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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140675, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927526

RESUMO

The European eel is critically endangered. Although the quality of silver eels is essential for their reproduction, little is known about the effects of multiple contaminants on the spawning migration and the European eel management plan does not take this into account. To address this knowledge gap, we sampled 482 silver eels from 12 catchments across Europe and developed methods to assess three aspects of eel quality: muscular lipid content (N = 169 eels), infection with Anguillicola crassus (N = 482), and contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs, N = 169) and trace elements (TEs, N = 75). We developed a standardized eel quality risks index (EQR) using these aspects for the subsample of 75 female eels. Among 169 eels, 33% seem to have enough muscular lipids content to reach the Sargasso Sea to reproduce. Among 482 silver eels, 93% were infected by A. crassus at least once during their lifetime. All contaminants were above the limit of quantification, except the 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), Ag and V. The contamination by POPs was heterogeneous between catchments while TEs were relatively homogeneous, suggesting a multi-scale adaptation of management plans. The EQR revealed that eels from Warwickshire were most impacted by brominated flame-retardants and agricultural contaminants, those from Scheldt were most impacted by agricultural and construction activities, PCBs, coal burning, and land use, while Frémur eels were best characterized by lower lipid contents and high parasitic and BTBPE levels. There was a positive correlation between EQR and a human footprint index highlighting the capacity of silver eels for biomonitoring human activities and the potential impact on the suitability of the aquatic environment for eel population health. EQR therefore represents a step forward in the standardization and mapping of eel quality risks, which will help identify priorities and strategies for restocking freshwater ecosystems.


Assuntos
Anguilla , Retardadores de Chama , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Animais , Ecossistema , Enguias , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos
2.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127312, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947663

RESUMO

As recognized risk factor to pose a health threat to humans and wildlife globally, atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were collected from a North African coastal city (Bizerte, Tunisia) for one year, and were characterized for their chemical compositions, including mercury (HgPM), as well as organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)), organic carbon (OC) and organic nitrogen (ON), determined in a previous study. Then, we applied an in vitro reporter gene assay (DR-CALUX) to detect and quantify the dioxin-like activity of PM-associated organic contaminants. Results showed that average HgPM concentration over the entire sampling period was found to be 13.4 ± 12 pg m-3. Seasonal variation in the HgPM concentration was observed with lower values in spring and summer and higher values in winter and autumn due to the variation of meteorological conditions together with the emission sources. Principal component analysis suggested that fossil fuel combustion and a nearby cement factory were the dominant anthropogenic HgPM sources. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities were observed in all organic extracts of atmospheric PM from Bizerte city (388.3-1543.6 fg m-3), and shows significant positive correlations with all PM-associated organic contaminants. A significant proportion of dioxin-like activity of PM was related to PAHs. The dioxin-like activity followed the same trend as PM-associated organic contaminants, with higher dioxin-like activity in the cold season than in the warm season, indicating the advantage and utility of the use of bioassays in risk assessment of complex environmental samples.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Agricultura , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Cidades , Clima , Dioxinas/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Estações do Ano , Tunísia
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 655, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968858

RESUMO

It is known that some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are used worldwide, and these pollutants are dangerous for human health. However, there are still countries where measurements of these pollutants have not been adequately measured. Although many studies have been published for determining the concentrations of POPs in Turkey, there are limited studies in Latin American countries like Peru. For this reason, it is essential both to conduct a study in Peru and to compare the study with another country. This study is aimed at determining the atmospheric POPs such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), organochlorine pesticide (OCP), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations using passive air samplers in Yurimaguas (Peru) and Bursa (Turkey). Molecular diagnosis ratios and ring distribution methods were used to determine the sources of PAHs. According to these methods, coal and biomass combustions were among the primary sources of PAHs in Peru, while petrogenic and petroleum were the primary sources of PAHs in Turkey. Then, α-HCH/γ-HCH and ß-/(α+γ)-HCH ratios were used to determine the sources of OCPs. According to the α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios, the primary sources of OCPs in both countries were lindane. Similarly, according to ß-/(α+γ)-HCH ratios, the HCHs have been historically used in Peru while they were recently utilized in Turkey. Finally, homologous group distributions were used to determine the sources of PCBs. Similar distributions of homologous groups were observed in the sampling sites in both countries. Also, the homologous group distributions obtained have been determined that industrial activities could be effective in the sampling areas in both countries. When the cancer risks that could occur via inhalation were evaluated, no significant cancer risk has been determined in both countries.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Peru , Medição de Risco , Turquia
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 570, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770417

RESUMO

Silver eel samples, collected from the lagoons of Fogliano and Caprolace (Italy), were investigated for a broad range of contaminants (29 polychlorinated biphenyls, 9 polybrominated diphenyl ethers, 5 dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, 5 chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, 3 hexachlorocyclohexane, and 5 metals). Concentrations of targeted compounds stand for a general low contamination pattern. Infestation by Anguillicola crassus and virus infections were also examined. No parasite infestation was found, while infected silver eels had a low prevalence for EVEX, and, for the first time in the Mediterranean area, for AngHV-1. Overall, a good quality status of escaping silver eels, for both lagoons, was highlighted by the use of integrative Indexes. A quality assessment of the ecological status of the two lagoons was carried out developing an expert judgment approach, in order to characterize the habitat of eel stocks. A Final Pressure Index was derived, whose values showed an overall limited global anthropogenic impact acting on both lagoons. Results stand for the suitability of an integrated approach to assess lagoon habitats and eel local stocks quality. This could be proposed as a tool to identify sites yielding high quality eel spawners in the Mediterranean region, in order to set up suitable management frameworks, providing elements to appraise and discuss the potential of coastal lagoons in the Mediterranean region towards the recovery of the eel global stock.


Assuntos
Anguilla , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Itália
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140222, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783844

RESUMO

In the present study we examined spatial and seasonal trends in the levels of a wide suite of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdii) in East Canyon Creek, Utah, USA, an effluent-dominated stream during summer months. Fish samples were collected from four sampling sites, including one reference site upstream, and three sites at incremental distances downstream of the effluent discharge over multiple seasons. The samples were analyzed for 218 lipophilic contaminants, including pesticides and their metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other flame retardants. Some PAHs, pesticides and their metabolites, PCBs, PBDEs and other flame retardants were measured in mottled sculpin (11 analytes) and brown trout (17 analytes). Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-DDE, BDE-47 and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the most frequently detected contaminants in mottled sculpin and brown trout, while BDE-47 and p,p'-DDE were measured at the highest concentrations, reaching up to 73 and 19 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Our results indicated that snowmelt did not alter accumulation of the examined lipophilic contaminants, and no consistent seasonal differences were observed in their accumulation. A spatial pattern was observed for PBDE congeners, where lowest levels were measured in fish tissues from a reference site, and highest concentrations were measured in fish collected downstream of the effluent discharge, indicating that municipal effluent discharge contributes to the elevated PBDE levels in fish residing in this effluent-dominated stream. We further calculated screening level consumption risks following United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods, and identified the importance of considering discharge gradients in effluent-dominated systems during bioaccumulation assessments.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Estações do Ano , Utah
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 140049, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758951

RESUMO

The present study determined contamination levels of POPs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), in oysters (Saccostrea mordax) collected throughout the seacoast of Okinawa, Japan and their geographic distribution. PCBs, DDTs, CHLs, PBDEs and HBCDs were detected in almost all the oyster samples analyzed and higher concentrations of PCBs, DDTs and CHLs were found in oysters from southwestern populated areas. On the other hand, HBCDs in oysters showed similar levels throughout Okinawa and the highest concentration in a northern rural site with less human and industrial activities, although oyster concentrations of PBDEs were relatively lower. When POPs in expanded polystyrene (EPS) buoys and polystyrene foam debris floated and drifted on coastal seawater were analyzed, extremely high concentrations of HBCDs were detected in some of these EPS buoys and polystyrene foam debris but other POPs were below the limit of detection in all the samples. To evaluate the specific exposure route of HBCDs for oysters, we further analyzed HBCD diastereomers, and PCB congeners by way of comparison, in seawater and sediment samples collected at an urban site and a rural site and estimated their biota (oyster)-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) and bioaccumulation factors (BAF). Interestingly, the highest log BAF values were found for α-HBCD despite its lower log Kow than those of γ-HBCD and PCB congeners, although log BSAF values for HBCDs were lower than those for PCBs. Considering that α-HBCD was detected in a few polystyrene foam samples as the predominant diastereomer, oysters inhabiting the coastal region of Okinawa might be frequently exposed to micronized polystyrene foam particles containing HBCDs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , Ostreidae , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Biológico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Japão , Poliestirenos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461353, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797833

RESUMO

This paper reports the development of an LC-ESI-MS2 method for the sensitive determination of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in human serum samples. Congener-specific separation was achieved by using a polar-embedded stationary phase, previously optimized for the working group, which provided better separation of isobaric compounds than the common octadecylsilane phases. MS fragmentation patterns and energies showed differences among OH-PCB congeners, mainly depending on the position of OH-group and the number of chlorine atoms in the molecule, although the most intense transitions were always those corresponding to the neutral loss of an HCl group from the quasi-molecular ion cluster. The method allowed the determination of OH-PCBs with good linearity (dynamic linear range of four orders of magnitude with R2 higher than 0.995) and precision (relative standard deviations of absolute areas lower than 10%), and with better sensitivity than other similar methods previously described in the literature. Matrix effect has been evaluated and reduced to less than 10% by the addition of isotopically labeled standards and a 10-fold dilution of the final sample extract. The low iLODs provided by the developed method (from 1.2 to 5.4 fg µL-1 for all the OH-PCBs studied, except 4'-OHCB108, whose iLOD was 61 fg µL-1) allows dilution without losses of detected peaks. Finally, the applicability of the method has been demonstrated by analyzing human serum samples belonging to an interlaboratory exercise.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111287, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753166

RESUMO

Forage fish are primary prey for seabirds, fish and marine mammals. Contaminant transfer and biomagnification of the toxic compounds measured in this study likely contribute to elevated levels in Puget Sound, Washington, salmon and killer whale tissues that could be sufficiently high to elicit adverse effects and hamper population recovery efforts. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, chlorinated pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, and chlorinated paraffins were detected in all Pacific sand lance tissue samples generally below available health effect levels. Residual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon tissue concentrations near a former creosote site suggest ongoing contaminant exposure. Biomagnification calculations suggest that concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in some forage fish could result in predator tissue concentrations exceeding effect levels. The emerging contaminants alkylphenols and chlorinated paraffins are first reported here in Puget Sound forage fish, and their frequent detection, high production volumes and endocrine-disrupting properties highlight the need for further study.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Washington
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111413, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753197

RESUMO

This study investigated the levels and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in three tissue types of farmed Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus): muscle, liver and branchiae. Seven adult species were caught in 2015 at a tuna farm in the Croatian Adriatic. The organochlorine compound levels decreased in the following order: liver > muscle > branchiae while contaminant distribution in all three tissues followed the same order: ΣPCB ≫ ΣDDT > ΣHCH ~ HCB. The found POP levels indicated moderate pollution of farmed tuna and were below all limits set by current laws. Furthermore, no cytotoxic effect of the POP mixture extracted from tuna liver samples on human neuroblastoma cells was observed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Humanos , Mar Mediterrâneo , Atum
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111436, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753219

RESUMO

Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) is a major marine resource of high economic value to industrial and artisanal fisheries. As a top predator with a long lifespan, it is prone to accumulate high levels of contaminants. The bioaccumulation of a wide range of both legacy and emerging persistent organic contaminants was investigated in the muscle, liver and gonads of swordfish collected from the Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. The detection of all target contaminants, some at frequencies above 80%, highlights their widespread occurrence, albeit at low levels. Mean concentrations in muscle were 5637, 491 and 331 pg g-1 ww for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), respectively. ∑BFR mean concentrations were far below, i.e. 47 pg g-1 ww. The data are among the first obtained for such a high diversity of contaminants in an oceanic top predator worldwide and constitute a benchmark of the contamination of Indian Ocean ecosystems.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Bioacumulação , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oceano Índico , Seicheles
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 600, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856117

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are chemicals that have become ubiquitous environmental pollutants due to their past use, persistence, and long-range transport thus requiring continuous monitoring. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate spatial and temporal trends of seven indicator PCBs and two others (PCB 105 and PCB 156) in the Nairobi River. Levels of PCBs ranged from below detection limit (bdl) to 157.64 ± 1.52 ng g-1 and bdl to 718.78 ± 1.71 ng L-1 for sediment and water, respectively. PCBs 28, 138, and 153 were the most dominant contributing 33.4%, 17.9%, and 14.5% to the total PCBs in sediments and 54.6%, 19.3%, and 14.1% to the total PCBs in water. There was a general increase in ΣPCBs from 18.89 to 151.18 ng g-1 for sediments and 275.52 to 429.84 ng L-1 for water as the River flowed downstream. The dry season recorded the highest ΣPCB in sediments while the rainy season recorded the highest ΣPCBs in water, with levels exceeding the WHO water quality guidelines. Risk assessment revealed that populations living downstream are exposed to high levels of PCBs through the consumption of water. Levels of ΣPCBs downstream also exceeded the sediment quality guidelines meaning that aquatic organisms are threatened.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Quênia , Água
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111488, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738640

RESUMO

While globally distributed throughout the world's ecosystems, there is little baseline information on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in marine environments in Australia and, more broadly, the Southern Hemisphere. To fill this knowledge gap, we collected baseline information on POPs in migratory short-tailed shearwaters (Ardenna tenuirostris) from Fisher Island, Tasmania, and resident little penguins (Eudyptula minor) from Phillip Island, Victoria. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were determined from blood samples, with total contamination ranging 7.6-47.7 ng/g ww for short-tailed shearwaters and 0.12-46.9 ng/g ww for little penguins. In both species contamination followed the same pattern where PCBs>OCPs>BFRs. BFR levels included the presence of the novel flame retardant hexabromobenzene (HBB). These novel results of POPs in seabirds in southeast Australia provide important information on the local (penguins) and global (shearwaters) distribution of POPs in the marine environment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Spheniscidae , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tasmânia , Vitória
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111462, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777544

RESUMO

In this study, the concentrations of 28 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, including 12 dioxin-like PCBs and 7 indicator PCBs, were determined in sediments around oil production facilities in the Escravos River Basin of the Niger Delta in Nigeria. The aim was to describe the spatial patterns, sources, and ecosystem risks associated with exposure to PCBs in sediments of this river basin. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the concentrations of PCBs in the sediments. The Æ©28 PCB concentrations in sediments from the Escravos River Basin ranged between 226 and 31,900 ng g-1 with a median concentration of 2300 ng g-1. The results indicated that sediments around crude oil production facilities, such as, wellheads, flow stations, and truck lines, had significantly higher levels of Æ©28 PCBs (p < 0.05) than those collected near residential communities within the river basin. The median concentrations of PCB homologues in sediments from this river basin followed the sequence: hexaPCBs > penta-PCBs > tetra-PCBs > hepta-PCBs > tri-PCBs > di-PCBs > deca-PCBs > octa-PCBs > nona-PCBs. The risk assessment of PCBs in sediments from this river basin suggest very high potential risks for both organisms and humans.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Níger , Nigéria , Medição de Risco , Rios
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461381, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797855

RESUMO

A reliable and sensitive analytical approach has been optimized for the extraction of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from human breast milk. Hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) was applied for the first time for the extraction and pre-concentration of the analytes. Analytes were separated by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-µECD) for the sensitive detection and mass spectrometry for the unequivocal identification. A rotable central composite design (RCCD) was performed for the multivariate optimization of the method. The best results were obtained at 40 °C during 30 min and 600 rpm of stirring speed using a hollow fiber length of 5 cm and toluene as an extractant phase and salt addition was not required. The detection limits were in the range 7-14 ng L-1 for PCBs. The coefficients of determination of the calibration curves indicated good linearity (R2> 0.96) and the enrichment factors ranged from 74 to 143. This type of study is of great importance due to the deleterious effect that the presence of contaminants can produce in infants health related to the immature character of the defense system. Moreover, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended by neonatologists up to six months of life and as complementary food during the first two years.


Assuntos
Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Leite Humano/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Limite de Detecção , Bifenilos Policlorados/isolamento & purificação , Porosidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sais/química
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140495, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758811

RESUMO

The Inuit of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada) are exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) through their consumption of marine country foods. A temporal trend study was initiated in 1992 to monitor circulating levels of PCBs and Hg in pregnant Inuit women, since the fetus is most at risk of adverse health effects. We set out (1) to describe temporal trends of PCBs and Hg levels in pregnant Nunavik women between 1992 and 2017; (2) to determine the prevalence of participants exceeding the guidance values in 2017; (3) to investigate relations between marine country food intake and contaminant levels over the study period. A total of 559 pregnant women provided a blood sample for contaminant analysis from 1992 to 2017. PCB congeners were quantified in plasma (serum) by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to electron capture detection or mass spectrometry (MS). We determined whole blood mercury concentration by cold vapor atomic absorption or inductively-coupled plasma MS. We performed multilevel modeling to assess temporal trends in contaminant levels and relations with marine country food consumption. Concentrations of total PCBs and Hg decreased by 84% and 65% between 1992 and 2017, respectively. Nevertheless, 10% and 22% of women in 2017 exceeded guidance values for PCBs and Hg, respectively. While the decline in marine country food intake is the only factor associated with decreasing Hg levels, other factors may explain the decline in PCB levels. Despite the significant decline in PCBs and Hg levels from 1992 to 2017, exposure to these contaminants is still quite prevalent among pregnant Nunavik women. Most of the decline in Hg exposure is likely due to a shift away from marine country foods to store-bought foods, which is a concern given the cultural and nutritional importance of country foods and the high food insecurity that prevails in Nunavik.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Mercúrio , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Canadá , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Inuítes , Gravidez , Quebeque
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 141098, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763602

RESUMO

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs) are still considered among the most important groups of contaminants in the food chain. Self-control by food producers and official control by authorities are important activities that allow contaminant sources to be traced and promote further reduction in food and feed levels. Strict but feasible maximum levels were set by the EU Commission for food and feed to support this strategy, as well as action levels and thresholds. When products exceed these levels, it is important to trace the source of contamination and take measures to remove it. Congener patterns of PCDD/Fs and PCBs differ between sources and are important tools for source identification. Therefore, patterns associated with different sources and incidents relating to various feed matrices and certain agricultural chemicals were collated from published scientific papers, with additional ones available from some laboratories. The collection was evaluated for completeness by presentations at workshops and conferences. Primary sources appear to derive from 5 categories, i) by-products from production of organochlorine chemicals (e.g. PCBs, chlorophenols, chlorinated pesticides, polyvinyl chloride (PVC)), ii) the result of combustion of certain materials and accidental fires, iii) the use of inorganic chlorine, iv) recycling/production of certain minerals, and v) certain naturally occurring clays (ball clay, kaolinite). A decision tree was developed to assist in the identification of the source.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/análise , Dioxinas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Cadeia Alimentar , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
17.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 95: 240-247, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653186

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are typical persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which have high toxicity, bioaccumulation and long-distance transfer capability. Daily variation, sources of PCBs and OCPs in PM2.5 are rarely explored in polluted rural area. Here, the sources and health risks of the PCBs and OCPs were evaluated for 48 PM2.5 samples collected in winter 2017 in Wangdu, a heavy polluted rural area in the North China Plain. The average diurnal and nocturnal concentrations of Σ18PCBs and Σ15OCPs were 1.74-24.37 and 1.77-100.49, 11.67-408.81 and 16.89-865.60 pg/m3, respectively. Hexa-CBs and penta-CBs accounted for higher proportions (29.0% and 33.6%) of clean and polluted samples, respectively. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was the dominant contributor to OCPs with an average concentration of 116.17 pg/m3. Hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ΣDDTs) were the other two main classes in OCPs with the average concentrations of 4.33 and 15.89 pg/m3, respectively. ß-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the main degradation products of HCHs and DDTs, respectively. The principal component analysis and characteristic ratio method indicated both waste incineration and industrial activities were the main sources of PCBs, contributing 76.8% and 12.7%, respectively. The loadings of OCPs were attributed to their application characteristics and the characteristic ratio method reflected a current or past use of OCPs. Health risk assessment showed that the respiratory exposure quantity of doxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and the lifetime cancer risk from airborne OCPs exposure was negligible, while the other exposure modes may pose a risk to human bodies.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado
18.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126984, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679627

RESUMO

Experimental and epidemiological studies have suggested an association between exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), ubiquitous environmental toxic compounds, and the risk of hypertension. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies of the association between PCB exposure and the risk of hypertension. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase and Web of Science and by reviewing reference lists. Study-specific risk estimates comparing the highest versus lowest quantile of PCB distribution were combined using random-effects models. We identified 10 cross-sectional studies, 6 cohort studies, and 1 nested case-control study. A pooled excess risk of hypertension was found for total PCBs (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.28-2.26), dioxin-like (DL)-PCBs (OR 1.46, 1.19-1.79), but not for non-dioxin like (NDL)-PCBs (OR 1.19, 0.81-1.73) comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of the distribution. According to a dose-response meta-analysis, a linear dose-effect relationship was found for total PCBs [OR 2.23 (95% CI: 1.59-3.14) for 1000 ng PCB/g lipid increase]. This positive association remained when stratifying the analyses by study design (cohort vs cross-sectional studies) and population (general population vs high exposed workers/residents). Among single PCB congeners, DL-PCB 105 and 118, and non-DL-PCB138 and 153 were related to hypertension. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that exposure to PCBs, particularly to DL-PCBs, may be a risk factor for hypertension, independently of other risk factors.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Dioxinas , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Fatores de Risco
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(7): 479, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613588

RESUMO

Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants spread all over the world. They can cause disorders in the reproductive, nervous, gut, and immune systems. We investigated the effects of DL-PCB extracted from Zhanjiang (Guangdong Province, China) offshore area on the immune functions of adult zebrafish. Zebrafish were exposed to different levels of DL-PCBs, i.e., control, positive control (PCB77 at 16.0 µg/L), low (LD; PCB81 + PCB118 at 0.32 µg/L), and high-dose (HD; PCB81 + PCB118 at 16.0 µg/L) groups for 28 days. Compared with the control group, positive control and HD group showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the number of red blood cells (RBC) on day 7 and the same decrease was observed in the LD group (P < 0.05) on day 21. The results of white blood cell (WBC) profiles were opposite to that of RBCs. Moreover, the serum lysozyme activity was significantly lower in positive control and HD group (P < 0.05) on day 21 but no significant effect was observed in the LD group. The mucus lysozyme activity and immunoglobulin concentration in positive control and HD group decreased significantly (P < 0.05) from day 14. A similar effect was observed in the LD group but was significant (P < 0.05) only on day 28. Additionally, histopathological examination showed accumulation of hemosiderin in the spleen of experimental animals, which was significant in positive control and HD group. Further, renal tubular epithelial cells of head kidney were swollen in the positive control and HD group while the expansion of lumen and renal interstitial edema was observed in the LD group on day 21 and with significant presence on 28 days. Therefore, these findings suggest that the exposure of zebrafish to DL-PCBs at > 16.0 µg/L can impair their immune functions.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Animais , Baías , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixe-Zebra
20.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(2): 250-254, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666193

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants that pose a threat to environment and human health. Aiming at predicting PCBs risk in actual soil ecosystem, this study was conducted by chemical and biological methods to assess the bioavailability of PCBs in spiked soil, and in field-contaminated soils before or after remediation. The three chemical methods were Soxhlet, n-butanol and hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HPCD). Results were compared to actual PCB bioaccumulation in earthworms (Eisenia fetida). HPCD extraction was the best to predict the actual PCB bioaccumulation in all soils. The results suggest that HPCD could be an effective alternative method to earthworm toxicity test. This study provides strategy to understand the toxicity assessment in contaminated soil and soil after remediation.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , 1-Butanol/química , 2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/química , Animais , Bioacumulação , Disponibilidade Biológica , China , Ecossistema , Fertilizantes/análise , Oligoquetos/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Solo/normas , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Testes de Toxicidade
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