 197: 111117, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823189

RESUMO

We investigated body burdens of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Swedish first-time mothers by measurements in breast milk, and followed up the temporal trends between 1996 and 2017. POPs were analysed in individual samples (n = 539) from participants from Uppsala county, Sweden. This made it possible to adjust temporal trends for age of the mother, pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, weight loss after delivery, and education, the main determinants for POP body burdens, apart from sampling year. We also compared observed body burdens with the body burdens determined to be safe from a health perspective in the risk assessment of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Declining temporal trends in breast milk of on average -4 to 14% per year were observed 1996-2017 for PCBs, PCDD/Fs, chlorinated pesticides, and brominated flame retardants, except for the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) BDE-153 and BDE-209. The toxic equivalents (TEQs) for PCDD declined faster than PCDF TEQs, -6.6% compared to -3.5% per year. For CB-169, CB-180, PCDDs, PCDFs, Total TEQ, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a change point year (CP) was observed around 2008-2009 and after that, the decline in levels has slowed down. If breast milk levels follows the exponential declining trend of total TEQ estimated for the entire period (-5.7% per year), 97.5% of first time mothers from the Uppsala area will have body burdens below the estimated safe level in year 2022. If instead it follows the estimated % decline after the CP in 2008 (-1.6% per year), it will take until 2045 before 97.5% is below the estimated safe level. It is important to proceed with the monitoring of POPs in breast milk from Swedish mothers in order to further observe if the levels are stabilizing or continue to decline.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos , Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Benzofuranos/análise , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Leite Humano/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Gravidez , Suécia
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(10): 6773-6782, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900727

RESUMO

Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) concentrations in the soil at an e-waste recycling area in Guiyu, China, were measured and the associated human cancer risk due to e-waste-related exposures was investigated. We quantified PCNs in the agricultural soil and used these concentrations with predictive equations to calculate theoretical concentrations in outdoor air. We then calculated theoretical concentrations in indoor air using an attenuation factor and in the local diet using previously published models for contaminant uptake in plants and fruits. Potential human cancer risks of PCNs were assessed for multiple exposure pathways, including soil ingestion, inhalation, dermal contact, and dietary ingestion. Our calculations indicated that local residents had a high cancer risk from exposure to PCNs and that the diet was the primary pathway of PCN exposure, followed by dermal contact as the secondary pathway. We next repeated the risk assessment using concentrations for other carcinogenic contaminants reported in the literature at the same site. We found that polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and PCNs caused the highest potential cancer risks to the residents, followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The relative importance of different exposure pathways depended on the physicochemical properties of specific chemicals.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Neoplasias , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , China , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Naftalenos/análise , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo
17.
Environ Int ; 153: 106526, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839549

RESUMO

Environmental exposure of humans to pollutants has been associated with adverse health outcomes, but few studies have evaluated the multiple exposure of general populations. In the present study, we used hair analysis to assess the exposure of a general adult population (n = 497) in Luxembourg to 34 persistent and 33 non-persistent organic pollutants from 11 chemical families, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphate pesticides (OPPs), and pyrethroid pesticides (PYRs). We detected 24 persistent and 29 non-persistent organic pollutants, with 17 pollutants being detected in more than 50% of hair samples. The median concentrations for pollutants detected in 100% of the samples were 0.37 pg/mg for lindane (γ-HCH), 0.15 pg/mg for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 14.1 pg/mg for p-nitrophenyl (PNP), and 0.10 pg/mg for trifluralin. Each participant in this study had detectable levels of at least 10 of the pollutants analyzed, and 50% of participants had 19 or more, suggesting the simultaneous exposure to numerous different pollutants among our study population. Significant correlations were often found between pollutants from the same family, with the strongest being found between two PYR metabolites, trans/cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-carboxylic acid (Cl2CA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA). Results from multiple linear regression analyses showed that sex, age and/or body mass index were significantly associated with 15 out of the 17 frequently detected pollutants. The current study is the first nationwide biomonitoring investigating organic contaminants in the Luxembourg population using hair analysis.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Análise do Cabelo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Luxemburgo , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
18.
Chemosphere ; 279: 130478, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857646

RESUMO

The effects of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) on human health have previously attracted much attention, but recent studies of PBBs have been focused on BB-153 and a few other congeners. PBB concentrations in serum samples from residents of an area containing an electronic waste dismantling site were determined in this study. The total PBB concentrations (i.e., the sums of the concentrations of the 35 PBB congeners) were 229-1360 ng/g lipid. The BB-153 concentrations were markedly higher in the samples from people living in the electronic waste dismantling area than in samples from people living in a nearby control area. BB-153 was found in all of the samples from the study exposure area but the concentrations were relatively low (0.07-4.70 ng/g lipid). High BB-1 concentrations were found for the first time in serum from people living in both the electronic waste dismantling and control areas. The BB-1 concentrations were 211-1280 ng/g lipid. The retention times of the 35 PBB standards and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) with similar structures were used to predict the retention times of unidentified PBB congeners to allow the PBB distributions in the serum samples to be identified. A total of 26 previously unidentified PBB congeners were identified in the human serum samples. BB-5, BB-35, BB-79, and BB-109 were found in >50% of the samples. The PBB patterns in the serum samples were different from the patterns previously found in serum after a PBB contamination incident in 1973, so the health risks currently posed by PBBs are worth studying.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenil Polibromatos , Bifenilos Policlorados , China , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
19.
Chemosphere ; 279: 130536, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873065

RESUMO

Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are mostly man-made chemicals that distribute between the gas and solid phase in the environment. Many of them could pose harm to people and therefore it is important to know their concentrations in the indoor environment to evaluate the related risks. Inhalation exposure can be assessed using passive sampling. In this study, we employed silicone elastomer as a passive sampler for monitoring gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in indoor air. We performed a sampler calibration study in which samplers consisting of 0.5 mm thick silicone sheets with a total surface area of 300 cm2 were exposed to indoor air in a university lecture theatre for up to 56 days. Uptake kinetics of SVOCs was studied by collecting 2 samplers every week. The results were used to develop a model based on mass transfer theory that can be used to estimate the air sampling rate RS as a function of compound's molecular volume. We examined release kinetics of performance reference compounds that covered a broad range of silicone-air partition coefficient (log KSA 5.95-9.49) and investigated a hypothesis of isotropic exchange kinetics, i.e. equality of rate constants for uptake and release, of SVOCs. PCBs and OCPs concentration in air calculated from contaminant amounts accumulated in passive samplers were in good agreement with those determined by active sampling running simultaneously during the entire study. The use of performance reference compounds is suitable for in situ passive sampler calibration.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Calibragem , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Silicones
20.
Chemosphere ; 279: 130576, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894519

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence and spatial distribution of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like compounds in topsoils of Taranto (Apulia Region), one of the most heavily industrialized and contaminated area of Southern Italy. A combined approach of chemical analysis by GC-MS/MS and AhR reporter gene bioassay was applied in a subset of topsoil samples (n = 20) collected in 2017-18 from ten sites embracing three levels of risk (from high to low) in the framework of a large survey inside Taranto municipality. TCDD-BEQs and GC-MS/MS TEQWHO and TEQTHEORETICAL revealed a decreasing trend with the distance from main industrial settings and landfill areas. A strong correlation between TCDD-BEQs and TEQWHO values (R2 = 0.85) and TEQTHEORETICAL (R2 = 0.88) was also found. In 3 out of 10 topsoil investigated, BEQs and TEQWHO/THEORETICAL resulted above Italian National Regulatory Limits for ∑PCDD/Fs in green, private and recreational used soils (10 ng TEQ/kg d.w. D.Lgs 152/2006) and for ∑PCDD/F/dl-PCBs in agricultural and farming soil (6 ng TEQ/kg d.w. D.M. 46/2019). GC-MS/MS pattern revealed the highest prevalence of dl-PCBs in 6 out of 10 sites, followed by PCDFs and PCDDs. Those sites are all located in proximity of main industrial steel and iron ore sinter plant, steel plant's landfills and illegal dumping sites. An update on occurrence and spatial distribution of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs contamination of Taranto urban soils was obtained and the DR-CALUX® bioassay was further recommended as a suitable screening tool for environmental and human risk assessment.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Bioensaio , Dibenzofuranos , Dioxinas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Itália , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Solo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...